Foley Hoag LLP

Seaport West 155 Seaport Boulevard
Boston, MA 02210, United States

Contact: Jasmine Trillos-Decarie

  • 617-832-1000
  • 617-832-7000

The Massachusetts Securities Division Settlement with Citigroup: What Does It Mean?

A recent Massachusetts Securities Division $30 million settlement with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (“CGMI”) provides a public glimpse into a less-widely known form of non-public information – a research analyst’s preview of…more

Apple, Broker-Dealer, Citigroup, Financial Analysts, Hedge Funds

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H.R. 4842: New Bill Calls for Transparency on Trafficking and Slavery in Corporate Supply Chains

On June 11, Representative Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) introduced H.R. 4842, the Business Supply Chain Transparency on Trafficking and Slavery Act of 2014. The bill, if passed, would require companies to file annual reports with the…more

Disclosure Requirements, Human Rights, Human Trafficking, Proposed Legislation, SEC

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First Circuit Holds that Variable “Per Diem” Payments May be Part of an Employee’s Regular Rate of Pay for Calculating Overtime

On April 18, 2014, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit held in Newman v. Advanced Technology Innovation Corp., that a per diem payment that is based on the number of hours worked by an employee must be considered…more

Employment Policies, FLSA, Per Diem, Wage and Hour

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Massachusetts Conducting Cybersecurity Practices Survey of Massachusetts-Registered Investment Advisers

On June 3, 2014, the Massachusetts Securities Division released a survey to assess cybersecurity readiness and practices of Massachusetts-registered investment advisers…more

Cybersecurity, Investment Adviser, Privacy Concerns, Risk Assessment

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SEC Proposes Rules for Pay Ratio Disclosure

On September 18, 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission proposed amendments to Item 402 of Regulation S-K (Item 402) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) that will require issuers to disclose the ratio…more

CEOs, Disclosure Requirements, Pay Ratio, Regulation S-K, SEC

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Milk Dud? False Advertising Lawsuit Against Makers of Muscle Milk Illustrates Interplay Between Lanham Act, FTC and FDA

In a lawsuit recently filed in the Southern District of Florida, Global Beverage Enterprises, Inc. (“Global”), the manufacturer of specialty carbonated beverages like Mr. Q. Cumber Sparkling Cucumber Beverage, brought Lanham Act…more

False Advertising, FDA, Food Labeling, FTC, Lanham Act

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Federal Appeals Court Largely Upholds Conflict Minerals Rules

On April 14, 2014, the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit issued its much anticipated decision regarding the challenge to the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Conflict Minerals Rules. The Court largely…more

Conflict Mineral Rules, First Amendment, SEC, Securities Litigation

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Supreme Court Allows Closely Held Corporations to Invoke Religious Objections Against Providing Employee Contraceptive Coverage

In a 5-4 decision, the United State Supreme Court ruled Monday in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., that closely held for-profit corporations may invoke religious objections to exclude contraceptive coverage from the health…more

Affordable Care Act, Burwell v Hobby Lobby, Contraceptive Coverage Mandate, Contraceptives, Hobby Lobby

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Massachusetts DOER Releases Draft SREC II Regulations

The Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (MA DOER) has released draft regulations for its SREC II solar program. The regulations are the latest step toward implementing the Commonwealth’s goal to install a total of 1.6…more

Clean Energy, Energy, Energy Policy, Power Plants, Solar Energy

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Policy Statement Released Concerning the Custody Rule for Massachusetts-Registered Investment Advisers

In light of custody-related deficiencies identified by the Massachusetts Securities Division in recent examinations of Massachusetts-registered investment advisers, the Division released a Policy Statement on November 14, 2013…more

Compliance, Custody Rule, Investment Adviser, Verification Requirements

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Supreme Court Revises Rules for Private Securities Class Actions

On June 23, 2014, in its widely anticipated ruling in Halliburton Co. v. Erica P. John Fund, the U.S. Supreme Court revised the ground rules for private securities class actions under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act…more

Basic v Levinson, Class Certification, Fraud, Fraud-on-the-Market, Halliburton

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Divided TTAB Panel Once Again Finds REDSKINS Trademarks Disparaging

In a ruling sure to generate heated discussion in the sports world, the trademark community and elsewhere, a divided panel of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) has ruled that six registered marks including the term…more

Redskins, Trademark Litigation, Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, Trademarks

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Sold-Out RGGI Auction Triggers Cost Containment Reserve (Which Sells Out, Too)

