On November 9, in a speech to the Community Bankers Symposium, Federal Reserve Board Governor Elizabeth Duke reviewed in detail the role community banks play in the mortgage market and the post-Dodd-Frank Act mortgage lending challenges facing community banks. Ms. Duke explained that new rules to implement the Basel III capital accords, as well as those to put in place by Dodd-Frank Act requirements regarding escrow accounts for higher-priced mortgages, loan officer compensation, and appraisal requirements will burden community banks significantly. Ms. Duke highlighted the pending qualified mortgage and qualified residential mortgage rules, noting that they could have a “profound effect on the mortgage terms offered and the underwriting conditions.” not only for community banks, but for all banks. Specifically, she said that these rules could “constrain community bankers from using their experience with the cash flows from a small business customer or their knowledge of local real estate markets to customize a loan for an ‘irregular’ situation, such loans may not be made.”. Given the “cost of regulation that is prescriptive with respect to underwriting, loan structure, and operating procedures” and the “lack of evidence that balance sheet lending by community banks created significant problems,” relating to the financial crisis, Ms. Duke concluded that policymakers should establish a separate, simpler regulatory structure applicable to community bank mortgage lending.