Google Begins the Process of Implementing the 'Right to be Forgotten'

by Perkins Coie
Contact

Google has taken the first step to implement the “Right to be Forgotten” decision by the European Court of Justice (ECJ). It has provided individuals a form to complete to request that their personal information be removed from Search or Image Search results.  Google says it is working to finalize its implementation of removal requests under European data protection law as soon as possible, but in the meantime, those that wish to be forgotten can fill out the form and Google will notify the want-to-be forgotten person when it starts processing his or her request.  Google’s efforts to meet the requirements of law are to be commended, but the form and process only serves to underscore the unresolved and difficult implementation questions that lie ahead, not just for Google, but for all search engines.* 

First, before you can be forgotten, Google will need to know a lot more about you. The form requires a photo ID to prove you are who you say you are when you say you wish to be forgotten.  Without some form of verification, the system would be ripe for abuse and misuse.  Then, the requesting person must provide the name of the data subject, the requestor’s full  name, the requestor’s relationship to the person if the request is about another person, the specific URL(s) to be removed, and finally, an explanation of how the search result is “irrelevant, outdated, or otherwise inappropriate,” which is the legal standard for removal announced by the ECJ.  The irony is obvious—to be forgotten, you must first become better known, and ultimately may become so notorious as to never be able to be forgotten. 

So how will this work? Let’s assume Mario Costeja González completes the form—remember, he has not yet won the right to be forgotten, and under the ECJ decision he must now formally request that Google forget about him.  As the ECJ explained: “Requests...may be addressed by the data subject directly to the controller who must then duly examine their merits and, as the case may be, end processing of the data in question.”  Google’s form is a reasonable step in its process of “duly examining” the merits of any request.

For González, the issue behind his request began with this article, or rather a link to the Spanish newspaper in which the notice of his debt appeared. In his request, González likely will identify the URL as one to be blocked whenever his name is entered into a search engine.  Using Google’s form, he will have to explain how the public notice of his debt is “irrelevant, outdated, or otherwise inappropriate.” 

The delinking obligation arises only when a person’s  name, in this case González, is the search term.  (See Par. 82 of the decision “the supervisory authority or judicial authority may order the operator of the search engine to remove from the list of results displayed following a search made on the basis of a person’s name links to the web pages published by third parties.”)  González could use several permutations of his name, including misspellings, to identify the URLs, but he cannot provide search terms like “ECJ decision” or “right to be forgotten” that may return results that contain links to the notice about his debt or otherwise discuss his role in the case.  Google’s form appropriately requires the data subject provide all of the search terms used to identify the URLs.

González may persuade Google that the specific link to the Spanish newspaper notice is no longer relevant, timely or appropriate, but given the public reporting and broad linking to the debt notice, Google will have to decide whether the link should remain anyway because it is of general interest due to the role of González in public life.  The ECJ suggests that the role played by the data subject in public life is a valid offsetting factor to removal.  Does González’s vindication of his private right in public institutions constitute playing a significant role in public life by bringing the right to be forgotten to fruition?

Google’s form only sets the process of removal in motion. What remains is the question of transparency of the process that Google or any other search engine will use to decide whether to remove or not.  What information will Google or any other search engine examine outside the four corners of the form submitted by the data subject?  Does Google have to inform the data subject of the precise reason for denying the request?  Does it have to notify the data subject in writing of the reason? 

Let’s assume Google denies Gonzalez’s request. According to the ECJ, “[w]here the controller does not grant the request, the data subject may bring the matter before the supervisory authority or the judicial authority so that it carries out the necessary checks and orders the controller to take specific measures accordingly.” So, back to court.  We can envision discovery, investigative demands and countless entanglements arising regarding the decision-making process used to deny González’s request. Google’s form say that after the form is submitted, Google may forward the request, and any accompanying details, to the relevant data protection authority.  When would it do that?  At the time of submission?  After denying a request?  Only if a data subject appeals?

In the meantime, Google’s form also says that they “may inform webmaster(s) whose content is removed from our search results as a result of your complaint.”  That suggests that Google may display a notice that it has removed results that otherwise would have been displayed for legal reasons.  And that means the world will know there is something out there about the data subject and no doubt it will become an Internet past time to discover it.  The forms submitted by data subjects also no doubt will become targets of discovery in future civil or criminal litigation—embellished reasons and explanations for the removal request will become interesting reading if discoverable.  Remember, a data subject will have to submit a request to each search engine for removal.  Each search engine will need a process and form like Google’s to respond.

