Foley Hoag LLP

Additional SEC Guidance on Pay Ratio Disclosure

As issuers prepare for the pay ratio disclosures that will be required with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after January 1, 2017, the Division of Corporation Finance issued new Compliance & Disclosure Interpretations…more

C&DIs, CACM, Fiscal Year, Furloughs, Independent Contractors

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IPhone Access Gets Attention, 'Stingrays' Fly Under The Radar

While eyes have been peeled on the U.S. Department of Justice's efforts to obtain a court order to hack the iPhone of one of the San Bernardino killers, garnering far less scrutiny is law enforcement’s more routine use of…more

DOJ, iPhone, iPhone Tracking, Law Enforcement, Search Warrant

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French National Assembly Adopts Corporate Duty of Vigilance Law

On February 21, 2017, the French National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) adopted proposed legislation defining a duty of vigilance for parent companies and their subcontractors. The law provides that multinational firms…more

Corporate Social Responsibility, France, Human Rights, Multinationals, Parent Corporation

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Massachusetts Enacts New Pay Equity Law

On August 1, 2016, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker signed the Pay Equity Act (the “Act”) into law. The Act, which goes into effect on January 1, 2018, is designed to close the wage gap between men and women. Although…more

Gender-Based Pay Discrimination, Governor Baker, Pay Discrimination, Pay Equity Act (PEA), Pay Gap

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TIC Form SHC 5-Year Benchmark Survey of U.S. Ownership of Foreign Securities Due March 3, 2017

Investment advisers are reminded to review their filing obligations under the TIC Form SHC as reporting on this 5-year benchmark survey is due on March 3, 2017. The survey collects information on holdings by U.S. residents…more

Filing Requirements, Foreign Securities, Form SHC, Investment Adviser

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Supreme Court Calls for Greater Deference to District Court Claim Construction

This week, in Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. v. Sandoz, Inc., the Supreme Court held that the Federal Circuit must apply a deferential “clear error” standard of review to any finding of fact underlying a district court’s claim…more

Claim Construction, Clear Error Standard, De Novo Standard of Review, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Patent Litigation

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Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: First Quarter 2015

The Numbers - Venture financing activity in New England decreased modestly in the first quarter of 2015 (-12%) with Seed and B/ Later round activity each decreasing by roughly 20% over Q4 2014. Despite this overall downward…more

Business Valuations, Clean Tech, Emerging Technology Companies, Life Sciences, Seed Financing

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Patenting: A Guidebook For Patenting in a Post-America Invents Act World

Patenting - Patenting generally offers a superior means for legally protecting most inventions, particularly since: • copyright, when available, does not provide a broad scope of protection; and • the…more

America Invents Act, AMP v Myriad, Bayh-Dole Act, Claim Construction, CLS Bank v Alice Corp

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Considerations for the Acquisition of a Non-U.S. Company by a U.S. Public Company

When it is time to sell a company, there are a number of financial and legal steps a business should consider to ready itself for a merger or acquisition. When the potential buyer is a U.S. public company, that list may get…more

Accounting, Acquisitions, Conflict Mineral Rules, Disclosure Requirements, Export Controls

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Brainstorm: FTC Continues Enforcement Trend Against Cognitive Function Claims

Continuing its trend of scrutinizing claims touting improved cognitive function, the Federal Trade Commission recently announced a settlement with LearningRx Franchise Corp. (“LFC”), the developer and franchisor of a chain of…more

Enforcement Actions, False Advertising, FTC, Scientific Evidence, Settlement

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Second Circuit Issues Landmark Decision Limiting Insider Trading Liability of "Remote Tippees"

On December 10, 2014, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York reversed a set of insider trading convictions and reined in government prosecutions of insider traders who are outside the company in which stock is traded…more

Hedge Funds, Illegal Tipping, Insider Trading, Material Nonpublic Information, Personal Benefit

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“Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Market Stabilization” Proposed Rule

On February 15, 2017 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) released a proposed rule entitled, “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Market Stabilization.” Excerpt - In general, the proposed rule is…more

Affordable Care Act, CMS, Enrollment, Health Insurance, Proposed Rules

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ERISA Fiduciaries May Factor Climate Change Issues Into Economic Analysis of Investments

New guidance from the US Department of Labor (“DOL”) clarifies the role of environmental, social and governance issues (referred to as “ESG factors”) in investment decisions by ERISA fiduciaries. ERISA Interpretive Bulletin…more

Climate Change, DOL, ERISA, Fiduciary Duty, Investment Portfolios

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Friend or Foe? State Attorneys General Start to Change Their Tune on Industry & Cybersecurity

Should businesses be thought of as victims or bad actors when it comes to data breaches? State attorneys general are embracing the idea that businesses are not necessarily adversaries in the struggle to protect sensitive…more

Attorney Generals, Cybersecurity, Data Breach, Data Breach Plans, Data Collection

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Eversource Proposes Rate Increases and $400 Million in Grid Modernization Investments