Last week’s auction of CO2 allowances by the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) was the 23rd in the program’s history, but the first auction under the new RGGI rules and reduced cap. The new rules undoubtedly explain why…more

Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Carbon Emissions, Cost-Containment, Environmental Policies, Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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MassDEP Proposes Amendments to CO2 Budget Trading Regs to Implement RGGI Program Changes

On Friday, MassDEP released for public review and comment draft amendments to the CO2 Budget Trading Program regulations. These amendments are designed to implement the changes to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)…more

Cap-and-Trade, Department of Environmental Protection, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, State Budgets

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Venture Perspectives - New England Edition: Fourth Quarter and Year 2013

In This Issue: - Activity Level of 2013 New England Transactions - All Rounds - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level of New…more

Equity Transactions, Seed Financing, Series A, Series B, Venture Capital

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Supreme Court Decision Invites More Challenges to Patent Claims as Indefinite

On Monday, in Nautilus Inc. v. Biosig Instruments, the United States Supreme Court unanimously set aside the Federal Circuit’s indefiniteness standard, potentially easing the way for defendants to invalidate ambiguous patent…more

America Invents Act, Claim Construction, Indefiniteness, Nautilus Inc. v. Biosig Instruments, Patent Infringement

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In Riley v. California, Supreme Court Rules Police Must Obtain Warrant before Searching Cell Phones

In a unanimous decision issued last week, the Supreme Court ruled that police cannot search the cell phones of arrested individuals without a warrant. In reaching its decision, the Court recognized that there is an immense…more

Cell Phones, Evidence, Fourth Amendment, Law Enforcement, Riley v California

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Summary of Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule Reform Provisions in the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014

On April 1, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 was enacted into law (Pub. L. 113-93). Section 216, entitled Improving Medicare Policies for Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests, modernizes the Medicare payment system…more

CLFS, Clinical Laboratories, GAO, Medicare, OIG

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Federal Circuit Holds that A Good-Faith Belief in Patent Invalidity Is a Defense to Claims of Inducing Patent Infringement

This week, the Federal Circuit issued an important decision for device manufacturers, developers, service providers, and any other company that might be targeted as an “indirect” patent infringer based on customers' use of their…more

Contributory Infringement, Good Faith, Infringement, Patents, Validity

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FBAR Filing Deadline Approaching

Reports Due by the End of June - Every U.S. person that had a financial interest in, or signature or other authority over, a foreign financial account during 2013 must electronically file with the U.S. Treasury Department…more

FBAR, Filing Deadlines, FinCEN, Foreign Investment, Offshore Funds

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Massachusetts Enacts New Biosimilars Substitution Law

On June 23, 2014, Governor Deval Patrick signed into law House Bill 3734, “An Act Relative to the Substitution of Interchangeable Biosimilars” (now Chapter 143 of the Acts of 2014). The new Act authorizes pharmacists to…more

Biosimilars, Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical, Prescription Drugs

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What Did the Court Really Say About Patent Eligibility?

Implications of Alice v. CLS Bank - Late last week, the United States Supreme Court decided Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Int’l, et al., a case the technology community had hoped would clarify what kinds of software…more

Alice Corporation, CLS Bank, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Patent Infringement, Patent Litigation

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SEC Issues No-Action Letter on the Definition of Knowledgeable Employee

On February 7, 2014 the staff of the Division of Investment Management of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) issued a no-action letter to the Managed Funds Association (the “No-Action Letter”), providing guidance…more

Actual or Constructive Knowledge, Investment Company Act of 1940, No-Action Letters, SEC

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Divided Infringement Steps into the Limelight

Implications of Limelight v. Akamai - The United States Supreme Court ruled Monday that a defendant cannot be liable for inducing infringement unless the induced party directly infringed the patent. This means, under…more

Akamai Technologies, En Banc Review, Induced Infringement, Limelight Networks, Mayo v. Prometheus

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FICA Tax “Holiday” Ends With 2012, and Social Security and Medicare Contributions Increase For Some Employees

On January 1, 2013, Congress approved the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the bill designed to avert the so-called “fiscal cliff.” The Act, which President Obama signed into law yesterday, extended certain tax relief…more

Affordable Care Act, American Taxpayer Relief Act, FICA Taxes, Fiscal Cliff, Medicare Taxes

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Guidance About Title IX: White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault Releases its First Report

In a report released Tuesday, the White House task force on sexual assaults outlined five action steps and recommendations for ensuring compliance with Title IX and protecting students on college and university campuses from…more

Colleges, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions, OCR, Rape

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The Massachusetts Securities Division Settlement with Citigroup: What Does It Mean?

