Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP

One Federal Place 1819 Fifth Avenue North
Birmingham, Alabama 35203 , United States

  • 205.521.8000
  • 205.521.8800

Gift and Estate Tax Changes in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

On January 1, 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (the “2012 Act”) that was passed by Congress during the past 72 hours, bringing closure to the main tax aspects of the so-called…more

American Taxpayer Relief Act, Charitable Donations, Estate Tax, Federal Budget, Fiscal Cliff

See All Updates »

HUD Issues New Rules about Surviving Spouses Following Death of Reverse Mortgage Borrower

For the past year and a half, mortgagees of FHA-insured Home Equity Conversion Mortgages (“HECMs”), commonly referred to as reverse mortgages, have had to grapple with issues related to the foreclosure of homes occupied by…more

Foreclosure, HECM, HUD, Mortgages, New Regulations

See All Updates »

Digital Imports: Should Downloads Be Subject to the Tariff Act?

On April 3, the International Trade Commission (ITC) ruled that the agency has jurisdiction to police digital transmission for intellectual property infringement. The ITC hears trade disputes regarding “articles” imported into…more

Digital Goods, Digital Media, Illegal Imports, Imports, Infringement

See All Updates »

2014 – The Health Law Year in Review

Each year brings significant changes and challenges in the laws governing the health care industry, and 2014 proved to be no exception. What the year may have lacked in the high drama that accompanies comprehensive health reform…more

ACOs, Affordable Care Act, Anti-Kickback Statute, CMP Law, CMS

See All Updates »

The SCRA can be a Minefield: Recent Ninth Circuit Opinion Addresses Foreclosure Protection

On February 7, the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued its opinion in Brewster v. Sun Trust Mortgage, Inc. The decision stands as a stark reminder to mortgage lenders and servicers of the importance of verifying a…more

Foreclosure, Military Service Members, Real Estate Market, SCRA

See All Updates »

Big Changes to Federal Jurisdiction over Waters of the U.S. through the Clean Water Act

On March 25, 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (“USACE”) announced the release of their proposed rule redefining what waters fall under federal jurisdiction under the…more

Clean Water Act, EPA, Federal Jurisdiction, Jurisdiction, Mining

See All Updates »

What’s Mine is Not Yours: Former Officers and Directors and a Corporation’s Attorney–Client Privilege

An officer or director’s company exit often feels like a divorce, with post-departure monetary payments and document-custody issues dominating the immediate aftermath. Companies are quick to enforce non-compete agreements and…more

Attorney-Client Privilege, Board of Directors, Confidentiality, Corporate Counsel, Corporate Officers

See All Updates »

Same-sex marriage in Alabama: What employers need to know

Alabama probate judges have begun issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples following a recent ruling out of the Southern District of Alabama that struck down the state's ban on same-sex marriage. Employers should take note…more

Employee Rights, Marriage Licenses, Same-Sex Marriage

See All Updates »

No Lawsuit Required to Rescind: U.S. Supreme Court Clarifies Mortgage Rescission Notification Requirements for Borrowers under TILA

Background of Notice versus Lawsuit Issue - The Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), as implemented by Regulation Z, provides borrowers with a powerful tool: the right to rescind certain mortgage loan transactions. This…more

Bank of America, Countrywide, Jesinoski v Countrywide, Mortgage Lenders, Mortgages

See All Updates »

Alternative Approaches to Alternative Design: Understanding the Reasonable Alternative Design Requirement and Its Different Applications

In 1997, the American Law Institute (ALI) adopted the final draft of its Restatement (Third) of Torts on the topic of product liability. The most notable—and controversial—feature of the ALI’s work was its requirement that…more

American Law Institute, Design Defects

See All Updates »

Update: New Reporting Requirements Deadline for Physician-Owned Hospitals Extended to March 1

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has extended the deadline for physician-owned hospitals seeking to avail themselves of the “whole hospital” exception or “rural provider” exception to the Stark Law to report…more

CMS, Hospitals, Reporting Requirements, Stark Law

See All Updates »

One Cross – Two Cross – Red Cross – Blue Cross: Trademark Development Traps

Trademarks and service marks are valuable in all areas of commerce, and health care is not an exception. Providers of health care-related goods and services rely upon trademarks and service marks to identify the sources of their…more

American Red Cross, Blue Cross, Healthcare, Johnson & Johnson, Lanham Act

See All Updates »

SEC Issues Stern Reminder for Timely Filing of Beneficial Ownership Reports

After years of little enforcement action, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a press release yesterday announcing charges against 28 officers, directors, or major shareholders for violating federal securities…more

Beneficial Owner, Deadlines, Directors, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

Talk is Cheap – Promises to Pay Are a Poor Substitute for Adherence to Contractual Notice Provisions

A recent Wyoming case – JEM Contracting, Inc. v. Morrison – Maierle, Inc. – serves as a reminder to contractors and subcontractors of the importance of following the contractual requirements for notice when differing site…more

Construction Site, Contractors, Notice Requirements, Subcontractors

See All Updates »

GAO Clarifies Task Order Protest Jurisdictional Issues

At first blush, the U.S. Government Accountability Office’s recent decision in Goldbelt Glacier Health Services LLC (Feb. 6. 2015) appears to be a run-of-the-mill denial of a protester’s request for reconsideration. But, a…more

Army, Bid Protests, FASA, Federal Procurement Systems, GAO

See All Updates »

Privacy and Information Security Alert

The final Federal Cybersecurity Framework is imminent. Find out how the Framework operates and how it may impact your business. Learn what government and industry leaders say about the Framework and the need for related…more

Cybersecurity, Cybersecurity Framework, Data Protection, NIST, Privacy Laws

See All Updates »

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds “Fraud-On-The-Market” Theory, Permits Defendants to Challenge Reliance Presumption at Class Certification Stage

Earlier this week, in Halliburton Co. v. Erica P. John Fund, Inc., the United States Supreme Court upheld the “fraud-on-the-market” theory in federal securities fraud class actions, but ruled that at the class certification…more

Basic v Levinson, Class Action, Fraud, Fraud-on-the-Market, Halliburton

See All Updates »

Merchandising 101: Missouri Supreme Court Addresses Applicability of State’s Merchandising Practices Act to Mortgage Loan Servicers

Two new en banc opinions from the Supreme Court of Missouri, both released on August 19, 2014, may be of interest to mortgage loan servicers with borrowers in this state. The opinions — Conway v. CitiMortgage, Inc., --- S.W.3d…more

Loans, Mortgage Servicers, Mortgage Servicing Rules, Mortgages

See All Updates »

Tennessee CON Report - March 2014

In this Report: - I. March 2014—Tennessee Certificate of Need Meeting - A. Consent Agenda - B. Certificate of Need Review - C. General Counsel’s Report - II. Certificate of Need Program Report — Filings…more

Certificate of Need, Home Health Care, Hospitals, Letters of Intent, Nursing Homes

See All Updates »

Land Banking Comes to Birmingham

On Tuesday, May 6, 2014, the City of Birmingham joined a number of other municipalities in a vote to authorize a Land Bank Authority. The Birmingham City Council passed the resolution to establish a land bank in hopes of…more

Abandoned Property, Banks, Economic Development, Foreclosure, Government Entities

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

U.S. Supreme Court Clarifies Requirements for Removing Class Actions to Federal Court

Today the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Dart Cherokee Basin Operating Co. v. Owens, No. 13-719, a case involving the procedural requirements for removing a class action from state to federal court under the Class…more

Amount in Controversy, CAFA, Class Action, Dart Cherokee Basin Operating Co. v. Owens, Diversity

See All Updates »

CFPB Issues Compliance Guides for New TILA, RESPA, and ECOA Requirements

In January 2013, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) issued a number of new final rules to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”), and Equal…more

CFPB, Compliance, ECOA, RESPA, TILA

See All Updates »

Affordable Care Act: Hobby Lobby Decision Limits Contraception Requirement

As widely reported, on June 30th, the United States Supreme Court held in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores that certain methods of contraception under the preventive health services requirements of the Patient Protection and…more

Affordable Care Act, Burwell v Hobby Lobby, Contraceptive Coverage Mandate, Contraceptives, Hobby Lobby

See All Updates »

State & Local Tax Alert: Alabama Edition - September 25th, 2013

The Alabama Historical Commission has issued emergency regulations to implement the state’s new historic structures rehabilitation tax credit. Emergency Rules 460-x-23-.01ER through 460-x-23-.13ER took effect September 1, 2013…more