On January 17, 2017, Eversource Energy filed a petition with the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (DPU) that would increase base distribution rates for its 1.4 million electricity customers across the Commonwealth. …more

Charging Stations, Electric Vehicles, Electricity, Energy Storage, Public Utility

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Delaware Chancery Court Concludes Indemnification and Other Provisions of a Merger Agreement Are Not Enforceable Against Non-Consenting Stockholders

In November, the Delaware Court of Chancery issued a decision that raises troubling questions about commonly used techniques in private company acquisitions and that, if not modified on appeal or through legislation, could alter…more

CIGNA, Delaware General Corporation Law, Indemnification Clauses, Merger Agreements, Purchase Price

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Bastille Day Fireworks and Copyright

Bastille Day is a French national holiday that commemorates the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, an important episode in the French Revolution. Each year, Paris celebrates the day with an elaborate military parade down…more

Copyright, Fireworks, France, Holidays

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Trinity Wall Street v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. - “Lawyers, Guns and Money”

On July 6, 2015 the Third Circuit Court of Appeals issued its eagerly awaited opinion in Trinity Wall Street v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., addressing the question of what constitutes a company’s ordinary business operations and thus…more

Appeals, Board of Directors, Ordinary Course of Business Defense, Proxy Materials, Shareholder Proposals

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Massachusetts Energy Bill Emerges from Senate Committee on Ways and Means

Last Friday, the Senate Committee on Ways and Means released its version of the energy bill that passed the House earlier this month. Whereas the House bill would require distribution companies to procure 1,200 MW of offshore…more

Clean Energy, Energy Policy, Offshore Wind, Proposed Legislation, Renewable Energy

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New Nasdaq Rule Requires Disclosure of Third Party Compensation of Directors and Nominees

Effective August 1, 2016, companies listed on Nasdaq are subject to a new rule requiring annual disclosure of the material terms of agreements or arrangements between directors or director nominees and third parties that relate…more

Board of Directors, Compensation Agreements, Disclosure Requirements, Exceptions, Executive Compensation

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“Gossip Cop” Held To Willfully Infringe Copyrighted Photos

In BWP Media USA v. Gossip Cop Media, a case sure to bring cheer to paparazzi and tabloid publishers everywhere, a judge in the Southern District of New York has found after a bench trial that a gossip website willfully…more

Attorney's Fees, Celebrities, Copyright Infringement, Fair Use, Photographs

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Sold-Out RGGI Auction Triggers Cost Containment Reserve (Which Sells Out, Too)

Last week’s auction of CO2 allowances by the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) was the 23rd in the program’s history, but the first auction under the new RGGI rules and reduced cap. The new rules undoubtedly explain why…more

Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Carbon Emissions, Cost-Containment, Environmental Policies, Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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CLF Questions Secretary’s Chapter 91 Discretion

Last week the Conservation Law Foundation (CLF) announced it has filed suit against EOEEA Secretary Beaton and DEP Commissioner Suuberg for actions associated with the approval of an amendment to the South Boston Waterfront…more

Inland Waterways, MassDEP, Waterfront Properties

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Considerations for the Acquisition of a Non-U.S. Company by a U.S. Public Company

When it is time to sell a company, there are a number of financial and legal steps a business should consider to ready itself for a merger or acquisition. When the potential buyer is a U.S. public company, that list may get…more

Accounting, Acquisitions, Conflict Mineral Rules, Disclosure Requirements, Export Controls

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Venture Perspectives - New England Edition: Fourth Quarter and Year 2013

In This Issue: - Activity Level of 2013 New England Transactions - All Rounds - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level of New…more

Equity Transactions, Seed Financing, Series A, Series B, Venture Capital

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Supreme Court Upholds University of Texas Affirmative Action Admissions Policy

The Supreme Court has rejected a challenge under the Equal Protection Clause to the University of Texas at Austin’s race-conscious admissions program in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin (“Fisher II”). This closely-watched…more

Affirmative Action, College Admissions, Diversity, Equal Protection, Fisher v University of Texas

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SEC Radically Revamps Regulation A - Part 1

Eligibility and Offering Size - For many years, SEC Regulation A languished as an exemption from registration that nobody really used. Although securities issued in a Regulation A offering are not “restricted securities”…more

Accredited Investors, Crowdfunding, JOBS Act, Private Equity, Private Offerings

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Court Declines to Issue Seizure Order under Defend Trade Secrets Act

As we previously reported, the federal Defend Trade Secrets Act (DTSA) enacted last May includes a powerful ex parte seizure proceeding that allows courts in “extraordinary circumstances” to order the seizure of property…more

Asset Seizure, Confidential Information, Defend Trade Secrets Act (DTSA), Ex Parte, Trade Secrets

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Summary: Oncology Care Model

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services - Overview - On June 29, 2016, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI or the Innovation Center) formally launched the Oncology Care Model (OCM) at the Cancer…more