A recent Massachusetts Securities Division $30 million settlement with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (“CGMI”) provides a public glimpse into a less-widely known form of non-public information – a research analyst’s preview of…more

Apple, Broker-Dealer, Citigroup, Financial Analysts, Hedge Funds

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U.S. Department of Labor Proposes to Change Rule Regarding Who Is a Same-Sex Spouse under the FMLA

On Friday, June 20, 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”) announced its intention to change the regulatory definition of who is a “spouse” for purposes of the Family Medical Leave Act (“FMLA”). The impetus for the proposed…more

DOL, DOMA, Employer Liability Issues, FMLA, OMB

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Venture Perspectives - New England Edition: Fourth Quarter and Year 2013

In This Issue: - Activity Level of 2013 New England Transactions - All Rounds - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level of New…more

Equity Transactions, Seed Financing, Series A, Series B, Venture Capital

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Massachusetts Nonprofit Annual Reports Due November 1, 2013

As a reminder, nonprofit organizations incorporated or operating in The Commonwealth of Massachusetts have until Friday, November 1, 2013 to file their annual reports with the Secretary of the Commonwealth. Nonprofit annual…more

Annual Reports, Non-Profits, Reporting Requirements

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Supreme Court Rules Recess Appointments of NLRB Members Unconstitutional

On June 26, 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court held in National Labor Relations Board v. Noel Canning that President Obama’s use of recess appointments to fill three vacancies on the National Labor Relations Board in January 2012 was…more

Barack Obama, Canning v NLRB, NLRB, Recess Appointments, SCOTUS

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What Did the Court Really Say About Patent Eligibility?

Implications of Alice v. CLS Bank - Late last week, the United States Supreme Court decided Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Int’l, et al., a case the technology community had hoped would clarify what kinds of software…more

Alice Corporation, CLS Bank, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Patent Infringement, Patent Litigation

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U. S. Supreme Court Clarifies Fiduciaries’ Duty of Prudence Under ERISA In Connection with Employee Stock Ownership Plans

On June 24, 2014, a unanimous Supreme Court held in Fifth Third Bancorp v. Dudenhoeffer that fiduciaries to an employee stock ownership plan (“ESOP”) were not entitled to a presumption under the Employee Retirement Income…more

ERISA, ESOP, Fiduciary Duty, FIfth Third Bancorp v Dudenhoeffer, Fifth Third Mortgage Company

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USCIS Will Begin Accepting New H-1B Filings on April 1 for Fiscal Year 2015

On April 1, 2014, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (“USCIS”) will begin accepting new H-1B petitions for employment commencing on October 1, 2014. New H-1B petitions are subject to an annual limit of 65,000 new…more

Foreign Workers, H-1B, USCIS, Visa Caps, Visas

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CFTC 4.13(a)(3) Annual Affirmations Due March 3, 2014

As a reminder, fund managers relying on the exemption from registration with the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) set forth in Rule 4.13(a)(3), commonly referred to as the “de minimis exemption,” must affirm…more

CFTC, De Minimus Quantity Exemption, Filing Deadlines

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Product Liability Update - April 2014

Included in this Issue: ..United States Supreme Court Holds Due Process Forbids California’s Exercise of General Jurisdiction Over German Manufacturer in Suit by Argentinian Plaintiffs Involving Argentinian Subsidiary…more

Foreign Corporations, Jurisdiction, Manufacturers, Subsidiaries

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Massachusetts DOER Releases Draft SREC II Regulations

The Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (MA DOER) has released draft regulations for its SREC II solar program. The regulations are the latest step toward implementing the Commonwealth’s goal to install a total of 1.6…more

Clean Energy, Energy, Energy Policy, Power Plants, Solar Energy

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Second Circuit Vacates Conviction Against Sales Representative for Off-Label Promotion

The Second Circuit, New York’s federal court of appeals, this week issued its long-awaited decision in United States v. Caronia and vacated the conviction of a pharmaceutical sales representative for off-label promotion. In a…more

Criminal Prosecution, FDCA, Free Speech, Off-Label Use, Pharmaceutical

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Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities Opens Investigation on Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Charging

On December 23rd, the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (the Department) issued an Order opening an investigation into electric vehicles and electric vehicle charging . That Order, issued the same day as the…more

Electric Vehicles, Utilities Sector

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Massachusetts Enacts New Biosimilars Substitution Law