Historical Landmarks, SALT, Tax Credits

See All Updates »

Update: Finding the Earliest and Least Expensive Exit from Financial Services Class Actions

In this Newsletter: - Gather The Facts And Assess The Risk Up Front. - If The Class Action Is Filed In State Court, Think Strategically About Whether To Remove. - Invest Time, Effort And Resources In…more

Class Action, Litigation Strategies

See All Updates »

Minority Powerbrokers Q&A: Bradley Arant's Hope Cannon

Hope Thai Cannon is a partner with Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP in Birmingham, Alabama. She is licensed in Florida, Alabama and Texas, and actively litigates cases in all three states, focusing primarily on Florida and…more

Diversity, Interviews, Women in the Law, Young Lawyers

See All Updates »

Details of Governor Bill Haslam’s “Revenue Modernization Act” Emerge: Broad-Sweeping Tax Proposals to all Major Tennessee Taxes

The Administration introduced the “Revenue Modernization Act” on February 11 in the Senate Finance Committee, and the proposal includes numerous modifications to all Tennessee’s major taxes, including economic nexus, click-thru…more

Bill Haslam, Proposed Legislation, Tax Reform

See All Updates »

Foreclosing on FHA-Insured Mortgage in Violation of HUD Regulations Could Constitute Breach of Contract

Eleventh Circuit Rules that Failure to Comply with HUD Regulations in Foreclosing on FHA-Insured Mortgage – Including the Requirement of Having a Face-to-Face Meeting With the Debtor – Can Constitute a Breach of…more

Breach of Contract, FHA, Foreclosure, Government-Guaranteed Loans, HUD

See All Updates »

Tennessee Adopts Expansive Trade Secret Preemption Standard

In a case of first impression decided August 19, 2014, the Tennessee Court of Appeals has decided the standard for determining the scope of preemption under the Tennessee Uniform Trade Secrets Act (TUTSA). The court adopted a…more

Misappropriation, Preemption, Trade Secrets, UTSA

See All Updates »

ERISA Litigation: What Benefits and Other Professionals Need to Know

In This Presentation: - Stephens v. Citation Corp. (N.D. Ala. 2010) (Acker, J.) - Erisa Topics Today - ERISA Preemption: Good or Bad? - Provident Internal Memorandum re: ERISA, Oct. 2, 1995 -…more

Attorney-Client Privilege, Employee Benefits, Employer Liability Issues, Employer Mandates, ERISA

See All Updates »

Alabama CON Report - April 2014

In this Issue: - I. Old Business - II. Certificate of Need Program - III. Reviewability Determinations and Pending Reviewability Determinations - III. New Business - Excerpt from Certificate of Need…more

Ambulatory Surgery Centers, Certificate of Need, Home Health Care, Hospitals, Inpatient Rehab Facilities

See All Updates »

FDIC Bars Financial Institutions from Purchasing Insurance Coverage for Civil Monetary Penalties for Directors and Officers: FDIC Reiterates its Prohibition in Financial Institution Letter 47-2013

We recently notified you of the FDIC’s Financial Institution Letter 47-2013 , which urges directors and officers of financial institutions to examine their institutions’ directors and officers (D&O) insurance coverage to ensure…more

Board of Directors, Civil Monetary Penalty, Corporate Counsel, Corporate Officers, D&O Insurance

See All Updates »

Losing At Dodge Ball: Understanding The Supreme Court’s Implied Authorization Of Consent In Executive Benefits Insurance Agency V. Arkison And Why Revision Of 28 U.S.C. § 157(B) Is Critical For Clarity

In this Article: - Introduction - A Tale as Old as Time: The Evolution of Bankruptcy Jurisdiction Before Stern - Let’s Talk About Stern, Baby - Much Ado About Nothing: Executive Benefits Insurance…more

Agency, Article III, Chapter 7, Commercial Bankruptcy, EBIA v Arkison

See All Updates »

BABC Attorneys Author Amicus Brief on Behalf of DRI Regarding Tibble Case in United States Supreme Court

In Tibble v Edison International, Plaintiffs brought fiduciary duty claims against Edison International for alleged mismanagement of Edison’s 401(k) Plan. Plaintiffs’ claims centered upon the fact that the Plan’s investment…more

401k, Employer Liability Issues, ERISA, Fiduciary Duty, SCOTUS

See All Updates »

New HECM Rules For Surviving Spouses Fall Short

The Department of Housing and Urban Development recently published Mortgagee Letter 2015-03, which provides servicers of FHA-insured Home Equity Conversion Mortgages a way to proceed after a borrower dies and is survived by a…more

Government-Guaranteed Loans, HECM, HUD, Mortgages, New Guidance

See All Updates »

Union Avoidance in The Face of the NLRB’s New “Quickie Election” Rule

This past December, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) issued its Final Rule implementing an accelerated process for conducting union representation elections—the “Quickie Election” Rule. The new regulations are to go…more

Ambush Election Rules, Best Practices, Chamber of Commerce, Corporate Counsel, Employer Liability Issues

See All Updates »

EEOC Provides Stark Reminder of Scope of Religious Accommodation

When most employers hear the term “reasonable accommodation,” their thoughts immediately turn to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). But the ADA is not the only federal statute that requires employers to accommodate…more

EEOC, Employee Rights, Employer Liability Issues, Employer Mandates, Employment Policies

See All Updates »

Distressed Municipal Debt-Considerations for Local Governments

A confluence of factors, including high debt, spiraling pension obligations, and lower sales and property tax revenues, has forced more municipalities to face insolvency than any time since the 1930s. The two largest municipal…more

Municipalities

See All Updates »

You Must Be Sober For More Than A Week To Keep Your Truck Driving Job

If a commercial driver is diagnosed with chronic alcoholism, can his employer terminate him a week later because his diagnosis excludes him from performing the essential functions of his job? In Jarvela v. Crete Carrier Corp.,…more

ADA, Commercial Truck Drivers, Drug & Alcohol Abuse, Hiring & Firing, Termination

See All Updates »

Second Bite At Fla. Foreclosures May Not Be So Sweet

Financial services companies pursuing judicial foreclosures in Florida already face a host of unique and challenging hurdles. The varying and often court- or judge-specific procedural, substantive and evidentiary requirements…more

Accelerated Payments, Condominium Associations, Debt Collectors, Deutsche Bank, Foreclosure

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

The Supreme Court Tightens Up State-Action Immunity: Justices Rule that Phoebe-Putney/Palmyra Transaction Is Not Immune from Antitrust Scrutiny

On February 19, 2013, the Supreme Court unanimously held that the effective acquisition of Palmyra Medical Center (“Palmyra”) by Phoebe Putney Health System, Inc. (“PPHS") in Southwestern Georgia was not immune from antitrust…more

FTC, FTC v. Phoebe Putney Health System, Government Entities, Governmental Immunity, Governmental Liability

See All Updates »

A “Bad Day” for NewDay - CFPB finds RESPA and UDAAP Violations in Marketing Arrangements

The CFPB has issued another Consent Order finding certain marketing and advertising services arrangements to violate RESPA’s prohibition on kickbacks. The CFPB required the lender, NewDay Financial, LLC (“NewDay”), to pay a…more

CFPB, Civil Monetary Penalty, Consent Order, Mortgage Lenders, Mortgages

See All Updates »

EDRM Releases A New Model For Analyzing Private Data

Recent high-profile data breaches have placed security of personally identifiable information (PII) at the forefront of many organizations’ concerns. Protecting PII and other private data can be a significant undertaking. Legal…more

Cybersecurity, Data Breach, Data Protection, EDRM, Electronically Stored Information

See All Updates »

A “Bad Day” for NewDay - CFPB finds RESPA and UDAAP Violations in Marketing Arrangements

The CFPB has issued another Consent Order finding certain marketing and advertising services arrangements to violate RESPA’s prohibition on kickbacks. The CFPB required the lender, NewDay Financial, LLC (“NewDay”), to pay a…more

CFPB, Civil Monetary Penalty, Consent Order, Mortgage Lenders, Mortgages

See All Updates »

Class Certification Issues In O’Bannon v. NCAA

In This Presentation: - Important Players - Underlying Lawsuit - Procedural Pre-Class Certification - Class Certification Issues - Aftermath and Trial - Recent Developments -…more

Athletes, Class Action, Class Certification, College Athletes, License Agreements

See All Updates »

IRS Updates Special Tax Notice for Retirement Plans

The Internal Revenue Service has issued Notice 2014-74, updating its safe harbor model notices for use by qualified retirement plans to satisfy the special tax notice requirement under Section 402(f) of the Internal Revenue Code…more

