Tomorrow morning in Chicago, the Illinois Supreme Court will hear oral argument in a high-profile appeal from the Second District, Spanish Court Two Condominium Association v. Carlson. Our detailed summary of the underlying facts and lower court holdings in Spanish Court is here.
Spanish Court arises from a special statutory proceeding – the Forcible Entry and Detainer Act. The plaintiff Association sued the defendant condominium owner in early 2010 under the Act, arguing that she had stopped paying both monthly and special assessments. The Association sought possession of the defendant’s unit and a monetary award. The defendant filed affirmative defenses and a counterclaim. She admitted not having paid the assessments, but denied that they were owed. Instead, she alleged that her unit had sustained water damage as a result of the Association’s breach of their duty to maintain and repair common areas of the development – specifically, the roof and certain brickwork above her unit. The defenses and counterclaim alleged first, that the Association was estopped from seeking the assessments by its breach of the duty to maintain and repair, and second, that any judgment against the defendant should be reduced by the cost of repairing the damage to the unit.
The Circuit Court granted the plaintiff’s motion to strike the defenses and counterclaim, but the Appellate Court reversed in part. Analogizing the duty to pay assessments to Illinois law on the duty to pay rent (which also falls under the Forcible Entry and Detainer Act), the Court held that the duty to pay was not absolute. Rather, it was given in exchange for the duty to maintain and repair. If the Association breaches the duty to maintain and repair, the Court held, then the resident is permitted to suspend performance with respect to paying assessments. The Court cautioned that relatively minor problems, such as “overgrown bushes and unrepaired sidewalk cracks” would “rarely” constitute material breaches, but found that the alleged failures here were arguably material.
Before the Supreme Court, the Association seems likely to argue that since assessments are the only means available to a board to carry out its duty to maintain and repair, allowing each individual resident to suspend payments will have the perverse result of making it less likely that common areas will be kept in good repair. The Association may also argue, as it did on rehearing, that allowing such a remedy invites chaos by making each individual resident his or her own judge of the adequacy of the repair of the common areas. The Association is likely to suggest a “parade of horribles,” with residents unhappy over assessments suspending payments, and boards having to spend time and legal fees in order to get possession of units and payment of past-due assessments. The Association is also likely to emphasize the special character of the Forcible Entry and Detainer Act proceeding, which is supposed to provide a quick and relatively inexpensive way to settle the question of possession. The defendant is likely to argue that the Appellate Court correctly drew an analogy to landlord-tenant law and contend that there is no basis for treating the two areas differently. The defendant may also argue the now-or-never aspect of the problem by suggesting that if the resident is not permitted to raise these types of issues before losing possession of the unit, it will be too late.
Spanish Court has attracted considerable attention nationwide, according to the Chicago Tribune, so the Court’s ultimate decision will be closely watched. We expect a decision in two to four months.