On June 23, 2014, Governor Deval Patrick signed into law House Bill 3734, “An Act Relative to the Substitution of Interchangeable Biosimilars” (now Chapter 143 of the Acts of 2014). The new Act authorizes pharmacists to…more

Biosimilars, Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical, Prescription Drugs

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Massachusetts DOER Releases Draft SREC II Regulations

The Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (MA DOER) has released draft regulations for its SREC II solar program. The regulations are the latest step toward implementing the Commonwealth’s goal to install a total of 1.6…more

Clean Energy, Energy, Energy Policy, Power Plants, Solar Energy

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Supreme Court Revises Rules for Private Securities Class Actions

On June 23, 2014, in its widely anticipated ruling in Halliburton Co. v. Erica P. John Fund, the U.S. Supreme Court revised the ground rules for private securities class actions under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act…more

Basic v Levinson, Class Certification, Fraud, Fraud-on-the-Market, Halliburton

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Important Dates and Reminders for Investment Advisers, Exempt Reporting Advisers, Commodity Trading Advisors and Commodity Pool Operators

Investment Advisers - Annual Compliance Reviews: All investment advisers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) are required to review their compliance policies and procedures at least…more

Commodities, CPO, Deadlines, Financial Adviser, Form 13F

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Supreme Court Allows Closely Held Corporations to Invoke Religious Objections Against Providing Employee Contraceptive Coverage

In a 5-4 decision, the United State Supreme Court ruled Monday in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., that closely held for-profit corporations may invoke religious objections to exclude contraceptive coverage from the health…more

Affordable Care Act, Burwell v Hobby Lobby, Contraceptive Coverage Mandate, Contraceptives, Hobby Lobby

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ATS Case Developments Post-Kiobel: Interpreting the “Touch and Concern” Standard

The past few months have seen a few interesting developments in cases in which Alien Tort Statute (“ATS”) claims factor prominently. This judicial activity, much of which focuses on the significance of the presumption against…more

Alien Tort Statute, Extraterritoriality Rules, Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., SCOTUS

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SEC No-Action Letter Allows Certain Kinds of “M&A Brokers” to Avoid Broker-Dealer Registration Under the Exchange Act

On January 31, 2014, the SEC’s Division of Trading and Markets issued a significant no-action letter permitting the involvement of “M&A Brokers” in business acquisition transactions involving privately-held companies. The…more

Broker-Dealer, No-Action Letters, SEC, Securities Exchange Act

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Private or Public? The Developing Circuit Split on Internet TV Retransmission

It appears that a Circuit split is developing on the issue of whether Internet services that transmit network television programs are engaged in a transmission to the public in violation of the networks’ copyrights. The…more

Aereo, Copyright, FilmOn X, Internet, Internet Streaming

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Flummoxed By FLANAX: TTAB Cancels Trademark Registration Based On Misrepresentation As To Source Despite No Use In U.S. By Petitioner

In an interesting precedential decision, the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) canceled a registration for FLANAX despite the fact that the petitioner, Bayer Consumer Care AG, did not use FLANAX in the United States, but…more

Bayer, Federal Trademark Register, Lanham Act, Likelihood of Confusion, Mexico

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83% of a Loaf Is Better Than None: The Supreme Court Affirms EPA’s Authority to Regulate “Anyway Sources”, But Rejects Regulation of Otherwise Exempt Sources

The Supreme Court affirmed EPA’s authority to subject 83% of greenhouse gas emissions to its PSD and Title V Operating Permit programs. However, EPA’s rationale for the rule did not fare so well, and EPA does not have authority…more

BACT, Clean Air Act, Climate Change, Environmental Policies, EPA

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Amazon’s Inability To Register Domain Name .Amazon Is An Interesting Case Study For New gTLDs

Do you want your company to control .app or .restaurant? Applying to operate a generic top-level domain (gTLD) isn’t for the faint of heart. Although several hundred companies ponied up the $185,000 application fee for over…more

Amazon, Applications, Brand, Domain Names, gTLD

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Benefit Corporations: Twelve States and Counting

On December 1, a new benefit corporation statute went into effect in Massachusetts, making the state one of twelve that have enacted legislation allowing for the formation of this new form of corporate entity…more

Benefit Corporations, Corporate Social Responsibility

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D.C. Circuit Rules Recess Appointments of NLRB Members Unconstitutional, Calling Into Question Hundreds of NLRB Decisions

On January 25, 2013, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled in Noel Canning v. National Labor Relations Board that President Obama’s use of recess appointments to fill three vacancies on the National Labor…more