Benefit Plan Sponsors, Distribution Rules, Guidance Update, IRA, IRC

See All Updates »

The First Circuit Joins the D.C. Circuit in Hampering Relators’ Ability to Bring Duplicative Actions Under the False Claims Act’s First-to-File Rule

The First Circuit has become the fourth federal court of appeals to address whether a first-filed yet insufficient complaint still qualifies as a pending action under the first-to-file rule of the False Claims Act…more

False Claims Act, First-to-File, Fraud, Notice Requirements, Pleading Standards

See All Updates »

Two Key Alabama Business Associations Announce Their 2015 State Tax Legislative Agendas

In preparation for the 2015 regular session of the Alabama Legislature, which begins Tuesday, March 3, one of Alabama’s most influential business and trade organizations, the 5,000-member Business Council of Alabama (BCA), has…more

Legislative Agendas, Tax Reform

See All Updates »

New Tax Court Decision Highlights Need for Construction Contractors to Consider Expanded IRS Voluntary Worker Classification Settlement Program

For years, the question of whether construction workers should be treated as employees or independent contractors has been an important issue that many contractors have overlooked or chosen to ignore. However, a recent U.S. Tax…more

Contractors, Independent Contractors, IRS, Misclassification, VCSP

See All Updates »

Construction and Procurement Law News - First Quarter 2014

In this Issue: - Federal Circuit’s Metcalf Decision a Big Win for Contractors - Government Defenses of Defective Certification and the Severin Doctrine not a Silver Bullet - Are No-Damage-for-Delay…more

CBCA, Federal Contractors, Federal Procurement Systems, HHS, Licenses

See All Updates »

Raging Bull Decision Riles Hollywood, Thrills Plaintiffs

In June, the Supreme Court issued a landmark decision affecting copyright claims and defenses. The copyrighted work at issue was the popular motion picture Raging Bull, in which Robert DeNiro plays famous boxing champion Jake…more

Affirmative Defenses, Copyright, Copyright Infringement, Laches, MGM

See All Updates »

Summary of Mississippi’s New Construction Lien Law

Mississippi recently enacted a new construction lien law. This article addresses certain key provisions of the new law - codified at Mississippi Code Annotated § 85-7-401 (Rev. 2014) - that apply to commercial projects. …more

Construction Contracts, Construction Liens, Construction Workers, Contractors, Liens

See All Updates »

Tennessee – 2014 Legislative Highlights

Effective January 1, 2015, the method of issuing tax assessments and the informal conference process available to taxpayers will be revamped. 2014 Tenn. Pub. Acts 854. Touted as being more taxpayer-friendly, the two most…more

Fuel Tax, Marketing, Natural Gas, Notice Requirements, Property Tax

See All Updates »

Update: Finding the Earliest and Least Expensive Exit from Financial Services Class Actions

In this Newsletter: - Gather The Facts And Assess The Risk Up Front. - If The Class Action Is Filed In State Court, Think Strategically About Whether To Remove. - Invest Time, Effort And Resources In…more

Class Action, Litigation Strategies

See All Updates »

Mississippi CON Report - November 2013

In this Issue: - I. October 2013 – Mississippi Certificate of Need Meeting - II. Certificate of Need Program Report – Filings/Reports Since September 2013 CON Meeting - A. Letters of Intent to Change…more

Certificate of Need

See All Updates »

Avoiding personal liability amidst heightened AML enforcement

In February 2014, the Financial Industry Regulation Authority (FINRA), the self-regulatory body for the U.S. securities industry, suspended a former global anti-money laundering compliance officer at Brown Brothers Harriman &…more

Anti-Money Laundering, Bank Secrecy Act, Chief Compliance Officers, Corporate Culture, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

Will your errors and omissions policy pay your defense costs?

The hypothetical - HealthPayPlus (HPP) designs custom record management systems for large hospital systems. HPP developed a system for Research Hospitals of America (RHA) that HPP promised would revolutionize RHA’s…more

Breach of Contract, Duty to Defend, E&O Insurance, Indemnity Insurance, Liability Insurance

See All Updates »

Two Key Alabama Business Associations Announce Their 2015 State Tax Legislative Agendas

In preparation for the 2015 regular session of the Alabama Legislature, which begins Tuesday, March 3, one of Alabama’s most influential business and trade organizations, the 5,000-member Business Council of Alabama (BCA), has…more

Legislative Agendas, Tax Reform

See All Updates »

Recent Ruling Confirms That Cost of Compliance with a PRP Letter Is Insured Under CGL Policies

In a recent ruling of interest to any company named as a potentially responsible party (“PRP”) at a Superfund site anywhere in the country, the Alabama Supreme Court has followed the majority of state courts and held that a PRP…more

CERCLA, Commercial General Liability Policies, Contaminated Properties, Duty to Defend, Environmental Remediation Costs

See All Updates »

CMS Proposal to Adopt New OMB Delineations May Affect Medicare Reimbursement, GME Payments, and Regulatory Compliance

On April 30, 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued proposed rules for the Fiscal Year 2015 Medicare Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System, in which CMS announced several updates, including its…more

Census, CMS, Healthcare, Hospitals, IPPS

See All Updates »

The Upcoming “Patent Cliff”: Plan to File New Patent Applications Before March 16, 2013

On March 16, 2013, one of the most important and controversial provisions of the “Leahy-Smith America Invents Act,” or AIA, is scheduled to take effect and this event will mark a significant change in United States patent filing…more

America Invents Act, First-to-File, First-to-Invent, Patent Reform, Patents

See All Updates »

Recent Ruling Confirms That Cost of Compliance with a PRP Letter Is Insured Under CGL Policies

In a recent ruling of interest to any company named as a potentially responsible party (“PRP”) at a Superfund site anywhere in the country, the Alabama Supreme Court has followed the majority of state courts and held that a PRP…more

CERCLA, Commercial General Liability Policies, Contaminated Properties, Duty to Defend, Environmental Remediation Costs

See All Updates »

CFPB Issues Compliance Guides for New TILA, RESPA, and ECOA Requirements

In January 2013, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) issued a number of new final rules to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”), and Equal…more

CFPB, Compliance, ECOA, RESPA, TILA

See All Updates »

False Claims Act: 2014 Year In Review

In what is becoming an annual refrain, 2014 marked another year of robust False Claims Act (FCA) enforcement by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and mushrooming qui tam lawsuits by whistleblowers. Indeed, fiscal year 2014…more

Bank of America, Banking Sector, Banks, BNP Paribas, DOJ

See All Updates »

2014 – The Health Law Year in Review

Each year brings significant changes and challenges in the laws governing the health care industry, and 2014 proved to be no exception. What the year may have lacked in the high drama that accompanies comprehensive health reform…more

ACOs, Affordable Care Act, Anti-Kickback Statute, CMP Law, CMS

See All Updates »

Examining Return-To-Work Issues Under The FMLA

I frequently receive calls from clients involving an employee who is about to use up all of his medical leave, but who has little chance of returning to work — either at the end of his 12-week Family and Medical Leave Act leave…more

ADA, EEOC, Employer Liability Issues, FMLA, Interactive Process

See All Updates »

2014 – The Health Law Year in Review

Each year brings significant changes and challenges in the laws governing the health care industry, and 2014 proved to be no exception. What the year may have lacked in the high drama that accompanies comprehensive health reform…more

ACOs, Affordable Care Act, Anti-Kickback Statute, CMP Law, CMS

See All Updates »

The Sunshine Act Final Rule: CMS Sheds Light on Reporting Physician and Teaching Hospital Payments

On February 1, 2013, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) released a final rule implementing the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (the “Act”). The Act requires certain manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, and…more

Applicable Manufacturers, Biologics, CMS, Covered Recipients, Disclosure Requirements

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

The EEOC Turns 50: What Employers Can Expect In 2015

In 1964, the average income was $5,880. Minimum wage was $1.25/hour. You could buy a new home for $20,500, a new Ford Mustang for $2,360, and Congress passed The Civil Rights Act of 1964, creating the EEOC. This year the EEOC…more

Best Management Practices, EEOC, Employer Liability Issues, Harassment, Minimum Wage

See All Updates »

Alabama CON Report - April 2014

In this Issue: - I. Old Business - II. Certificate of Need Program - III. Reviewability Determinations and Pending Reviewability Determinations - III. New Business - Excerpt from Certificate of Need…more

