In August 2013, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) published its Report for Members and Committees of Congress regarding Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement performance measures. This report, which is based on data provided to the CRS directly by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), provides statistics on penalties related to the employment eligibility verification Form I-9 process and the Immigration and Nationality Act, which prohibits employers from employing individuals who they know are not authorized to work. The report cites an increase in administrative fines, which are issued to employers by ICE for violating the Form I-9 requirements. These civil fines increased from the last fiscal year, up to $12.4 million compared to $10.4 million last year. In addition, criminal fines and forfeitures doubled from the last year, to $14.2 million. This increase in penalties reflects the activities of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under their new directive announced in 2009, which shifted enforcement to employers to deter illegal employment.