Can the Illinois state courts order mandatory cleanups of older landfills? The Illinois Supreme Court agreed to decide that issue late last month, allowing a petition for leave to appeal in People ex rel. Madigan v. J. T. Einoder, Inc.
Einoder involves a husband and wife and two corporations which they control. The landfill site was held in a land trust for the benefit of one of the corporate defendants, which was wholly owned by the husband. The other corporate defendant - owned 90% by the wife and 10% by the husband - leased equipment and operators to the first corporation for use at the site.
In 1995, two years after the site was purchased, the state Environmental Protection Agency received anonymous reports of open dumping there. An inspector visited and issued a citation for dumping without a permit. Additional citations were issued in 1996 and 1997. The Agency conducted a multi-hour inspection in 1998, and subsequently, another citation was issued for alleged dumping and disposal of waste without a permit.
The Agency initially threatened suit in 1998, but agreed to dig test pits first to determine the content of material at the site. After sporadic inspections in 1999 and 2000 revealed an increasing amount of "clean" construction and demolition debris ("CCDD") above the grade of the surrounding land, the Attorney General filed suit in 2000, alleging open dumping, unpermitted waste disposal operations, development and operation of a solid waste management site without a permit, and various other violations.
Following a bench trial, the Circuit Court found for the State on all counts relating to waste disposal and operation of a waste disposal site without a permit, but directed a verdict for the defendants on various more minor charges. The court then proceeded to the remedies portion of the bifurcated trial, and ultimately issued a permanent injunction requiring the defendants to remove the above-grade waste pile and undertake groundwater testing. The court also imposed substantial fines against both corporations and both individuals.
The Appellate Court affirmed the trial court. The court began by rejecting the defendants' claim that the trial court lacked jurisdiction over the agency's complaint because the agency had not properly notified the defendants of its intent to sue the individuals in their individual capacities. The court found that the notice requirements were not jurisdictional, and given the extensive contact between the agency and the defendants leading up to the suit, the defendants could not show prejudice.
The Circuit Court's finding that defendants had operated a waste disposal site without a permit depended on a finding that defendants' CCDD didn't constitute "waste." The statute provided that CCDD was exempt from permit requirements (to the degree Federal law didn't provide differently) only when "used as fill materials below grade." The defendants attempted to avoid this language by pointing to three excerpts of testimony, but the Appellate Court concluded that two statements had been taken out of context, and the third snippet of testimony from the bench trial was contrary not only to the plain language of the statute, but even to the remainder of that witness' testimony. The defendants challenged the finding of personal liability against the wife, but the Appellate Court found sufficient evidence to support the court's finding that the wife had been involved in the operations.
The court then turned to what is likely to be the central issue before the Supreme Court: the availability of mandatory injunctive relief. The parties agreed that the pre-2004 form of the Environmental Protection Act didn't authorize such relief, while the post-2004 form of the Act did authorize it. So the question was whether the 2004 amendments applied retroactively - a simple question of statutory construction. Although Section 42(e) of the Act, the provision directly at issue, didn't indicate a temporal reach, the Court concluded that several other clauses of the 2004 Act suggested that the legislature intended the statute to apply retroactively: the Act was intended to "restore, protect and enhance" Illinois' environment, and to require that "adverse effects" be mediated by "those who cause them." In so holding, the court followed the decision of the Second District in State Oil Co. v. People.
The Court concluded by upholding the fines assessed against the corporate and individual defendants. Sufficient evidence supported the view that the defendants had derived economic benefit from their violations, the Court found, and the defendants' continued operations for five years after receiving their initial violation notices suggested that severe penalties were needed. Justice Mary Anne Mason dissented solely from the portion of the opinion holding that the 2004 Act applied retroactively.
We expect Einoder to be decided in six to eight months.
Image courtesy of Flickr by Ell Brown.