CMMI, CMS, HHS, Medicaid, Medicare

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Federal Circuit Holds that A Good-Faith Belief in Patent Invalidity Is a Defense to Claims of Inducing Patent Infringement

This week, the Federal Circuit issued an important decision for device manufacturers, developers, service providers, and any other company that might be targeted as an “indirect” patent infringer based on customers' use of their…more

Contributory Infringement, Good Faith, Infringement, Patents, Validity

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FATCA and CRS: 2016 Year End Reminders and a Look Ahead to 2017

As 2016 comes to a close, U.S. FATCA is almost fully phased-in, U.K. FATCA is being phased-out and the Common Reporting Standard (“CRS”) is nearing the first anniversary of its effective date. What began as a concept in 2010 has…more

Cayman Islands, Common Reporting Standard (CRS), Deadlines, Due Diligence, FATCA

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Massachusetts Legislation Proposes Cost Disclosures and Price Caps for Prescription Drugs

The Massachusetts Legislature is currently considering Senate Bill 1048, “An Act to Promote Transparency and Cost Control of Pharmaceutical Drug Prices.” The bill, sponsored by State Senator Mark Montigny, Vice Chair of the…more

Disclosure Requirements, Healthcare, Pending Legislation, Pharmaceutical Industry, Prescription Drugs

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Latest Amendments to Delaware Law Revise Appraisal Rights

Effective August 1, 2016, the appraisal rights of dissenting stockholders in mergers and certain other transactions under the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL) have been modified in two principal respects..…more

Appraisal Rights, Corporate Counsel, Delaware General Corporation Law, Dissenters Rights, Mergers

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Supreme Court Upholds University of Texas Affirmative Action Admissions Policy

The Supreme Court has rejected a challenge under the Equal Protection Clause to the University of Texas at Austin’s race-conscious admissions program in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin (“Fisher II”). This closely-watched…more

Affirmative Action, College Admissions, Diversity, Equal Protection, Fisher v University of Texas

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What Did the Court Really Say About Patent Eligibility?

Implications of Alice v. CLS Bank - Late last week, the United States Supreme Court decided Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Int’l, et al., a case the technology community had hoped would clarify what kinds of software…more

Alice Corporation, CLS Bank, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Patent Infringement, Patent Litigation

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Cybersecurity 2017: The Year in Preview

Introduction - Cybersecurity was a prominent factor in 2016 in all aspects of government, business and personal affairs. Russian and other foreign national hacking has the potential to spark a new form of cold (cyber)war…more

Cloud Computing, Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), Cyber Attacks, Cyber Threats, Cybersecurity

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Cybersecurity 2017: The Year in Preview

Introduction - Cybersecurity was a prominent factor in 2016 in all aspects of government, business and personal affairs. Russian and other foreign national hacking has the potential to spark a new form of cold (cyber)war…more

Cloud Computing, Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), Cyber Attacks, Cyber Threats, Cybersecurity

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Important Dates and Reminders for Investment Advisers, Exempt Reporting Advisers, Commodity Trading Advisors and Commodity Pool Operators - 2017

Investment Advisers - Annual Compliance Reviews - All investment advisers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) or The Commonwealth of Massachusetts are required to review their compliance…more

Bad Actors, CFTC, Commodity Pool, Confidentiality Policies, Cybersecurity

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Eversource Proposes Rate Increases and $400 Million in Grid Modernization Investments

On January 17, 2017, Eversource Energy filed a petition with the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (DPU) that would increase base distribution rates for its 1.4 million electricity customers across the Commonwealth. …more

Charging Stations, Electric Vehicles, Electricity, Energy Storage, Public Utility

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FICA Tax “Holiday” Ends With 2012, and Social Security and Medicare Contributions Increase For Some Employees

On January 1, 2013, Congress approved the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the bill designed to avert the so-called “fiscal cliff.” The Act, which President Obama signed into law yesterday, extended certain tax relief…more

Affordable Care Act, American Taxpayer Relief Act, FICA Taxes, Fiscal Cliff, Medicare Taxes

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Product Liability Update: April 2016

United States Supreme Court Permits Class Certification And Proof of Liability Through Statistical Evidence Based on Class Sampling Where Class Was Sufficiently Uniform That Evidence Would Have Been Admissible in Any Class…more

Class Certification, Discovery, Failure To Warn, FDA, Investment Trust Companies

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The Massachusetts Securities Division Settlement with Citigroup: What Does It Mean?