Ambulatory Surgery Centers, Certificate of Need, Home Health Care, Hospitals, Inpatient Rehab Facilities

See All Updates »

FDIC Bars Financial Institutions from Purchasing Insurance Coverage for Civil Monetary Penalties for Directors and Officers: FDIC Reiterates its Prohibition in Financial Institution Letter 47-2013

We recently notified you of the FDIC’s Financial Institution Letter 47-2013 , which urges directors and officers of financial institutions to examine their institutions’ directors and officers (D&O) insurance coverage to ensure…more

Board of Directors, Civil Monetary Penalty, Corporate Counsel, Corporate Officers, D&O Insurance

See All Updates »

Legislation Targeting Non-Practicing Entities (NPEs) Passes in House by Comfortable Margin

On Thursday, December 5, 2013, the U.S. House of Representatives approved the “Innovation Act” (H.R. 3309), a bill principally aimed at curtailing certain patent infringement litigation practices of non-practicing entities…more

Disclosure Requirements, Discovery, Infringement, Innovation Act, Legal Costs

See All Updates »

Mississippi Legislature Overwhelmingly Approves Equifax Fix

Earlier this week the Mississippi Legislature approved the conference committee report on tax reform legislation (House Bill 799) that significantly changes Mississippi’s tax assessment and appeals procedures. Both the House and…more

Appeals, Apportionment, Pay-To-Play, Tax Assessment, Tax Penalties

See All Updates »

New Accounting Standards Could Profoundly Impact Incentives Transparency

Executive Summary - The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (“GASB”) has issued an exposure draft of a proposed statement (the “Statement”). The Statement, for the first time, would set uniform minimum disclosure…more

Accounting Standards, Disclosure Requirements, Financial Statements, GASB, Government Entities

See All Updates »

Tennessee Supreme Court Revisiting Summary Judgment Standard

On the heels of two new Justices joining the Tennessee Supreme Court, the Court has indicated its intention to reconsider the summary judgment standard set forth in Hannan v. Alltel Publishing Co., 270 S.W. 3d 1 (Tenn. 2008). In…more

Appeals, Pleading Standards, Summary Judgment

See All Updates »

Alabama CON Report - April 2014

In this Issue: - I. Old Business - II. Certificate of Need Program - III. Reviewability Determinations and Pending Reviewability Determinations - III. New Business - Excerpt from Certificate of Need…more

Ambulatory Surgery Centers, Certificate of Need, Home Health Care, Hospitals, Inpatient Rehab Facilities

See All Updates »

Rx for Data Breaches – Planning

Data breach reports have become a staple of the daily news. Companies of all sizes and across all industries are reporting breaches—whether caused by sophisticated third-party hackers or simple human error, such as a laptop…more

Corporate Counsel, Data Breach, Data Breach Plans, Risk Mitigation

See All Updates »

Sixth Circuit Examines Materiality and Government Knowledge under the FCA

As its name implies, the False Claims Act (FCA) prohibits false or fraudulent claims to the federal government. Broadly construed, the FCA can apply to anyone receiving federal funds, but it is especially critical to government…more

False Claims Act, Federal Contractors, Financial Institutions, Health Care Providers, Materiality

See All Updates »

Second Bite At Fla. Foreclosures May Not Be So Sweet

Financial services companies pursuing judicial foreclosures in Florida already face a host of unique and challenging hurdles. The varying and often court- or judge-specific procedural, substantive and evidentiary requirements…more

Accelerated Payments, Condominium Associations, Debt Collectors, Deutsche Bank, Foreclosure

See All Updates »

Tennessee CON Report - February 2014

In this Report: - I. February 2014—Tennessee Certificate of Need Meeting - A. Consent Agenda - B. Certificate of Need Review - C. General Counsel’s Report - II. Certificate of Need Program…more

Certificate of Need, Healthcare

See All Updates »

New ACA Rules Allow Employees a Second Trip Through the Cafeteria Plan Election Line

Under Notice 2014-55, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will now permit a cafeteria plan to allow an employee to revoke his election for coverage under the employer's group health plan in order to purchase a qualified health…more

Affordable Care Act, Cafeteria Plans, Flexible Spending Accounts, Healthcare, Healthcare Reform

See All Updates »

Don’t Be Bullied by a Patent Troll

One of our favorite stories growing up was the “Three Billy Goats Gruff,” the main character of which is a terrible troll who lived under a bridge. The troll tried to terrorize and eat three goats who just wanted to cross a…more

Infringement, Patent Trolls, Patents, USPTO

See All Updates »

After Heimeshoff: Applying An ERISA Plan’s Contractual Limitation of Actions Provision

In Heimeshoff v. Hartford Life & Acc. Ins. Co., 134 S.Ct. 604 (2013), the Supreme Court held that an ERISA plan’s contractual limitations period can be enforced, so long as the claimant has a reasonable time after exhausting his…more

Claims Limitations Period, Disability, Disability Insurance, ERISA, SCOTUS

See All Updates »

Reverse Payment Schemes Risk Antitrust Liability: U.S. Supreme Court Declines to Adopt Bright Line Test

A divided Supreme Court recently held in an opinion by Justice Breyer that “reverse payment” or “pay for delay” agreements between patent holders and potential competitors are not immune from scrutiny under antitrust laws…more

Antitrust Litigation, FDA, FTC, FTC v Actavis, Hatch-Waxman

See All Updates »

Subcontractor Working on a Federal Project in Tennessee Protected by Tennessee Prompt Pay Act

The operation and applicability of prompt pay acts in various states is something that contractors ignore to their detriment. A recent Tennessee case drives home the importance of understanding the applicability of any prompt…more

Construction Contracts, Construction Industry, Contract Disputes, Contractors, Prompt Payment

See All Updates »

Fourth Circuit Clarifies When a Regulatory Violation May Lead to a False Claims Act Violation

The U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals’ recent decision in United States ex rel. Rostholder v. Omnicare, Inc., reconfirms the well-founded principle that a civil False Claims Act (FCA) claim that is based on the defendant’s…more

False Claims Act, Healthcare, Omnicare, Pharmaceutical

See All Updates »

Sixth Circuit Examines Materiality and Government Knowledge under the FCA

As its name implies, the False Claims Act (FCA) prohibits false or fraudulent claims to the federal government. Broadly construed, the FCA can apply to anyone receiving federal funds, but it is especially critical to government…more

False Claims Act, Federal Contractors, Financial Institutions, Health Care Providers, Materiality

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

CFPB Issues Proposal to Amend Mortgage Servicing Rules

Yesterday, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) proposed additional amendments to Regulation X, which implements the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA), and Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in…more

CFPB, Mortgage Servicers, Mortgage Servicing Rules, Mortgages, Proposed Amendments

See All Updates »

Real Estate Newsletter - December 2013

The Alabama Supreme Court recently addressed whether a lender must own a mortgage when it initiates foreclosure proceedings and, if not, whether that would invalidate the ownership rights in the property that the lender obtained…more

Foreclosure, Mortgages, Real Estate Market

See All Updates »

EPA Extends Comment Period on Significant Proposed Rule Under the Clean Water Act

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) announced that it has extended the comment period on a proposed rule that has the potential to significantly expand the authority of the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers…more

Clean Water Act, EPA, Federal Jurisdiction, Public Comment, Rulemaking Process

See All Updates »

HIPAA and HITECH Privacy and Security Rule Update: Final Omnibus Rule

The Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”) of the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published today the much anticipated final omnibus rule implementing the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health…more

Business Associates, Compliance, Covered Entities, Data Breach, Data Protection

See All Updates »

The Patent Office Clarifies the Ban on Patenting Naturally-Derived Drugs and Other Products

Since the very beginning of America’s revolutionary patent system, inventors in the life sciences have been granted patents for discovering and purifying natural products. It was taken as a given that a purified natural product…more

AMP v Myriad, DNA, FDA, Legal History, Life Sciences

See All Updates »

Alabama CON Report - October 2013

In This Report: - I. Certificate of Need program - A. AL2013-060, Bio-Medical Applications of Alabama, Inc., d/b/a Fresenius Medical Care Foley, Foley, AL - B. AL2013-061, Renal Treatment…more

Certificate of Need

See All Updates »

HB16 Would Make Significant Changes to Economic Development in Alabama

Representative Patricia Todd (D-Birmingham) has introduced HB16, the Alabama Economic Development and Fiscal Accountability Act, for the upcoming legislative session that would make substantial changes to economic development in…more

Department of Revenue, Economic Development, Private Right of Action, Property Tax, Tax Incentives