Barack Obama, Canning v NLRB, George W. Bush, NLRB, Pro Forma Sessions

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SEC Proposes Amendments to Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156

On July 10, 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted final rules amending Rule 506 of Regulation D to permit general solicitation and to disqualify felons and other “bad actors” from participating in certain…more

Accredited Investors, Disqualification, Form D Filing, General Solicitation, Regulation D

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FDA Publishes New Guidance on Letters from Manufacturers to Health Care Providers

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a new guidance document on Dear Health Care Provider (DHCP) letters, titled “Dear Health Care Provider Letters: Improving Communication of Important Safety Information.” DHCP letters…more

Biologics, Drug Manufacturers, FDA, Healthcare, Prescription Drugs

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This Porridge is Just Right: Supreme Court Adopts “Zones of Interest” Standing in False Advertising Cases

When we last posted about Lexmark v. Static Control, we expected that the Supreme Court would endorse one of the circuit court tests to determine whether Static Control, the maker of a chip that facilitates printer cartridge…more

False Advertising, Lexmark v Static Control Components, SCOTUS

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Do Municipal Seals Enjoy Any Trademark Protection? Recent Cases Take Differing Views

Late last year, in a matter of first impression, the Federal Circuit affirmed the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board and held that the city of Houston could not register its official municipal seal with the United States Patent…more

Municipalities, Trademarks, USPTO

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European Court Establishes “Right to be Forgotten” Online

Today’s decision by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that individuals enjoy the right to have truthful yet unflattering information about them “forgotten” from online search results is generating a great deal of controversy…more

EU, Freedom of Expression, Google, Human Rights, Internet

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Massachusetts Increases the Minimum Wage and Reforms Unemployment Insurance

On Thursday, Governor Deval Patrick signed into law an increase in the state minimum wage to $11 per hour by 2017, the highest state minimum wage in the country. Specifically, Massachusetts’ current $8.00 per hour minimum wage…more

Employer Liability Issues, Minimum Wage, Unemployment Reform, Wage and Hour, Wages

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What Did the Court Really Say About Patent Eligibility?

Implications of Alice v. CLS Bank - Late last week, the United States Supreme Court decided Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Int’l, et al., a case the technology community had hoped would clarify what kinds of software…more

Alice Corporation, CLS Bank, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Patent Infringement, Patent Litigation

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Land Tenure Risk: Why it Matters for Companies, Investors, and Communities

Two important new reports focus on land tenure conflicts between companies and communities. In September, the Rights and Resources Initiative released a report entitled, “Global Capital, Local Concessions: A Data-Driven…more

Land Titles, Tenure

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FBAR Filing Deadline Approaching

Reports Due by the End of June - Every U.S. person that had a financial interest in, or signature or other authority over, a foreign financial account during 2013 must electronically file with the U.S. Treasury Department…more

FBAR, Filing Deadlines, FinCEN, Foreign Investment, Offshore Funds

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New IRS Rule Affecting Hospitality Employers Takes Effect January 1, 2014

The IRS will begin enforcing a new rule concerning the taxation of automatic gratuities on January 1, 2014. Specifically, employers must start treating automatic gratuities – that is, charges that are compulsory to customers –…more

FLSA, Hospitality Industry, IRS, Service Charges, Tips

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IRS Releases Streamlined Application for Tax-Exempt Status

The Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) has significantly streamlined the application process for small nonprofits seeking recognition as tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organizations through the release of a new application form on July…more

501(c)(3), Applications, IRS, Non-Profits, Tax Exempt Entities

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CFTC 4.13(a)(3) Annual Affirmations Due March 3, 2014

As a reminder, fund managers relying on the exemption from registration with the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) set forth in Rule 4.13(a)(3), commonly referred to as the “de minimis exemption,” must affirm…more

CFTC, De Minimus Quantity Exemption, Filing Deadlines

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SEC Issues Risk Alert on Cybersecurity Initiative for Investment Advisers

On April 15, 2014, the Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) issued a Risk Alert regarding the SEC’s initiative to assess cybersecurity preparedness and threats…more

Cybersecurity, Data Protection, Enforcement Actions, Investment Adviser, SEC

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Supreme Court Paves The Way For Lanham Act Claims Against FDA-Regulated Competitors

The Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision last week in Pom Wonderful LLC v. Coca-Cola Co., a case pitting the false advertising provisions of the Lanham Act against the beverage labeling standards of the federal Food Drug &…more