A recent Massachusetts Securities Division $30 million settlement with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (“CGMI”) provides a public glimpse into a less-widely known form of non-public information – a research analyst’s preview of…more

Apple, Broker-Dealer, Citigroup, Financial Analysts, Hedge Funds

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U.S. Department of Labor Proposes to Change Rule Regarding Who Is a Same-Sex Spouse under the FMLA

On Friday, June 20, 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”) announced its intention to change the regulatory definition of who is a “spouse” for purposes of the Family Medical Leave Act (“FMLA”). The impetus for the proposed…more

DOL, DOMA, Employer Liability Issues, FMLA, OMB

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Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: First Quarter 2015

The Numbers - Venture financing activity in New England decreased modestly in the first quarter of 2015 (-12%) with Seed and B/ Later round activity each decreasing by roughly 20% over Q4 2014. Despite this overall downward…more

Business Valuations, Clean Tech, Emerging Technology Companies, Life Sciences, Seed Financing

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Federal Circuit Denies TC Heartland’s Petition to Change the Venue Standard, Renewing Interest in Congressional Venue Reform

Last week, a Federal Circuit panel rejected TC Heartland’s Petition for Mandamus to direct the United States District Court for the District of Delaware to either dismiss or transfer the patent infringement suit filed against it…more

Forum Shopping, Kraft, Mandamus Petitions, Patent Infringement, Patents

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Massachusetts Nonprofit Annual Reports Due November 1, 2013

As a reminder, nonprofit organizations incorporated or operating in The Commonwealth of Massachusetts have until Friday, November 1, 2013 to file their annual reports with the Secretary of the Commonwealth. Nonprofit annual…more

Annual Reports, Non-Profits, Reporting Requirements

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Be Careful With Pollution Insurance Coverage Disclosures – How Conditions Actually Disclosed Were Deemed Not Disclosed

A Massachusetts company learned the hard way that you need to pay close attention to policy endorsements when you negotiate them. In Market Forge Industries, Inc. v. Indian Harbor Insurance Company, the Appeals Court of…more

Discharge of Pollutants, Disclosure Requirements, Pollution Liability Insurance

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New IRS Memo Concludes Benefits Paid by Fixed-Indemnity Health Plans May Be Taxable Income

On January 20, 2017, the Office of Chief Counsel of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued a Memorandum on the tax treatment of benefits paid by fixed-indemnity health plans. In the Memorandum, the OCC concludes that payments…more

Health Insurance, Indemnity, IRS, OCC, Wellness Programs

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Federal Circuit Offers Path Through Section 101 Thicket for Biotech Method Patents

In its July 5, 2016 decision in Rapid Litigation Management Ltd and In Vitro, Inc. v. CellzDirect, Inc. and Invitrogen Corp., the Federal Circuit held that patent claims directed to an improved method of cryopreserving certain…more

Ariosa, Biotechnology, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Examiners, Life Sciences

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EEOC Issues Final Rules on Employer Wellness Programs

On May 16, 2016, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued two final rules describing how employer wellness programs must comply with Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Title II of the…more

ADA, Affordable Care Act, EEOC, Employer Group Health Plans, GINA

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President Trump States He Will Issue New Travel Ban Executive Order

On February 16, 2017, in a court filing and at a press conference, President Trump has stated that he will issue a new Executive Order (“EO”) to supplement or replace his January 27, 2017 Executive Order (“EO”) entitled…more

DHS, Dual Citizenship, Executive Orders, Foreign Nationals, Foreign Workers

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Late Fee for NFA Forms PQR and PR Filings Effective Starting September 30, 2016

The National Futures Association recently amended NFA Compliance Rule 2-46 in order to impose late fees for its commodity pool operator (CPO) and commodity trading adviser (CTA) members that do not make quarterly filings on…more

Commodity Pool, CTA, Filing Deadlines, Late Fees, National Futures Association

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Product Liability Update: January 2017

Massachusetts Appeals Court Holds Birth Control Patch Manufacturer Had Duty to Warn Patient Directly But Packet Insert Adequately Warned of Greater Risk of Blood Clots As Compared to Birth Control Pill; Design Defect Claim…more

Birth Control Pill, Design Defects, Duty to Warn, Manufacturers, Pharmaceutical Industry

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Massachusetts DOER Releases Draft SREC II Regulations

The Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (MA DOER) has released draft regulations for its SREC II solar program. The regulations are the latest step toward implementing the Commonwealth’s goal to install a total of 1.6…more

Clean Energy, Energy, Energy Policy, Power Plants, Solar Energy

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Second Circuit Vacates Conviction Against Sales Representative for Off-Label Promotion

The Second Circuit, New York’s federal court of appeals, this week issued its long-awaited decision in United States v. Caronia and vacated the conviction of a pharmaceutical sales representative for off-label promotion. In a…more

Criminal Prosecution, FDCA, Free Speech, Off-Label Use, Pharmaceutical Industry

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Eversource Proposes Rate Increases and $400 Million in Grid Modernization Investments

On January 17, 2017, Eversource Energy filed a petition with the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (DPU) that would increase base distribution rates for its 1.4 million electricity customers across the Commonwealth. …more

Charging Stations, Electric Vehicles, Electricity, Energy Storage, Public Utility

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Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) Form BE-10 August 31, 2015 Deadline Approaching

For those clients that received extensions on the filing deadline for their BE-10 surveys, they are reminded that the August 31, 2015 deadline is approaching. The BE-10 is the five year benchmark survey of United States direct…more