See All Updates »

U.S. Supreme Court Ruling Opens the Door to More State-Law Securities Class Actions

Today, in a 7-2 decision with Justice Breyer writing for the majority, the Supreme Court issued a narrow interpretation of when the federal Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act (“SLUSA”) preempts state-law securities…more

Class Action, Corporate Counsel, Ponzi Scheme, Preemption, SCOTUS

See All Updates »

HIPAA and HITECH Privacy and Security Rule Update: Final Omnibus Rule

The Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”) of the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published today the much anticipated final omnibus rule implementing the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health…more

Business Associates, Compliance, Covered Entities, Data Breach, Data Protection

See All Updates »

Commonwealth of Kentucky enacts data breach notification law

On the heels of the widely publicized Target breach, states continue to enact legislation designed to provide notice to their citizens when a security breach involving personal data occurs. Kentucky is the latest state to join…more

Data Breach, New Legislation, Notice Requirements, Personally Identifiable Information, Target

See All Updates »

The Supreme Court Tightens Up State-Action Immunity: Justices Rule that Phoebe-Putney/Palmyra Transaction Is Not Immune from Antitrust Scrutiny

On February 19, 2013, the Supreme Court unanimously held that the effective acquisition of Palmyra Medical Center (“Palmyra”) by Phoebe Putney Health System, Inc. (“PPHS") in Southwestern Georgia was not immune from antitrust…more

FTC, FTC v. Phoebe Putney Health System, Government Entities, Governmental Immunity, Governmental Liability

See All Updates »

Defense of Marriage Act: What the U.S. Supreme Court’s Windsor Decision May Mean for Employer-Sponsored Benefit Plans

Now that the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in U.S. v. Windsor that the federal Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”) is an unconstitutional “deprivation of the equal liberty of persons that is protected by the Fifth Amendment of the…more

Discrimination, DOMA, Due Process, Employee Benefits, Equal Protection

See All Updates »

HIPAA and HITECH Privacy and Security Rule Update: Final Omnibus Rule

The Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”) of the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published today the much anticipated final omnibus rule implementing the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health…more

Business Associates, Compliance, Covered Entities, Data Breach, Data Protection

See All Updates »

Raging Bull Decision Riles Hollywood, Thrills Plaintiffs

In June, the Supreme Court issued a landmark decision affecting copyright claims and defenses. The copyrighted work at issue was the popular motion picture Raging Bull, in which Robert DeNiro plays famous boxing champion Jake…more

Affirmative Defenses, Copyright, Copyright Infringement, Laches, MGM

See All Updates »

2014 – The Health Law Year in Review

Each year brings significant changes and challenges in the laws governing the health care industry, and 2014 proved to be no exception. What the year may have lacked in the high drama that accompanies comprehensive health reform…more

ACOs, Affordable Care Act, Anti-Kickback Statute, CMP Law, CMS

See All Updates »

Supreme Court Opinion Calls into Question Hundreds of NLRB Rulings

On Thursday, June 26, 2014, the Supreme Court issued its long-awaited Noel Canning decision (NLRB v. Noel Canning, 572 U.S. ____ (2014)), and invalidated President Obama’s January 2012 appointments of three individuals to the…more

Albertsons, Banner Estrella Medical Center, Barack Obama, Canning v NLRB, Costco

See All Updates »

HIPAA and HITECH Privacy and Security Rule Update: Final Omnibus Rule

The Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”) of the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published today the much anticipated final omnibus rule implementing the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health…more

Business Associates, Compliance, Covered Entities, Data Breach, Data Protection

See All Updates »

Two Key Alabama Business Associations Announce Their 2015 State Tax Legislative Agendas

In preparation for the 2015 regular session of the Alabama Legislature, which begins Tuesday, March 3, one of Alabama’s most influential business and trade organizations, the 5,000-member Business Council of Alabama (BCA), has…more

Legislative Agendas, Tax Reform

See All Updates »

No Lawsuit Required to Rescind: U.S. Supreme Court Clarifies Mortgage Rescission Notification Requirements for Borrowers under TILA

Background of Notice versus Lawsuit Issue - The Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), as implemented by Regulation Z, provides borrowers with a powerful tool: the right to rescind certain mortgage loan transactions. This…more

Bank of America, Countrywide, Jesinoski v Countrywide, Mortgage Lenders, Mortgages

See All Updates »

Alabama CON Report - October 2013

In This Report: - I. Certificate of Need program - A. AL2013-060, Bio-Medical Applications of Alabama, Inc., d/b/a Fresenius Medical Care Foley, Foley, AL - B. AL2013-061, Renal Treatment…more

Certificate of Need

See All Updates »

CFPB Issues Compliance Guides for New TILA, RESPA, and ECOA Requirements

In January 2013, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) issued a number of new final rules to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”), and Equal…more

CFPB, Compliance, ECOA, RESPA, TILA

See All Updates »

U.S. Supreme Court Standardizes Standing Analysis for False-Advertising Claims Under the Lanham Act

On March 25, 2014, the Supreme Court held that false-advertising claims brought under the Lanham Act are not limited to direct competitors of the allegedly false advertiser. Instead, the Act authorizes any person to bring an…more

Copyright Infringement, False Advertising, Lanham Act, Lexmark, Lexmark v Static Control Components

See All Updates »

EEOC Releases Stats on 2014 Enforcement and Litigation

The EEOC recently released several data tables showing their activity in fiscal year 2014 (October 1, 2013 through September 30, 2014). The Commission received 88,778 charges of workplace discrimination during FY 2014, which is…more

EEOC, Enforcement Statistics

See All Updates »

The Importance of Providing Timely Notice to the Insurer

One of the most valuable assets a business owns is its insurance coverage. The goal when purchasing liability insurance—and regularly paying insurance premiums—is to have coverage when, for example, your business is faced with a…more

Business Assets, Commercial General Liability Policies, Liability Insurance, Notice Requirements, Risk Management

See All Updates »

6th Circ. Reminds Employers Of Collective Action Danger

Fair Labor Standards Act collective action cases have become big business for plaintiffs’ lawyers. A recent decision by the Sixth Circuit in Killion v. KeHe Distributors not only illustrates the point, but also limits the…more

Collective Actions, DOL, Employer Liability Issues, FLSA

See All Updates »

CFPB Report on Manufactured Housing Signals Areas of Future Concern

On Tuesday, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB” or the "Bureau") released a white paper summarizing their research on the manufactured housing industry. The Bureau relied upon information compiled by various…more

CFPB, Dodd-Frank, HMDA, HOEPA, Housing Market

See All Updates »

The Government Shutdown and its Effect on the Real Estate Market

On September 30, the federal government shut down or significantly reduced staffing for many of its programs because of Congress’ failure to pass a budget for this fiscal year. The shutdown appears set to affect the real estate…more

Fannie Mae, FHA, Freddie Mac, Government Shutdown, Mortgages

See All Updates »

EEOC Issues Controversial Updated Enforcement Guidance on Pregnancy Discrimination

For the first time in over 30 years, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) recently issued a comprehensive update to its guidelines on pregnancy discrimination. The EEOC’s Enforcement Guidance on Pregnancy…more

ADA, ADAAA, Discrimination, EEOC, Employer Liability Issues

See All Updates »

CON Law Amendments Ease Change of Ownership Transactions

This month, Alabama Governor Robert Bentley signed into law key revisions to the state’s Certificate of Need (CON) Laws that clarify and, we believe, will facilitate change of ownership transactions among health care providers…more

Acquisitions, Certificate of Need, Change of Ownership, Healthcare Facilities, LLC

See All Updates »

Alabama CON Report - April 2014

In this Issue: - I. Old Business - II. Certificate of Need Program - III. Reviewability Determinations and Pending Reviewability Determinations - III. New Business - Excerpt from Certificate of Need…more

Ambulatory Surgery Centers, Certificate of Need, Home Health Care, Hospitals, Inpatient Rehab Facilities

See All Updates »

False Claims Act: 2014 Year In Review

In what is becoming an annual refrain, 2014 marked another year of robust False Claims Act (FCA) enforcement by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and mushrooming qui tam lawsuits by whistleblowers. Indeed, fiscal year 2014…more

Bank of America, Banking Sector, Banks, BNP Paribas, DOJ

See All Updates »

EPA Extends Comment Period on Significant Proposed Rule Under the Clean Water Act

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) announced that it has extended the comment period on a proposed rule that has the potential to significantly expand the authority of the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers…more

Clean Water Act, EPA, Federal Jurisdiction, Public Comment, Rulemaking Process

See All Updates »