Advertising, Coca Cola, False Advertising, FDA, FDCA

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Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Proposes Changes to Six Protected Class Rule under Medicare Part D

On December 8, 2003, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (the “MMA”) was signed into law by former President George W. Bush1. Prior to the enactment of the MMA, Medicare prescription drug coverage…more

CMS, FDA, Healthcare, Medicaid, Medicare

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Important Changes Relating to Section 125 Plans May Require Immediate Action

Last week, there were two important developments relating to Section 125 cafeteria plans. First, Massachusetts announced that employers will no longer be required to maintain a Section 125 plan. Second, the IRS has modified the…more

Affordable Care Act, Cafeteria Plans, Flexible Spending Accounts, Healthcare, IRS

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Supreme Court Revises Rules for Private Securities Class Actions

On June 23, 2014, in its widely anticipated ruling in Halliburton Co. v. Erica P. John Fund, the U.S. Supreme Court revised the ground rules for private securities class actions under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act…more

Basic v Levinson, Class Certification, Fraud, Fraud-on-the-Market, Halliburton

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Pick Your Passion: State’s Trademark May Be Used To Criticize Its Governor

In Dardenne v. MoveOn.org, the Middle Louisiana Federal District Court faced a conflict between trademark protection, on the one hand, and the First Amendment’s protection of political advocacy, on the other. The Court…more

First Amendment, Likelihood of Confusion, MoveOn.org, Political Expression, Trademarks

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SDNY Applies Kiobel II and Holds Corporations May Be Liable under the Alien Tort Statute

In a mid-April decision in the In re: South African Apartheid Litigation, the Southern District of New York (“SDNY”) has tackled one of the most pressing legal questions left unanswered by the Supreme Court last year in Kiobel…more

Alien Tort Statute, Foreign Jurisdictions, Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.

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New Proposals to Tax Carried Interest as Ordinary Income Garner Bipartisan Support

On March 4, 2014, President Obama issued his Administration’s Fiscal Year 2015 Budget, which includes a proposal to tax carried interests (also known as “performance allocations” or “incentive allocations”) in investment…more

Corporate Taxes, Hedge Funds, Incentives, Income Taxes, Performance Incentives

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Increased Risk of FCPA Prosecution of Foreign National Executives of U.S. Issuers: Recent Court Decision Allows Open-Ended Statute of Limitations and Bases FCPA Jurisdiction on Email Routed Through US Servers

A recent federal court decision highlights the increasing risk of prosecution for foreign national executives under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA”). The decision from the federal district court in New York denied a…more

Bribery, DOJ, Email, FCPA, Foreign National Executives

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Delaware Corporation Law Amended to Eliminate Need for Stockholder Approval of Back-End Merger following Successful Tender Offer

Recent amendments to the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL) include a new subsection that will, in many cases, eliminate the need to obtain stockholder approval of a back-end merger following a successful tender offer,…more

Mergers, Short-Form Mergers, Stockholders' Meetings, Tender Offers, Voting Rights

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Product Liability Update - April 2014

Included in this Issue: ..United States Supreme Court Holds Due Process Forbids California’s Exercise of General Jurisdiction Over German Manufacturer in Suit by Argentinian Plaintiffs Involving Argentinian Subsidiary…more

Foreign Corporations, Jurisdiction, Manufacturers, Subsidiaries

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Naming Your Sales Division “Replica Products” Is Never A Good Idea or How Not To Facilitate Counterfeiters

Here’s some advice for online marketplaces giving sellers a platform to hawk their wares: Do not name any of your sales divisions “Replica Products” or “Replica Retention.” Do not let your employees tell sellers…more

Counterfeit Goods Regulation, Counterfeiting

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Venture Perspectives - March 2013: Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: Fourth Quarter and Year 2012

In This Issue: - Activity Level of 2012 New England Transactions - All Rounds - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level…more

Clean Tech, Life Sciences, Seed Financing, Series A, Series B

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Divided Infringement Steps into the Limelight

Implications of Limelight v. Akamai - The United States Supreme Court ruled Monday that a defendant cannot be liable for inducing infringement unless the induced party directly infringed the patent. This means, under…more

Akamai Technologies, En Banc Review, Induced Infringement, Limelight Networks, Mayo v. Prometheus

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The FDASIA Health IT Report

On April 7, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a report entitled “FDASIA Health IT Report: Proposed Strategy and Recommendations for a Risk-Based Framework” (the “Report”). The Report was mandated by section…more

Data Protection, FCC, FDA, FDASIA, Technology

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Brazil’s Belo Monte Move: Will National Development Banks Start Taking Human Rights and Environmental Concerns More Seriously?