Benchmarks, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Filing Deadlines, Foreign Direct Investment, Form BE-10

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FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Medical Device Accessories

On January 16, 2015, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a draft guidance document titled “Medical Device Accessories: Defining Accessories and Classification Pathway for New Accessory Types.” The draft guidance…more

Draft Guidance, FDA, Medical Devices

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Massachusetts DOER Releases Draft SREC II Regulations

The Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (MA DOER) has released draft regulations for its SREC II solar program. The regulations are the latest step toward implementing the Commonwealth’s goal to install a total of 1.6…more

Clean Energy, Energy, Energy Policy, Power Plants, Solar Energy

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Delaware Chancery Court Concludes Indemnification and Other Provisions of a Merger Agreement Are Not Enforceable Against Non-Consenting Stockholders

In November, the Delaware Court of Chancery issued a decision that raises troubling questions about commonly used techniques in private company acquisitions and that, if not modified on appeal or through legislation, could alter…more

CIGNA, Delaware General Corporation Law, Indemnification Clauses, Merger Agreements, Purchase Price

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New Nasdaq Rule Requires Disclosure of Third Party Compensation of Directors and Nominees

Effective August 1, 2016, companies listed on Nasdaq are subject to a new rule requiring annual disclosure of the material terms of agreements or arrangements between directors or director nominees and third parties that relate…more

Board of Directors, Compensation Agreements, Disclosure Requirements, Exceptions, Executive Compensation

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Cybersecurity 2017: The Year in Preview

Introduction - Cybersecurity was a prominent factor in 2016 in all aspects of government, business and personal affairs. Russian and other foreign national hacking has the potential to spark a new form of cold (cyber)war…more

Cloud Computing, Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), Cyber Attacks, Cyber Threats, Cybersecurity

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Important Dates and Reminders for Investment Advisers, Exempt Reporting Advisers, Commodity Trading Advisors and Commodity Pool Operators - 2017

Investment Advisers - Annual Compliance Reviews - All investment advisers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) or The Commonwealth of Massachusetts are required to review their compliance…more

Bad Actors, CFTC, Commodity Pool, Confidentiality Policies, Cybersecurity

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Eversource Proposes Rate Increases and $400 Million in Grid Modernization Investments

On January 17, 2017, Eversource Energy filed a petition with the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (DPU) that would increase base distribution rates for its 1.4 million electricity customers across the Commonwealth. …more

Charging Stations, Electric Vehicles, Electricity, Energy Storage, Public Utility

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Potential Legal Implications Arising from "Brexit"

On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (UK) voted by way of an advisory referendum to leave the European Union. While the result will not take immediate legal effect, incoming Prime Minister Theresa May has indicated that “Brexit…more

Article 50 Treaty of the EU, Bilateral Agreements, Bilateral Investment Treaties, Cross-Border Transactions, Customs

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Potential Legal Implications Arising from "Brexit"

On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (UK) voted by way of an advisory referendum to leave the European Union. While the result will not take immediate legal effect, incoming Prime Minister Theresa May has indicated that “Brexit…more

Article 50 Treaty of the EU, Bilateral Agreements, Bilateral Investment Treaties, Cross-Border Transactions, Customs

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ATS Case Developments Post-Kiobel: Interpreting the “Touch and Concern” Standard

The past few months have seen a few interesting developments in cases in which Alien Tort Statute (“ATS”) claims factor prominently. This judicial activity, much of which focuses on the significance of the presumption against…more

Alien Tort Statute, Extraterritoriality Rules, Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., SCOTUS

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SEC No-Action Letter Allows Certain Kinds of “M&A Brokers” to Avoid Broker-Dealer Registration Under the Exchange Act

On January 31, 2014, the SEC’s Division of Trading and Markets issued a significant no-action letter permitting the involvement of “M&A Brokers” in business acquisition transactions involving privately-held companies. The…more

Broker-Dealer, No-Action Letters, SEC, Securities Exchange Act

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How the Amended Federal Rules Will Change Patent Litigation

Significant amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure became effective on December 1, 2015 and include an important change to patent infringement pleading practice and the most notable revisions to the civil discovery…more

Discovery, Electronically Stored Information, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Patent Infringement, Patent Litigation

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SEC Issues Interpretive Advice About Verification Safe Harbors Under Rule 506(c)

The availability of the private placement exemption under SEC Rule 506 depends in large measure upon determinations that purchasers are “accredited investors” under the rules. Where there is no general solicitation, Rule 506(b)…more

Accredited Investors, General Solicitation, JOBS Act, Rule 506 Offerings, Rule 506(c)

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Private or Public? The Developing Circuit Split on Internet TV Retransmission

It appears that a Circuit split is developing on the issue of whether Internet services that transmit network television programs are engaged in a transmission to the public in violation of the networks’ copyrights. The…more

