Unpublished BIA Decision: E-2 Spouses Not Required to Obtain EAD


On November 5, 2013, the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA), issued an unpublished decision reversing the denial of an adjustment application and holding that the respondent was not required to obtain an employment authorization document as the spouse of an E-2 treaty investor.  (Matter of Lee, 11/5/13)

The procedure for spouses of E-2 foreign treaty investors who seek to work in the U.S. has been to apply for and receive an employment authorization document (EAD) from U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) before they are allowed to engage in any employment.  In Matter of Lee, the respondent was the spouse of an E-2 investor.  The spouse applied for adjustment of status in Immigration Court based on an approved visa petition and labor certification.  The Immigration Judge denied adjustment of status for unlawful employment, because the spouse worked as a dental technician for more than 180 days without having obtained an EAD from USCIS. 

The BIA reversed the denial, reasoning that the immigration regulations do not explicitly require spouses of E-2 investors to obtain an EAD.  The regulations mandate that spouses of E-1 investors must obtain an EAD, but are silent as to spouses of E-2 investors.  Therefore, the BIA held that an E-2 spouse is authorized to engage in employment regardless of whether or not he or she possesses a valid EAD.

An unpublished decision is not binding on any Court or the USCIS, although it may serve as persuasive authority when applying for certain benefits from the USCIS or relief from removal in Immigration Court.  Therefore, spouses of E-2 investors are strongly encouraged to continue to comply with USCIS instructions for obtaining an EAD before they engage in employment.  It is uncertain how this unpublished decision will be treated by the USCIS and Immigration Court.  Furthermore, an EAD is proof of employment authorization for purposes of obtaining employment and completing Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification.

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DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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