Actively questioning both sides, the Justices of the Illinois Supreme Court seemed conflicted during the recent oral argument in In re Marriage of Turk. Turk poses a potentially important question of domestic relations law: when the non-custodial parent of a child has significantly fewer financial resources, can the custodial parent be ordered to pay child support? The Justices seemed sympathetic to the less affluent mother’s situation, while at the same time questioning whether the Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act authorizes such payments. Our detailed discussion of the facts and underlying court decisions in Turk is here.
The parents in Turk were divorced in mid-2005. Pursuant to the parties’ agreement, the father agreed to pay maintenance and child support for 42 months. At the end of that period, any further child support obligations would be calculated pursuant to the Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act. In 2011, the father petitioned to have his support obligations terminated and sought child support from the mother on the grounds that he was custodial parent of both children. The trial court granted in part and denied in part the motion, ordering the father to continue paying child support, despite the custodial situation. Division Five of the First District of the Appellate Court affirmed the trial court’s conclusion that a custodial parent could, in appropriate circumstances, be ordered to pay child support, but reversed and remanded for recalculation using updated expense data.
Counsel for the father began, arguing that the statute repeatedly distinguished between the custodial and non-custodial parents in describing support obligations. Justice Burke asked whether the real measure wasn’t the best interest of the child and pointed out that the record suggested that at least one child spent substantial time with the non-custodial parent. Counsel responded that it was not a split custody arrangement; one child spent no time at all with the non-custodial parent, the other split time about equally. Counsel acknowledged that the court was free to deviate from the standard statutory support percentage, but could not deviate past zero and reverse the support obligation. Chief Justice Garman asked whether it was counsel’s position that a non-custodial parent was never entitled to support, and counsel responded that that was what the statute said. Justice Theis asked counsel to describe the terms of the custody order, and counsel answered that the father had sole custody, with one child spending significant visitation time with the mother. Justice Kilbride asked whether the custody order was permanent or temporary, and counsel responded that it was permanent. Chief Justice Garman asked counsel whether he was arguing that the court had erred both in ordering payment of child support to the mother, and in not ordering payments from the mother to the father. Counsel responded yes. The Chief Justice asked whether it was proper for the court to consider the significant disparity in income, and that the non-custodial parent would need resources to allow the child to visit without a significant drop-off in lifestyle, and counsel once again argued that the court’s only option was to deviate down to zero – it could not order payments to the non-custodial parent. Justice Thomas asked what recourse a trial judge had if a destitute mother had a child fifty percent of the time - how could the mother put food on the table for visits? Counsel argued that because of the statute’s repeated references to custodial and non-custodial parents, the only option was to deviate from the statutory percentage down to zero. Justice Burke noted that the statute says both parents should pay a reasonable amount for support, but counsel answered that such language was only found in a portion of the statute addressing the situation where a non-parent had custody. The rest of the statute maintains the distinction between custodial and non-custodial parents in discussing support. Justice Karmeier asked whether the statute was ambiguous, and counsel answered no. Justice Karmeier pointed out that custody wasn’t one of the statutory factors to be used in calculating child support. Counsel answered that nevertheless, there was no authority in the statute to deviate past zero and order payment of child support to the non-custodial parent.
Counsel for the mother began by arguing that in fact, the statute provides that either or both parents can be required to pay child support. Justice Karmeier asked counsel to respond to the appellant’s point about the statute using custodial vs. non-custodial. Counsel answered that the statute uses a variety of terms to refer to the parents. Justice Theis pointed out that Section 6 of the statute – the enforcement section – refers only to custodial and non-custodial parents. Counsel responded that not all of the enforcement section used those terms. Justice Theis asked counsel to direct her specifically to the portion of the enforcement section that uses any term other than custodial and non-custodial , and counsel cited part (b) of Section 6. The body of the text makes it clear that either or both parents can owe child support, counsel claimed. Justice Freeman pointed out that the financial disclosure forms were now seven years old, and counsel stated that while the forms were admittedly stale by the time of the hearing, neither side had objected to their use. Justice Freeman asked whether, if the court were to agree that a non-custodial parent could be awarded child support, the proper result was a remand for reconsideration using current data. Counsel responded that although her client would be better off if the matter was calculated again using current data, a remand was not essential. Justice Thomas wondered whether affirmance would open up the domestic relations divisions to parsing through income statements rather than focusing solely on the best interests of the child. Counsel answered no, that this case represented an atypical situation. Justice Thomas noted the argument made by counsel for the father, that the judge had discretion to deviate to zero, but no further. Counsel responded that that wasn’t what the statute says – support is a joint and several obligation. Chief Justice Garman asked whether there was any difference between support to a non-custodial parent and maintenance. Counsel answered that a maintenance payment would be considerably higher. Justice Theis asked counsel whether she would concede that most of the references in the statute refer only to custodial and non-custodial parents. Was the statute ambiguous? Counsel answered that is was not; the statute was neutrally and broadly drawn. Would affirmance amount to reading the references to custodial and non-custodial parents out of the statute, Justice Theis asked? Counsel answered that on the contrary, holding that there was no discretion to separate the support obligation from custody created superfluous language in the statute. Justice Theis pointed out that subsection (b) of the enforcement section actually talked about discovering assets of non-custodial parents. How should that be read under the mother’s position – as either parent? Counsel answered yes, noting that language just above the quoted passage referred to “parent,” not custodial or non-custodial. If the legislature had intended to tie support to custody, it would have said so.
On rebuttal, counsel for the father stated that opposing counsel was arguing equity, not law. Counsel predicted a flood of petitions from less affluent parents if the mother’s position was accepted. The statute contemplated only one result: a custodial parent receiving support. The order under review, counsel argued, was nothing more than a thinly disguised maintenance order.
We expect Turk to be decided in four to five months.
Image courtesy of Flickr by banjo d.