Aereo, Copyright, FilmOn X, Internet, Internet Streaming

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Happy Birthday To Me: An Iconic Song Enters The Public Domain After Copyright Settlement

As I turn 50 years old this week, I can’t help but think of the famous Happy Birthday song and the class action that resulted in its entering the public domain earlier this year. The class action plaintiffs in that case filed a…more

Attorney's Fees, Class Action, Copyright, Declaratory Judgments, Enforcement

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Managing Water Releases From Dams to Protect Fish: A Tale of Good Legislation and Bad Engineering

Earlier this week, the 9th Circuit found that the Bureau of Reclamation had authority under 1955 legislation to order additional releases of water to the Trinity River from the Lewiston Dam beyond the amount designated in an…more

Bureau of Reclamation, Central Valley, Dams, Endangered Species Act (ESA), Hydropower

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The Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act: Sanctions Tool for Promoting U.S. Human Rights Agenda

Overview - After months of closed-door discussions, Congress this week released the text of the negotiated National Defense Reauthorization Act (“NDAA”) for appropriating defense funds in fiscal year 2017. Tucked deep into…more

Human Rights, NDAA, OFAC, Sanctions

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Cybersecurity News & Notes – July 2016 #3

In Case You Missed It: Court certifies class in suit against Apple. On July 15, 2016, U.S. District Judge Jon S. Tigar certified a class of users of the mobile app Path, who allege that Apple facilitated the app’s access their…more

Apple, Class Action, Class Certification, Cybersecurity, Data Breach

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Connecting The DOTBLOG: Is Your Trademark Descriptive Or Suggestive?

When you see the name DOTBLOG, what does it mean to you? Is it just a blog about DOTS candy? Or about the painter George Seurat? Maybe it indicates a service that will help you punctuate your blog entries? Ok, probably not, but…more

Descriptive Trademarks, Suggestive Marks, Trademark Trial and Appeal Board

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Federal Circuit Offers Path Through Section 101 Thicket for Biotech Method Patents

In its July 5, 2016 decision in Rapid Litigation Management Ltd and In Vitro, Inc. v. CellzDirect, Inc. and Invitrogen Corp., the Federal Circuit held that patent claims directed to an improved method of cryopreserving certain…more

Ariosa, Biotechnology, CLS Bank v Alice Corp, Examiners, Life Sciences

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When Will My Leftover Turkey Power My Electric Car: A Post Thanksgiving Reflection on the Promise and Challenge of Food Waste Bans

Food is a big part of why Thanksgiving is my family’s favorite holiday. Over the years, we have tried to eat sensibly and sustainably, and to waste less food. But on the Monday after Thanksgiving, I suspect we are not alone as…more

Infrastructure, Organic, Popular, Solid Waste, Waste Disposal

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Benefit Corporations: Twelve States and Counting

On December 1, a new benefit corporation statute went into effect in Massachusetts, making the state one of twelve that have enacted legislation allowing for the formation of this new form of corporate entity…more

Benefit Corporations, Corporate Social Responsibility

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MA Superior Court Adopts “Relief from Duties” Test to Determine If Meal Breaks Are Compensable

In a recent decision, a Massachusetts Superior Court judge clarified the standard for determining whether employers must pay employees for time spent on meal breaks under Massachusetts law. In Devito v. Longwood Security…more

DOL, Employer Liability Issues, FLSA, Rest and Meal Break, Wage Act

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SEC Proposes Amendments to Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156

On July 10, 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted final rules amending Rule 506 of Regulation D to permit general solicitation and to disqualify felons and other “bad actors” from participating in certain…more

Accredited Investors, Disqualification, Form D Filing, General Solicitation, Regulation D

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FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Medical Device Accessories

On January 16, 2015, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a draft guidance document titled “Medical Device Accessories: Defining Accessories and Classification Pathway for New Accessory Types.” The draft guidance…more

Draft Guidance, FDA, Medical Devices

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SBIC Advisers Relief Act Expected to be Adopted into Law

On December 4, 2015, President Obama is expected to sign into law The SBIC Advisers Relief Act, which amends several key registration provisions and exemptions of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the “Advisers Act”), that…more

Amended Legislation, Exemptions, Investment Advisers Act of 1940, Preemption, SBIC

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Copyright Plaintiffs Keep Trying to Topple Empire. Can Proto-Cookie Succeed Where Others Failed?