In late November, the Brazilian national development bank (“BNDES”, by its Portuguese initials) announced its approval of a $10.8 billion loan to finance the construction of the Belo Monte dam, the world’s third largest…more

Brazilian National Development Bank, Corporate Social Responsibility, Human Rights, Infrastructure

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Supreme Court Ruling Exposes Continuing Division on Use of Race in Higher Education Admissions

Yesterday's ruling in Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action shows that the justices on the U.S. Supreme Court remain fundamentally divided about the future of race-conscious admission policies in higher education…more

Affirmative Action, Colleges, Disparate Impact, Racial Discrimination, SCOTUS

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Equity Crowdfunding Under Federal Law: Issuers

On October 23, 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission released proposed rules for implementing the crowdfunding exemption from the Securities Act registration requirements that is set forth in the Jumpstart Our Business…more

Crowdfunding, Indiegogo, JOBS Act, Kickstarter, SEC

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Court Dismisses Tarantino’s Copyright Claim Over Hyperlink To Leaked Script; Grants Leave to Amend But Notes That Fair Use Argument Is Strong

We recently reported on director Quentin Tarantino’s copyright lawsuit against Gawker Media over his leaked script for the film The Hateful Eight. The suit alleged that Gawker Media, by encouraging its readers to leak the script…more

Copyright, Copyright Infringement, Fair Use, Leave to Appeal, Quentin Tarantino

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USCIS Will Begin Accepting New H-1B Filings on April 1 for Fiscal Year 2015

On April 1, 2014, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (“USCIS”) will begin accepting new H-1B petitions for employment commencing on October 1, 2014. New H-1B petitions are subject to an annual limit of 65,000 new…more

Foreign Workers, H-1B, USCIS, Visa Caps, Visas

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NLRB Drops Its Pursuit of Notice-Posting Rule

The National Labor Relations Board recently announced that it would not seek U.S. Supreme Court review of two U.S. Court of Appeals decisions that struck down its proposed union poster rule. The rule, originally announced by the…more

Employee Rights, NLRA, NLRB, Notice Requirements, SCOTUS

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Hey, These Japanese Mushrooms Aren’t Organic: The Ninth Circuit Addresses the Material Difference Standard in Relation to Produce as Parallel Imports

The Ninth Circuit recently issued a decision upholding the lower court’s finding at summary judgment that a U.S. importer of branded, gray market mushrooms infringed upon the rights of the U.S. trademark owner. Gray-market…more

Brand, Food Labeling, Gray Market Goods, Infringement, Parallel Imports

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So Now What? Implications of the Supreme Court’s Myriad Ruling

Late last week, the United States Supreme Court issued its long-awaited decision in Association of Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. The Court held unanimously that full-length wild-type DNA molecules are not…more

AMP v Myriad, DNA, Human Genes, Myriad, Patent-Eligible Subject Matter

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Absolute Pollution Exclusions Are Absolute When There Has Been Pollution

Pollution exclusions first became routine in liability policies in the early 1970s. After a decade of often unsuccessful litigation trying to enforce those exclusions, insurers introduced a so called “absolute” pollution…more

Commercial General Liability Policies, Contamination, Policy Exclusions

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SEC Issues No-Action Letter on the Definition of Knowledgeable Employee

On February 7, 2014 the staff of the Division of Investment Management of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) issued a no-action letter to the Managed Funds Association (the “No-Action Letter”), providing guidance…more

Actual or Constructive Knowledge, Investment Company Act of 1940, No-Action Letters, SEC

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FATCA: Crunch Time (April 25th Deadline is Imminent)

Every foreign entity must take steps immediately to determine whether FATCA will apply to it and, if so, whether FATCA registration will be required by April 25, 2014…more

Deadlines, FATCA

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Settlement in False Advertising Class Action Leaves First Amendment Questions Unanswered

On April 30, 2014, the plaintiffs in Bezdek v. Vibram, a class action in the District of Massachusetts, filed for court approval of a class wide settlement. The case had been brought against Vibram, the Italian manufacturer of…more

Class Action, False Advertising, First Amendment, Settlement, Vibram

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Employer Can Be Liable for Negligently Terminating an Employee Based on Co-Worker’s Discriminatory Conduct

On May 23, 2013, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit held in Velazquez-Perez v. Developers Diversified Realty Corp. that an employer may be liable under Title VII for negligently terminating an employee. Although the…more

