The European Commission (“Commission”) has opened a fifth formal State aid investigation into national tax rulings. This investigation concerns the Belgian “excess profit” provision, which allows multinational groups to...more
In two decisions adopted in November 2014 but only recently published, the Dutch competition authority (ACM) fined three private equity firms for the involvement of one of their former portfolio companies in the so-called...more
The European Commission (“EC”) has long sought to eliminate so-called harmful tax competition, which it sees as undermining the integrity of the internal market, fair competition and the fiscal sustainability of the Member...more
The French law on consumer rights, also referred to as the “Hamon law” (“loi Hamon”), was enacted on 17 March 2014.
The introduction of group actions is one of the main innovations of this law. Companies must now...more
The existence in several countries of “blocking statutes”, which prohibit the provision of economic information to foreign authorities or courts (or require prior authorization to be obtained before doing so), present a...more