Just in time for the Season 3 premiere, let’s take a look back at Empire’s year in IP litigation. Like the fictional Lyon family, which is constantly beset by threats from Feds, old criminal connections, and music business…more

Copyright, Copyright Infringement, Copyright Litigation, Entertainment Industry, Fox Television Stations

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Sexual Harassment Parody Commercial Held Not To Violate Lanham Act

Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act prohibits false or misleading statements in commerce that are likely to cause confusion as to a person’s affiliation, approval or sponsorship of someone else’s commercial activities. Here’s an…more

False Endorsements, Lanham Act, Right of Publicity, Sexual Harassment, Television Commercials

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European Court Establishes “Right to be Forgotten” Online

Today’s decision by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that individuals enjoy the right to have truthful yet unflattering information about them “forgotten” from online search results is generating a great deal of controversy…more

EU, Freedom of Expression, Google, Human Rights, Internet

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Supreme Judicial Court Reinstates Jury Verdict for Former Employee on FMLA Retaliation Claim

Last week’s Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) decision in Esler v. Sylvia-Reardon serves as an important reminder of the potential scope of employees’ rights under the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). This…more

Back Pay, Corporate Counsel, FMLA, Front Pay, Hiring & Firing

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FDA Issues Final Guidance on Proprietary Names for Drugs and Biological Products

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has finalized guidance for industry describing the agency’s evaluation process for proposed proprietary names for drug and biological products. The guidance applies to all prescription and…more

FDA, New Guidance, Pharmaceutical Industry, Prescription Drugs, Trademarks

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World Exchanges Encouraged to Report Indicators of Long-Term Sustainability

On November 4th, the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE) released a set of 34 sustainability measures that include environmental, social and governance indicators. WFE recommends that its member exchanges implement these…more

Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility, Disclosure Requirements, Popular, Securities Exchanges

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Cybersecurity Executive Order? – A Few Thoughts on Leaked “Drafts.”

More than two weeks ago, the President postponed issuing an executive order on cybersecurity. Since then, we’ve had no word from the White House on when he intends to sign it. However, two purported drafts of the order have…more

Cyber Threats, Cybersecurity, Data Security, Executive Orders, Trump Administration

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Congress Passes Sweeping New Legislation To Protect Trade Secrets

Last week, in a departure from the partisan gridlock that has gripped Washington, the House of Representatives joined the Senate in passing a sweeping new statute to protect trade secrets. The legislation, which President Obama…more

Asset Seizure, Defend Trade Secrets Act (DTSA), Employment Contract, Ex Parte, Misappropriation

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Land Tenure Risk: Why it Matters for Companies, Investors, and Communities

Two important new reports focus on land tenure conflicts between companies and communities. In September, the Rights and Resources Initiative released a report entitled, “Global Capital, Local Concessions: A Data-Driven…more

Land Titles, Tenure

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FBAR: 2015 Reports Due by June 30, 2016

Every U.S. person (including both individuals and entities, as discussed below) that had a financial interest in, or signature or other authority over, one or more foreign financial accounts during 2015 must electronically file…more

E-Filing, FBAR, Filing Deadlines, FinCEN, Foreign Financial Accounts

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SEC Proposes Rule Requiring Investment Advisers to Adopt Business Continuity and Transition Plans

The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has recently proposed a new rule that would require SEC-registered investment advisers to adopt and implement written business continuity and transition plans (“BCP”) reasonably…more

Business Continuity Plans, Fiduciary Duty, Investment Adviser, Investment Advisers Act of 1940, SEC

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New IRS Rule Affecting Hospitality Employers Takes Effect January 1, 2014

The IRS will begin enforcing a new rule concerning the taxation of automatic gratuities on January 1, 2014. Specifically, employers must start treating automatic gratuities – that is, charges that are compulsory to customers –…more

FLSA, Hospitality Industry, IRS, Service Charges, Tips

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Recent Governance and Gift-Giving Guidance from the Non-Profit/Public Charities Division

The Non-Profit Organizations/Public Charities Division of the Office of the Attorney General (the “Division”) recently released helpful guidance regarding (i) good governance of charitable organization and (ii) the rules that…more

Asset Transfer, Attorney Generals, Board of Directors, Bylaws, Charitable Organizations

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CFTC 4.13(a)(3) Annual Affirmations Due February 29

As a reminder, fund managers relying on the exemption from registration with the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) set forth in Rule 4.13(a)(3), commonly referred to as the “de minimis exemption,” must affirm…more

CFTC, Deadlines, Exemptions, Fund Managers, National Futures Association

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Wyeth v. Levine’s ‘Clear Evidence' Language: Clearly Misunderstood

In 2009, the United States Supreme Court in Wyeth v. Levine affirmed a judgment rejecting a prescription drug manufacturer’s contention that plaintiff’s claim that the manufacturer should have strengthened its U.S. Food and Drug…more

Burden of Proof, Clear and Convincing Evidence, Failure To Warn, FDA, FDCA

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SEC to Recommend Additional Compliance Rules for Investment Advisers

David W. Grim, Director of the SEC’s Division of Investment Management (the “Division”), recently noted in testimony before a U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee that the Division is developing new rule recommendations to…more

Compliance, Derivatives, Dodd-Frank, Registered Investment Advisors, SEC

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“I’m With the Band”: Boston Guitarist Can Call Himself “Former Original Member” Without Infringing Trademark

Last week, a federal jury in Boston found that Barry Goudreau, a guitarist who played in an early incarnation of the rock band Boston, did not infringe trademark rights in the band’s name by allowing himself to be identified as…more

