Reformas Legales e Institucionales en la Implementación de los TLC suscritos por Chile (www.centroilc.cl).pdf

by Eliel Hasson
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Chile, hace ya más de tres décadas, optó por una economía abierta, competitiva y orientada al libre comercio, disciplinada en el acatamiento de las normativas internacionales y con una política comercial compatible con la rigurosidad en la gestión macroeconómica.

Entre los años 2002 y 2004 Chile vivió una etapa acelerada en cuanto a la liberalización bilateral normada por acuerdos de libre comercio: en noviembre de 2002 se firmó el Acuerdo de Asociación Política y Comercial con la Unión Europea. Previamente habían concluido exitosamente las negociaciones con Corea del Sur y Estados Unidos, con la firma de ambos tratados en febrero y junio, respectivamente. Asimismo, en junio de 2003 Chile y la Asociación Europea del Libre Comercio (EFTA) finalizaron las negociaciones para firmar un Tratado de Libre Comercio. El año 2006 entraron en vigencia dos acuerdos económicos de suma relevancia, uno es el P-4 conformado, además de Chile, por Nueva Zelanda, Singapur y Brunei, un acuerdo pionero en lo que respecta a la transferencia tecnológica y capital humano. El otro es el acuerdo con China, un hito particularmente relevante, puesto que se trata del primer acuerdo comercial de China con un país occidental, lo que permite a Chile posicionarse como un socio preferencial para el comercio con la potencia asiática.

De esta manera, Chile ha firmado más de 20 acuerdos comerciales, con aproximadamente 60 países, logrando así un arancel cero con prácticamente 90% de su comercio, lo cual permite a una economía pequeña como la chilena competir en el mercado global. La implementación de estos acuerdos comerciales requiere de un conjunto de intervenciones gubernamentales en materia institucional, regulatoria y operativa/administrativa, que permitan su puesta en práctica en el ordenamiento jurídico nacional.

El presente documento se propone dar a conocer la forma en que el Estado de Chile ha abordado estas tareas, describiendo el marco constitucional que regula la forma en que estos acuerdos comerciales son incluidos en la normativa vigente, para en seguida analizar la institucionalidad creada al interior del Poder Ejecutivo para hacerse cargo de estas labores, así como los más recientes esfuerzos normativos para seguir adecuando esta estructura a las reales demandas actuales, lo que incluye un importante esfuerzo público-privado con este fin. Asimismo, este trabajo aborda la temática de la administración de los acuerdos comerciales como vía para lograr la implementación plena y coherente de los compromisos asumidos por los Estados signatarios.

Se trabajará principalmente en torno a dos modelos: aquel consagrado en el Acuerdo de Asociación entre Chile y la Unión Europea, y el modelo del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN o NAFTA, por su sigla en inglés), en los cuales se analizarán los acuerdos comerciales suscritos con Canadá y con Estados Unidos de América.

Finalmente, utilizando como base los informes sectoriales preparados por cada uno de los siete investigadores autores de este trabajo1, se extraen algunas lecciones que merecen ser destacadas en el proceso de implementación llevado a cabo por Chile.

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DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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