Implications of Final Regulations Under Internal Revenue Code Section 501(r)

The Internal Revenue Service replaced proposed regulations under Section 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) with final regulations in late 2014 (the “Final Regulations”). As enacted in the Patient Protection and…more

Affordable Care Act, CHNA, Exempt Organizations, Financial Assistance Policies, Healthcare

See All Updates »

Wanted: Applicants With A Criminal History And An Unprofessional Hairstyle

A combination of recent enforcement efforts by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and state-level legislators has employers scratching their heads about what they can and cannot consider when making hiring…more

Ban the Box, Criminal Background Checks, Discrimination, EEOC, Hiring & Firing

See All Updates »

Post-Accident Investigation Reports: Protecting Work Product

A workplace accident causes injury. In-house legal counsel edits the resulting post-accident investigation report and labels it “prepared in anticipation of litigation.” Many would assume without question that the report is…more

Accident Reports, Corporate Counsel, Internal Investigations, Work Product Privilege, Workers' Compensation Defense

See All Updates »

ERISA Retaliation Claims: Avoiding Potential Employer Pitfalls

Most employers and human resources professionals are well aware of the various federal discrimination statutes, including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Age Discrimination…more

Discrimination, Employee Benefits, Employee Definition, ERISA, FMLA

See All Updates »

Tennessee Tax Year in Review

Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP’s State and Local Tax Team would like to share our year-end review—revisiting some interesting Tennessee tax developments for 2014 and announcing our annual “Tennessee Tax Issue of the Year.”…more

Apportionment, Athletes, Fuel Tax, NBA, NHL

See All Updates »

Entrepreneurship: New Idea or Just Old-fashioned Problem Solving?

It seems to me that every other business article written today, in one way or another, touches on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Many of us throw the terms around in our everyday conversations, including myself recently…more

Entrepreneurs, Innovation, Startups

See All Updates »

Florida Hospital to Settle Stark Law Case for $85 Million: Tentative settlement between Halifax Hospital Medical Center and United States will end much-watched case alleging violations of False Claims Act

The Department of Justice and Florida’s Halifax Hospital Medical Center have reached a tentative $85 million settlement in a case alleging violations of the federal physician self-referral law (commonly known as the “Stark Law”)…more

False Claims Act, Healthcare, Hospitals, Settlement, Stark Law

See All Updates »

The Unrecognized Sole-Source Requirement: A Lesson in Failing to Understand the Specifications

In the recent decision of CMEC/ARC Electric JV v. Dep’t of Veterans Affairs, the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals (CBCA) denied a contractor’s claims for defective specifications when the performance specification at issue…more

CBCA, Contractors, Department of Veterans Affairs, Sole Source Contracts, Subcontractors

See All Updates »

HIPAA and HITECH Privacy and Security Rule Update: Final Omnibus Rule

The Office of Civil Rights (“OCR”) of the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published today the much anticipated final omnibus rule implementing the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health…more

Business Associates, Compliance, Covered Entities, Data Breach, Data Protection

See All Updates »

Implications of Final Regulations Under Internal Revenue Code Section 501(r)

The Internal Revenue Service replaced proposed regulations under Section 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) with final regulations in late 2014 (the “Final Regulations”). As enacted in the Patient Protection and…more

Affordable Care Act, CHNA, Exempt Organizations, Financial Assistance Policies, Healthcare

See All Updates »

U.S. Supreme Court Clarifies Timing for Appeal of Individual Case Dismissed Within Consolidated Multidistrict Litigation Proceeding

On January 21, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Gelboim v. Bank of America Corp., No. 13-1174, a case involving the timing for an appeal of an individual case that has been dismissed within a consolidated…more

Antitrust Litigation, Bank of America, Case Consolidation, Class Action, Gelboim v Bank of America

See All Updates »

The Sunshine Act Final Rule: CMS Sheds Light on Reporting Physician and Teaching Hospital Payments

On February 1, 2013, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) released a final rule implementing the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (the “Act”). The Act requires certain manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, and…more

Applicable Manufacturers, Biologics, CMS, Covered Recipients, Disclosure Requirements

See All Updates »

DOL Settlement Is a Cautionary Tale for ESOP Trustees

The Department of Labor (DOL) recently settled a case involving an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) that provides guidance but also a warning for trustees and employers contemplating ESOP transactions that later go awry. In…more

Appraisal, DOL, Employer Liability Issues, ESOP, GreatBanc

See All Updates »

CFPB Issues Proposal to Amend Mortgage Servicing Rules

Yesterday, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) proposed additional amendments to Regulation X, which implements the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA), and Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in…more

CFPB, Mortgage Servicers, Mortgage Servicing Rules, Mortgages, Proposed Amendments

See All Updates »

Digital Imports: Should Downloads Be Subject to the Tariff Act?

On April 3, the International Trade Commission (ITC) ruled that the agency has jurisdiction to police digital transmission for intellectual property infringement. The ITC hears trade disputes regarding “articles” imported into…more

Digital Goods, Digital Media, Illegal Imports, Imports, Infringement

See All Updates »

No Damages for Delay Exceptions: Active Interference?

While a contractor generally has a right to a time extension and damages stemming from a delay caused by the owner, the owner (or general contractor if the harmed party is a subcontractor) may be able to assert several defenses…more

Active Interference, Construction Contracts, Construction Industry, Construction Project, Contractors

See All Updates »

Update: Finding the Earliest and Least Expensive Exit from Financial Services Class Actions

In this Newsletter: - Gather The Facts And Assess The Risk Up Front. - If The Class Action Is Filed In State Court, Think Strategically About Whether To Remove. - Invest Time, Effort And Resources In…more

Class Action, Litigation Strategies

See All Updates »

Florida Hospital to Settle Stark Law Case for $85 Million: Tentative settlement between Halifax Hospital Medical Center and United States will end much-watched case alleging violations of False Claims Act

The Department of Justice and Florida’s Halifax Hospital Medical Center have reached a tentative $85 million settlement in a case alleging violations of the federal physician self-referral law (commonly known as the “Stark Law”)…more

False Claims Act, Healthcare, Hospitals, Settlement, Stark Law

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

What’s Mine is Not Yours: Former Officers and Directors and a Corporation’s Attorney–Client Privilege

An officer or director’s company exit often feels like a divorce, with post-departure monetary payments and document-custody issues dominating the immediate aftermath. Companies are quick to enforce non-compete agreements and…more

Attorney-Client Privilege, Board of Directors, Confidentiality, Corporate Counsel, Corporate Officers

See All Updates »

Government Contractor Exemption Bill Passes House

On April 9, the House of Representatives passed HB 419 on a vote of 89-6. The bill, sponsored by Representative Paul DeMarco (R-Homewood) among others and championed by the Alabama Chapter of the Associated Builders &…more

Contractors, Department of Revenue, Exemptions, Government Entities, Proposed Legislation

See All Updates »

Tennessee CON Report - February 2014

In this Report: - I. February 2014—Tennessee Certificate of Need Meeting - A. Consent Agenda - B. Certificate of Need Review - C. General Counsel’s Report - II. Certificate of Need Program…more

Certificate of Need, Healthcare

See All Updates »

Alternative Approaches to Alternative Design: Understanding the Reasonable Alternative Design Requirement and Its Different Applications

In 1997, the American Law Institute (ALI) adopted the final draft of its Restatement (Third) of Torts on the topic of product liability. The most notable—and controversial—feature of the ALI’s work was its requirement that…more

American Law Institute, Design Defects

See All Updates »

Are Transgender Individuals Protected Under Title VII’s Ban on Sex Discrimination?

