Rule of International Law: Two citizens in the nation of the United States

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In his work, “The Government of the United States: National, State, and Local,” (1922), William Bennett Munro (Professor of Municipal Government at Harvard University) quotes Section 1, Clause 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment as follows: “citizens of the United States and of the STATES wherein they reside.” However, Section 1, Clause 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment provides: “citizens of the United States and of the STATE wherein they reside.” This mistake is intentional.

Munro’s changing of the word “State” into the word “States” changes the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. Instead of one who is a citizen of the United States being a citizen of a State also by residing in a State, one who is a citizen of the United States, is according to Munro’s, a citizen of the several States also by residing in a State. This he admits.

However, this is not the case. When a citizen of the United States is residing within a State, a citizen of the United States is also a citizen of a State, not s citizen of the several States.

William Munro concluded that: “So far as the rules of international law are concerned, only one citizenship is recognized, namely, citizenship of the United States.”

This is incorrect. This paper shows that there are two citizenships, that is, citizens, not one, in the nation of the United States, under the Constitution of the United States of America, for purposes of international law; a citizen of the United States, under Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, and also a citizen of the several States, under Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution of the United States of America.

The author presents three sets of privileges and immunities since the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, privileges and immunities of a citizen of the United States; privileges and immunities of a citizen of a State; privileges and immunities of a citizen of the several States; shows their location in law; their corresponding citizenship (citizen) in law.

The author also proves a citizen of the United States is only entitled to privileges and immunities of a citizen of a State (Section 1, Clause 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment) and a citizen of a State is only entitled to privileges and immunities of a citizen of the several States (Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution).

Then, at the State level, that are two state citizens: one who has privileges and immunities of a citizen of the United States (Section 1, Clause 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment) and one who has privileges and immunities of a citizen of the several States (Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution):

And that there are two citizens under the Constitution of the United States of America, both of whom have privileges and immunities of a citizen of a State. They are a citizen of the United States, under Section 1, Clause 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, and, a citizen of the several States, under Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution.

After the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment; in the Slaughterhouse Cases, it was held that citizenship of a State was separate and distinct from citizenship of the United States. That a citizen of a State was separate and distinct from a citizen of the United States.

A citizen of a State, under Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution of the United States of America, is now, after the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, entitled to privileges and immunities of citizens of the several States. As such, a citizen of a State is now also a citizen of the several States:

A citizen of a State, under Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution of the United States of America, as a citizen of the several States, is a citizen of all the States, generally. A citizen of a State, under Article IV, Section 2, Clause1 of the Constitution, is a citizen of the several States when abroad.

Therefore, international law applies to a citizen of the United States, under Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, and also to a citizen of the several States, under Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution. Thus, under international law, in the nation of the United States there are two citizens; a citizen of the United States and a citizen of the several States.

Legal authority quoted, cited and linked.

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Published In: Constitutional Law Updates, Immigration Updates, International Trade Updates

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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