Discrimination, Employer Liability Issues, Hiring & Firing, Negligence, Termination

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Increased Risk of FCPA Prosecution of Foreign National Executives of U.S. Issuers: Recent Court Decision Allows Open-Ended Statute of Limitations and Bases FCPA Jurisdiction on Email Routed Through US Servers

A recent federal court decision highlights the increasing risk of prosecution for foreign national executives under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA”). The decision from the federal district court in New York denied a…more

Bribery, DOJ, Email, FCPA, Foreign National Executives

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IRS Releases Streamlined Application for Tax-Exempt Status

The Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) has significantly streamlined the application process for small nonprofits seeking recognition as tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organizations through the release of a new application form on July…more

501(c)(3), Applications, IRS, Non-Profits, Tax Exempt Entities

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What Did the Court Really Say About Patent Eligibility?

Implications of Alice v. CLS Bank - Late last week, the United States Supreme Court decided Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Int’l, et al., a case the technology community had hoped would clarify what kinds of software…more

Alice Corporation, CLS Bank, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Patent Infringement, Patent Litigation

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District Court Struggles With Copyright Protection For “Cheerleading-Uniformness”

Once a piece of clothing has been styled, cut and shaped according to a designer’s vision, it is a form of expression arguably no less worthy of copyright protection than say, a photograph, painting, or poem. However, the…more

Athletica, Copyright, Useful Article, Varsity Brands

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Guidance About Title IX: White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault Releases its First Report

In a report released Tuesday, the White House task force on sexual assaults outlined five action steps and recommendations for ensuring compliance with Title IX and protecting students on college and university campuses from…more

Colleges, Enforcement, Enforcement Actions, OCR, Rape

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What Did the Court Really Say About Patent Eligibility?

Implications of Alice v. CLS Bank - Late last week, the United States Supreme Court decided Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Int’l, et al., a case the technology community had hoped would clarify what kinds of software…more

Alice Corporation, CLS Bank, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Patent Infringement, Patent Litigation

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Venture Perspectives - January 2013: Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: Third Quarter 2012

In This Issue: - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series B/Later Round Transactions - Size of New England…more

Emerging Growth Companies, Funding, Startups, Venture Capital, Venture Funding

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SREC II Carves Out More Room for Community Solar

The Massachusetts DOER has released its revised regulations amending the State’s RPS to implement the next phase of support for solar in the Commonwealth…more

Energy, Solar Energy, SREC, Utilities Sector

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Supreme Court Decision Invites More Challenges to Patent Claims as Indefinite

On Monday, in Nautilus Inc. v. Biosig Instruments, the United States Supreme Court unanimously set aside the Federal Circuit’s indefiniteness standard, potentially easing the way for defendants to invalidate ambiguous patent…more

America Invents Act, Claim Construction, Indefiniteness, Nautilus Inc. v. Biosig Instruments, Patent Infringement

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Venture Perspectives - January 2013: Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: Third Quarter 2012

In This Issue: - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series B/Later Round Transactions - Size of New England…more

Emerging Growth Companies, Funding, Startups, Venture Capital, Venture Funding

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The Madrid Protocol: Passage to India Now Open

We previously reported that India was scheduled to become the 90th member of the Madrid Protocol Concerning the International Registration of Trademarks (the “Protocol”). We noted that this was a gratifying prospect, since…more

Corruption, Madrid Protocol, Registration

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Supreme Court Makes it Harder for Employees to Bring Suits Under Title VII

The Potential Implications for Educational Institutions - Last month, at the close of its October 2012 term, the Supreme Court issued two important rulings in Title VII employment discrimination cases that make it…more

Civil Rights Act, Discrimination, EEOC, Harassment, Hostile Environment

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FBAR Filing Deadline Approaching

Reports Due by the End of June - Every U.S. person that had a financial interest in, or signature or other authority over, a foreign financial account during 2013 must electronically file with the U.S. Treasury Department…more

FBAR, Filing Deadlines, FinCEN, Foreign Investment, Offshore Funds

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FDA Releases Final Guidance on the Regulation of Mobile Medical Applications

On September 23, 2013, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published the final guidance on its regulation of “mobile medical applications (or apps).” The guidance finalizes FDA’s 2011 draft guidance, adding numerous examples…more

FDA, FDCA, Healthcare, Medical Devices, Mobile Apps

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Areas of Practice
  • Administrative Law
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
  • Antitrust & Trade Regulation
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Other U.S. Locations
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Other Countries
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Number of Attorneys

100+ Attorneys

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