Leyth Jamal, a former employee of the upscale retailer Saks, claims that she was discriminated against because of her transgender status. Jamal v. Saks & Company has sparked a heated debate over whether transgender individuals…more

Adverse Employment Action, Discrimination, DOJ, EEOC, Employer Liability Issues

See All Updates »

Alabama Receives Significant Upgrade from COST on State Tax Due Process Scorecard

On December 17, the Council On State Taxation (COST) announced that Alabama’s grade in their “Best and Worst of State Tax Administration” scorecard on Tax Appeals and Procedural Requirements, otherwise known as the “Due Process…more

Due Process, Income Taxes, State Taxes, Tax Appeals

See All Updates »

Details of Governor Bill Haslam’s “Revenue Modernization Act” Emerge: Broad-Sweeping Tax Proposals to all Major Tennessee Taxes

The Administration introduced the “Revenue Modernization Act” on February 11 in the Senate Finance Committee, and the proposal includes numerous modifications to all Tennessee’s major taxes, including economic nexus, click-thru…more

Bill Haslam, Proposed Legislation, Tax Reform

See All Updates »

Mississippi CON Report - April 2014

In this Report: I. March 2014 – Mississippi Certificate of Need Meeting II. Certificate of Need Program Report – Filings/Reports Since February 2014 - A. Letters of Intent to Change Ownership - B…more

Certificate of Need, Extensions, Hospitals, Inpatient Rehab Facilities, Letters of Intent

See All Updates »

SEC Issues Stern Reminder for Timely Filing of Beneficial Ownership Reports

After years of little enforcement action, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a press release yesterday announcing charges against 28 officers, directors, or major shareholders for violating federal securities…more

Beneficial Owner, Deadlines, Directors, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

False Claims Act: 2014 Year In Review

In what is becoming an annual refrain, 2014 marked another year of robust False Claims Act (FCA) enforcement by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and mushrooming qui tam lawsuits by whistleblowers. Indeed, fiscal year 2014…more

Bank of America, Banking Sector, Banks, BNP Paribas, DOJ

See All Updates »

House Ways and Means Chair Camp Releases Comprehensive Tax Reform Proposal

As expected, House Ways and Means Committee Chair Dave Camp (R-Mich.) released his long-awaited tax reform discussion draft on Wednesday, February 26, in which he seeks to lower the individual and corporate tax rates as well as…more

Corporate Taxes, Excise Tax, Income Taxes, Tax Reform, Ways and Means Committee

See All Updates »

SEC Issues Stern Reminder for Timely Filing of Beneficial Ownership Reports

After years of little enforcement action, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a press release yesterday announcing charges against 28 officers, directors, or major shareholders for violating federal securities…more

Beneficial Owner, Deadlines, Directors, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

Defense of Marriage Act: What the U.S. Supreme Court’s Windsor Decision May Mean for Employer-Sponsored Benefit Plans

Now that the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in U.S. v. Windsor that the federal Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”) is an unconstitutional “deprivation of the equal liberty of persons that is protected by the Fifth Amendment of the…more

Discrimination, DOMA, Due Process, Employee Benefits, Equal Protection

See All Updates »

‘Guns in Trunks’ and Franchisor Liability Highlight Proposed Tennessee Employment Law Changes

Barring the firing of an employee for legally bringing a firearm to work and liability protection for franchisors highlight the employment law proposals on the Tennessee legislature’s agenda for this year. …more

Employer Liability Issues, Franchises, Guns-in-Trunks Legislation, Liability, Pending Legislation

See All Updates »

California Expands the Duty of Professional Consultants

Professional consultants and sub-consultants provide essential services to a Project during its planning, design, construction, and acceptance. In some jurisdictions, they enjoy protections from liability for “economic losses”…more

Bodily Injury, Construction Industry, Construction Project, Consultants, Negligence

See All Updates »

FHFA Releases New Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac Instructions on Single-Family Seller/Servicer Oversight

On December 1, 2014, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) released a new advisory bulletin with significant implications for “all entities that sell single-family mortgage loans to [Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac] or perform…more

Audits, Banks, Fannie Mae, FHFA, Financial Institutions

See All Updates »

BABC Attorneys Author Amicus Brief on Behalf of DRI Regarding Tibble Case in United States Supreme Court

In Tibble v Edison International, Plaintiffs brought fiduciary duty claims against Edison International for alleged mismanagement of Edison’s 401(k) Plan. Plaintiffs’ claims centered upon the fact that the Plan’s investment…more

401k, Employer Liability Issues, ERISA, Fiduciary Duty, SCOTUS

See All Updates »

False Claims Act: 2014 Year In Review

In what is becoming an annual refrain, 2014 marked another year of robust False Claims Act (FCA) enforcement by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and mushrooming qui tam lawsuits by whistleblowers. Indeed, fiscal year 2014…more

Bank of America, Banking Sector, Banks, BNP Paribas, DOJ

See All Updates »

Construction and Procurement Law News - First Quarter 2014

In this Issue: - Federal Circuit’s Metcalf Decision a Big Win for Contractors - Government Defenses of Defective Certification and the Severin Doctrine not a Silver Bullet - Are No-Damage-for-Delay…more

CBCA, Federal Contractors, Federal Procurement Systems, HHS, Licenses

See All Updates »

Tennessee Property Tax Assessment Appeals: Davidson County in Reappraisal Year

With Davidson County and several other Tennessee counties in reappraisal years, we remind Tennessee property owners that now is the time to request an appointment to appeal real or personal property assessments if you disagree…more

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

The Government Shutdown and its Effect on the Real Estate Market

On September 30, the federal government shut down or significantly reduced staffing for many of its programs because of Congress’ failure to pass a budget for this fiscal year. The shutdown appears set to affect the real estate…more

Fannie Mae, FHA, Freddie Mac, Government Shutdown, Mortgages

See All Updates »

Tennessee Adopts Expansive Trade Secret Preemption Standard

In a case of first impression decided August 19, 2014, the Tennessee Court of Appeals has decided the standard for determining the scope of preemption under the Tennessee Uniform Trade Secrets Act (TUTSA). The court adopted a…more

Misappropriation, Preemption, Trade Secrets, UTSA

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

BABC Attorneys Author Amicus Brief on Behalf of DRI Regarding Tibble Case in United States Supreme Court

In Tibble v Edison International, Plaintiffs brought fiduciary duty claims against Edison International for alleged mismanagement of Edison’s 401(k) Plan. Plaintiffs’ claims centered upon the fact that the Plan’s investment…more

401k, Employer Liability Issues, ERISA, Fiduciary Duty, SCOTUS

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

BABC eDiscovery Newsletter - April 2013

In this issue: - The Firm’s Ediscovery Team Attorneys - Case Insights - Editor’s Corner - Excerpt from Peerless Industries, Inc. v. Crimson Av, LLC, Case No. 1:11-cv-1768, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2985…more

Clawback Agreements, Document Productions, Document Review, Email, Record Preservation

See All Updates »

Alstom Guilty Plea Sends Strong Message that DOJ Has Harsh View of Inadequate Internal Controls and Failure to Fully Cooperate

On December 22, 2014, French power and transportation company Alstom S.A. (“Alstom”) pleaded guilty to violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and agreed to pay $772.29 million, the largest criminal fine ever…more

Alstom, Books & Records, Bribery, C-Suite Executives, China

See All Updates »

The Sunshine Act Final Rule: CMS Sheds Light on Reporting Physician and Teaching Hospital Payments

On February 1, 2013, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) released a final rule implementing the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (the “Act”). The Act requires certain manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, and…more

Applicable Manufacturers, Biologics, CMS, Covered Recipients, Disclosure Requirements

See All Updates »

’Tis the Season of Giving, Right?

We all think of December as the season of giving. Unfortunately, prevailing defendants in Title VII cases don’t always feel that way. Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, prevailing plaintiffs enjoy compensatory…more

Attorney's Fees, Civil Rights Act, Damages, Discrimination, Injunctions

See All Updates »

Wrap-Up of Alabama Legislature Actions

The Alabama Legislature adjourned near midnight on May 20, closing a session that saw lawmakers grant final passage of the two operating budgets and of amendments to the controversial Alabama Accountability Act. With respect to…more

Foreclosure, Income Taxes, New Legislation, Property Tax, Sales & Use Tax

See All Updates »

Big Changes to Federal Jurisdiction over Waters of the U.S. through the Clean Water Act

On March 25, 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (“USACE”) announced the release of their proposed rule redefining what waters fall under federal jurisdiction under the…more

Clean Water Act, EPA, Federal Jurisdiction, Jurisdiction, Mining

See All Updates »

Avoiding personal liability amidst heightened AML enforcement

In February 2014, the Financial Industry Regulation Authority (FINRA), the self-regulatory body for the U.S. securities industry, suspended a former global anti-money laundering compliance officer at Brown Brothers Harriman &…more

Anti-Money Laundering, Bank Secrecy Act, Chief Compliance Officers, Corporate Culture, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

Tennessee CON Report - November 2013

In this Report: - I. November 2013 — Tennessee Certificate of Need Meeting - A. Emergency Certificate of Need Review - B. General Counsel’s Report - C. Agency Review of Administrative Law Judge’s…more

Certificate of Need, Healthcare, Hospitals, Medicare

See All Updates »

Two Key Alabama Business Associations Announce Their 2015 State Tax Legislative Agendas

