Interpreting ambiguity in commercial contracts


The importance of careful and accurate drafting of business contracts cannot be stressed enough. However, as careful as a party may be in drafting the contract and as clear as the contractual terms may appear to the parties at the time they are signing the contract, at some point during the operation of the contract, there may arise a dispute between the parties as to the meaning of an ambiguous term in the contract-a term that is open to more than one meaning. What is the court to do in such case?

The British Columbia Court of Appeal, in a quartet of cases - Grace Residences Ltd. v. Whitewater Concrete Ltd. ; Group Eight Investments Ltd. v. Taddei , Chuddy v. Merchant Law Group , and Gilchrist v. Western Star Trucks Inc. - has delineated instructive principles of contractual interpretation. These principles may be summarized as follows:

1. The words of the agreement are the starting point and the most significant tool for interpretation.

2. The Court must interpret the words objectively, referring to the plain and ordinary meaning, unless it would lead to an absurdity.

3. The proper “plain and ordinary” meaning must take into consideration the contract as a whole, the intention of the parties expressed within the contract, and the circumstances at the time the contract was entered into;

4. The Court’s will assume that each particular word was selected for a purpose and may reject an interpretation that renders a provision ineffective.

5. Only if the plain and ordinary meaning of the words still results in an ambiguity such that there remain two plausible interpretations, the Court may consider extrinsic evidence regarding the intention of the parties.

6. If extrinsic evidence is relied upon, the Court should interpret the words in a manner consistent with sound commercial principles and good business sense and avoid any commercially absurd meaning.

Following these guidelines will assist in avoiding pitfalls when drafting and, if a dispute does arise, in understanding how a Court may decide.

LOADING PDF: If there are any problems, click here to download the file.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Shafik Bhalloo, Kornfeld LLP ; Adjunct Professor, SFU Beedie School of Business | Attorney Advertising

Written by:


Kornfeld LLP ; Adjunct Professor, SFU Beedie School of Business on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:

Sign up to create your digest using LinkedIn*

*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.

Already signed up? Log in here

*With LinkedIn, you don't need to create a separate login to manage your free JD Supra account, and we can make suggestions based on your needs and interests. We will not post anything on LinkedIn in your name. Or, sign up using your email address.