Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Canadians with certain specified occupations may work in the United States under the Trade NAFTA (TN) classification. Previously, all first-time, initial TN applications had to be submitted to Customs & Border Protection (CBP) immigration officers at the U.S.-Canada border or certain airports in Canada. This resulted in unpredictability as to whether Canadian professionals would be granted TN status or turned away for legitimate or subjective reasons. Advance adjudication was not an option. Now, as of October 1, 2012, a new option adds predictability to the process. U.S. employers seeking to hire Canadian professionals under NAFTA may mail the petitions in advance to a U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services (USCIS) processing center in the United States for a decision. CBP has indicated they will accept the USCIS TN approval notices without challenge, except in the case of fraud or changed circumstances. This pre-adjudication option is not available for Canadian entities sending a Canadian employee to work at a U.S. entity which does not hire the Canadian directly. Under such circumstances, the Canadian still must present himself or herself at the port of entry for CBP immigration officer adjudication. This development is part of the Beyond the Border Action Plan under a joint U.S.-Canada initiative.