In preparation for the 2015 regular session of the Alabama Legislature, which begins Tuesday, March 3, one of Alabama’s most influential business and trade organizations, the 5,000-member Business Council of Alabama (BCA), has…more

Legislative Agendas, Tax Reform

See All Updates »

Construction and Procurement Law News - First Quarter 2014

In this Issue: - Federal Circuit’s Metcalf Decision a Big Win for Contractors - Government Defenses of Defective Certification and the Severin Doctrine not a Silver Bullet - Are No-Damage-for-Delay…more

CBCA, Federal Contractors, Federal Procurement Systems, HHS, Licenses

See All Updates »

SEC Issues Stern Reminder for Timely Filing of Beneficial Ownership Reports

After years of little enforcement action, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a press release yesterday announcing charges against 28 officers, directors, or major shareholders for violating federal securities…more

Beneficial Owner, Deadlines, Directors, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

EPA Extends Comment Period on Significant Proposed Rule Under the Clean Water Act

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) announced that it has extended the comment period on a proposed rule that has the potential to significantly expand the authority of the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers…more

Clean Water Act, EPA, Federal Jurisdiction, Public Comment, Rulemaking Process

See All Updates »

Defense of Marriage Act: What the U.S. Supreme Court’s Windsor Decision May Mean for Employer-Sponsored Benefit Plans

Now that the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in U.S. v. Windsor that the federal Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”) is an unconstitutional “deprivation of the equal liberty of persons that is protected by the Fifth Amendment of the…more

Discrimination, DOMA, Due Process, Employee Benefits, Equal Protection

See All Updates »

Tennessee Adopts Expansive Trade Secret Preemption Standard

In a case of first impression decided August 19, 2014, the Tennessee Court of Appeals has decided the standard for determining the scope of preemption under the Tennessee Uniform Trade Secrets Act (TUTSA). The court adopted a…more

Misappropriation, Preemption, Trade Secrets, UTSA

See All Updates »

General Contractors Beware: Coverage Under Additional-Insured Endorsement to Subcontractor’s CGL Policy May End When Subcontractor’s Work Is Complete

Within the past four months, two courts interpreting Mississippi law have held that an additional-insured endorsement to a subcontractor’s commercial general liability (CGL) insurance policy did not obligate the insurer to…more

Additional Insured Endorsements, Commercial General Liability Policies, Condominiums, Construction Contracts, Construction Defects

See All Updates »

Update: Banks Must Protect Depositors' Social Security and Other Federal Benefits from Garnishments - Treasury Issues Final Rule

The U.S. Treasury and four other federal agencies jointly issued their final rule1requiring depository institutions to protect up to two months’ worth of their depositors’ direct deposits of Social Security and certain other…more

Bank Accounts, Depository Institutions, Garnishment, Pensions, Social Security Benefits

See All Updates »

Unchecked: How Frazier v. CitiFinancial Eliminated Judicially Created Grounds for Vacatur Under the Federal Arbitration Act

Arbitration agreements play a pivotal role in resolving civil disputes. In an effort to avoid the time and expense of litigation, arbitration is often favored over traditional judicial remedies. In 1925, Congress passed the…more

Arbitration, Arbitration Agreements, Arbitration Awards, Federal Arbitration Act, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

See All Updates »

Second Bite At Fla. Foreclosures May Not Be So Sweet

Financial services companies pursuing judicial foreclosures in Florida already face a host of unique and challenging hurdles. The varying and often court- or judge-specific procedural, substantive and evidentiary requirements…more

Accelerated Payments, Condominium Associations, Debt Collectors, Deutsche Bank, Foreclosure

See All Updates »

Charitable Planning with S Corporation Stock—Making It Work

Since 1998, charities have been able to own S corporation stock (“S stock”). However, the ownership of S stock by an exempt organization may result in either an unexpected tax burden or a liability rather than an asset for the…more

Charitable Donations, Charitable Organizations, Charitable Trusts, Corporate Tax Rates, Estate Tax

See All Updates »

SEC Issues Stern Reminder for Timely Filing of Beneficial Ownership Reports

After years of little enforcement action, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a press release yesterday announcing charges against 28 officers, directors, or major shareholders for violating federal securities…more

Beneficial Owner, Deadlines, Directors, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

SEC Issues Stern Reminder for Timely Filing of Beneficial Ownership Reports

After years of little enforcement action, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a press release yesterday announcing charges against 28 officers, directors, or major shareholders for violating federal securities…more

Beneficial Owner, Deadlines, Directors, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

Bankruptcy 101 for Intellectual Property Licenses

Generally, license agreements are “executory contracts” in bankruptcy. Executory means performance is due from both sides. When a party to an executory contract becomes a debtor in bankruptcy, it may either reject or assume the…more

Assignments, Executory Contracts, License Agreements, Licenses, Trademarks

See All Updates »

FHFA Releases New Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac Instructions on Single-Family Seller/Servicer Oversight

On December 1, 2014, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) released a new advisory bulletin with significant implications for “all entities that sell single-family mortgage loans to [Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac] or perform…more

Audits, Banks, Fannie Mae, FHFA, Financial Institutions

See All Updates »

The Legal Maze of Solar Globalisation

As the utility-scale solar market continues to expand and globalise, project developers and engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractors increasingly find themselves considering unfamiliar jurisdictions. A new…more

Energy Projects, Entrepreneurs, EPC Contractor, Foreign Investment, Risk Assessment

See All Updates »

Mississippi Legislature Overwhelmingly Approves Equifax Fix

Earlier this week the Mississippi Legislature approved the conference committee report on tax reform legislation (House Bill 799) that significantly changes Mississippi’s tax assessment and appeals procedures. Both the House and…more

Appeals, Apportionment, Pay-To-Play, Tax Assessment, Tax Penalties

See All Updates »

Real Estate Newsletter - December 2013

The Alabama Supreme Court recently addressed whether a lender must own a mortgage when it initiates foreclosure proceedings and, if not, whether that would invalidate the ownership rights in the property that the lender obtained…more

Foreclosure, Mortgages, Real Estate Market

See All Updates »

The Demise of the Economic Loss Rule in Construction Defect Litigation

The Massachusetts Supreme Court recently held in Wyman v. Ayer Properties, LLC, that the “economic loss rule is not applicable to the damage caused to the common areas of a condominium building as a result of the builder’s…more

Condominiums, Construction Contracts, Construction Defects, Construction Industry, Construction Project

See All Updates »

HUD Issues New Rules about Surviving Spouses Following Death of Reverse Mortgage Borrower

For the past year and a half, mortgagees of FHA-insured Home Equity Conversion Mortgages (“HECMs”), commonly referred to as reverse mortgages, have had to grapple with issues related to the foreclosure of homes occupied by…more

Foreclosure, HECM, HUD, Mortgages, New Regulations

See All Updates »

Are We Being Punked? EEOC Files Disability Discrimination Claim Against Disability Services Provider

The EEOC has filed a lawsuit (EEOC v. ValleyLife, Civil Action No. 2:15-cv-00340-GMS) under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) against ValleyLife, a disability support services company in Arizona, claiming that ValleyLife…more

ADA, Disability Discrimination, EEOC, Employer Liability Issues, Enforcement Actions

See All Updates »

Areas of Practice
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
  • Antitrust & Trade Regulation
  • Appellate Practice
  • Art, Entertainment, & Sports Law
  • Bankruptcy
  • Business Organizations
  • Business Torts
  • Class Action
  • Commercial Law & Contracts
  • Communications & Media Law
  • Construction Law
  • Energy & Utilities
  • Environmental Law
  • Finance & Banking
  • Government
  • Health
  • Immigration Law
  • Insurance
  • Intellectual Property
  • International Law & Trade
  • Labor & Employment Law
  • Litigation
  • Mergers & Acquisitions
  • Privacy
  • Products Liability
  • Professional Malpractice
  • Real Estate
  • Science, Computers, & Tech
  • Securities Law
  • Taxation
  • Toxic Torts
  • Wills, Trusts, & Estate Planning
  • Zoning, Planning & Land Use
See more
Locations
Other U.S. Locations
  • Alabama
  • D.C.
  • Florida
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • Tennessee
Number of Attorneys

400+ Attorneys

This profile may constitute attorney advertising. Prior results do not guarantee a similar outcome. Any correspondence with this profile holder does not constitute a client/attorney relationship. Neither the content on this profile nor transmissions between you and the profile holder through this profile are intended to provide legal or other advice or to create an attorney-client relationship.