Google’s form offers one last interesting hint about how the ECJ decision may be implemented.  Google asks the data subject to identify the country whose law applies to the request.  There is no right to be forgotten in the U.S., for example, so requests submitted from countries where no such right exists may be readily disposed of.  But the request also may suggest that the ECJ decision will be implemented on a local level only.  That is, the search results would only be blocked in the country of residence—for González, that would mean Spain. The jurisdictional basis for the ECJ opinion, and its extraterritorial reach, will at least keep law professors teaching a long time. 

So, Google’s form is a responsible first response to the ECJ decision even though full implementation of the decision raises many questions.  Search engines have to start somewhere.

*Disclaimer: While Perkins Coie represents Google in various legal issues, the views expressed throughout this client update are the sole opinion of the author.

 

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Perkins Coie | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Perkins Coie
Contact
more
less

Perkins Coie on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
Sign up using*

Already signed up? Log in here

*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Privacy Policy (Updated: October 8, 2015):
hide

JD Supra provides users with access to its legal industry publishing services (the "Service") through its website (the "Website") as well as through other sources. Our policies with regard to data collection and use of personal information of users of the Service, regardless of the manner in which users access the Service, and visitors to the Website are set forth in this statement ("Policy"). By using the Service, you signify your acceptance of this Policy.

Information Collection and Use by JD Supra

JD Supra collects users' names, companies, titles, e-mail address and industry. JD Supra also tracks the pages that users visit, logs IP addresses and aggregates non-personally identifiable user data and browser type. This data is gathered using cookies and other technologies.

The information and data collected is used to authenticate users and to send notifications relating to the Service, including email alerts to which users have subscribed; to manage the Service and Website, to improve the Service and to customize the user's experience. This information is also provided to the authors of the content to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

JD Supra does not sell, rent or otherwise provide your details to third parties, other than to the authors of the content on JD Supra.

If you prefer not to enable cookies, you may change your browser settings to disable cookies; however, please note that rejecting cookies while visiting the Website may result in certain parts of the Website not operating correctly or as efficiently as if cookies were allowed.

Email Choice/Opt-out

Users who opt in to receive emails may choose to no longer receive e-mail updates and newsletters by selecting the "opt-out of future email" option in the email they receive from JD Supra or in their JD Supra account management screen.

Security

JD Supra takes reasonable precautions to insure that user information is kept private. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. However, please note that no method of transmitting or storing data is completely secure and we cannot guarantee the security of user information. Unauthorized entry or use, hardware or software failure, and other factors may compromise the security of user information at any time.

If you have reason to believe that your interaction with us is no longer secure, you must immediately notify us of the problem by contacting us at info@jdsupra.com. In the unlikely event that we believe that the security of your user information in our possession or control may have been compromised, we may seek to notify you of that development and, if so, will endeavor to do so as promptly as practicable under the circumstances.

Sharing and Disclosure of Information JD Supra Collects

Except as otherwise described in this privacy statement, JD Supra will not disclose personal information to any third party unless we believe that disclosure is necessary to: (1) comply with applicable laws; (2) respond to governmental inquiries or requests; (3) comply with valid legal process; (4) protect the rights, privacy, safety or property of JD Supra, users of the Service, Website visitors or the public; (5) permit us to pursue available remedies or limit the damages that we may sustain; and (6) enforce our Terms & Conditions of Use.

In the event there is a change in the corporate structure of JD Supra such as, but not limited to, merger, consolidation, sale, liquidation or transfer of substantial assets, JD Supra may, in its sole discretion, transfer, sell or assign information collected on and through the Service to one or more affiliated or unaffiliated third parties.

Links to Other Websites

This Website and the Service may contain links to other websites. The operator of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using the Service through the Website and link to another site, you will leave the Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We shall have no responsibility or liability for your visitation to, and the data collection and use practices of, such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of this Website and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our privacy policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use the Service or Website following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes. If you do not agree with the terms of this Policy, as it may be amended from time to time, in whole or part, please do not continue using the Service or the Website.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this privacy statement, the practices of this site, your dealings with this Web site, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: info@jdsupra.com.

- hide
*With LinkedIn, you don't need to create a separate login to manage your free JD Supra account, and we can make suggestions based on your needs and interests. We will not post anything on LinkedIn in your name. Or, sign up using your email address.
Feedback? Tell us what you think of the new jdsupra.com!