Music, Music Industry, Popular, Trademark Infringement, Trademarks

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Changes to the New York City Retirement Systems’ Proxy Guidelines

The New York City Retirement Systems (NYRS) recently published a major overhaul of their proxy voting policies, the first in 30 years. Released in April 2016, the “Corporate Governance Principles and Proxy Voting Guidelines”…more

Board of Directors, Executive Compensation, Human Rights, Investor Advisory Committee, New Guidance

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NLRB Ruling Makes It Easier to Organize Temporary Workers

On July 11, 2016, the National Labor Relations Board in Miller & Anderson, in another pro-union decision, overruled its own precedent and ruled that unions do not need employer consent before organizing bargaining units that…more

Browning-Ferris Industries of California Inc., Community of Interest, Joint Employers, NLRB, Staffing Agencies

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“Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Market Stabilization” Proposed Rule

On February 15, 2017 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) released a proposed rule entitled, “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Market Stabilization.” Excerpt - In general, the proposed rule is…more

Affordable Care Act, CMS, Enrollment, Health Insurance, Proposed Rules

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Further Uncertainty on DOL Fiduciary Rule

We reported in a Foley Adviser on February 3 that President Trump had delayed implementation of the Fiduciary Rule by 180 days. This was based on the draft executive order that the White House had circulated that day. We have…more

DOL, Executive Orders, Fiduciary Rule, Presidential Memorandum, Trump Administration

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The SEC Charges Investment Adviser with Violating Regulation S-P by Failing to Adopt Cybersecurity Policies and Procedures

In recent years, the SEC has been focused on cybersecurity. It has issued risk alerts, conducted examinations and provided guidance about what the agency sees as widespread weaknesses in many policies and procedures to protect…more

Broker-Dealer, Cease and Desist Orders, Civil Monetary Penalty, Cyber Attacks, Cyber Incident Reporting

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Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: First Quarter 2015

The Numbers - Venture financing activity in New England decreased modestly in the first quarter of 2015 (-12%) with Seed and B/ Later round activity each decreasing by roughly 20% over Q4 2014. Despite this overall downward…more

Business Valuations, Clean Tech, Emerging Technology Companies, Life Sciences, Seed Financing

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President Trump States He Will Issue New Travel Ban Executive Order

On February 16, 2017, in a court filing and at a press conference, President Trump has stated that he will issue a new Executive Order (“EO”) to supplement or replace his January 27, 2017 Executive Order (“EO”) entitled…more

DHS, Dual Citizenship, Executive Orders, Foreign Nationals, Foreign Workers

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SDNY Applies Kiobel II and Holds Corporations May Be Liable under the Alien Tort Statute

In a mid-April decision in the In re: South African Apartheid Litigation, the Southern District of New York (“SDNY”) has tackled one of the most pressing legal questions left unanswered by the Supreme Court last year in Kiobel…more

Alien Tort Statute, Foreign Jurisdictions, Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.

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Cybersecurity 2017: The Year in Preview

Introduction - Cybersecurity was a prominent factor in 2016 in all aspects of government, business and personal affairs. Russian and other foreign national hacking has the potential to spark a new form of cold (cyber)war…more

Cloud Computing, Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), Cyber Attacks, Cyber Threats, Cybersecurity

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A "PATH" to Substantial Tax Savings: Qualified Small Business Stock

In the early 1990s, Congress enacted the qualified small business stock (“QSBS”) rules to incentivize equity investments in certain corporations. The QSBS rules reduce the effective federal income tax rate on the gain realized…more

C-Corporation, Capital Gains, Corporate Conversions, Equity Investors, Income Taxes

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Summary: Oncology Care Model

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services - Overview - On June 29, 2016, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI or the Innovation Center) formally launched the Oncology Care Model (OCM) at the Cancer…more

CMMI, CMS, HHS, Medicaid, Medicare

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Increased Risk of FCPA Prosecution of Foreign National Executives of U.S. Issuers: Recent Court Decision Allows Open-Ended Statute of Limitations and Bases FCPA Jurisdiction on Email Routed Through US Servers

A recent federal court decision highlights the increasing risk of prosecution for foreign national executives under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA”). The decision from the federal district court in New York denied a…more

Bribery, DOJ, Email, FCPA, Government Officials

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The Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act: Sanctions Tool for Promoting U.S. Human Rights Agenda

Overview - After months of closed-door discussions, Congress this week released the text of the negotiated National Defense Reauthorization Act (“NDAA”) for appropriating defense funds in fiscal year 2017. Tucked deep into…more

Human Rights, NDAA, OFAC, Sanctions

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Jersey Boys: The Curtain Call For Two Copyright Claims

Last month, the Broadway hit-musical Jersey Boys closed its doors after a spectacular eleven-year run. As someone who hails from the great state of New Jersey and who saw the show twice, I thought it was only appropriate to…more

Copyright, Copyright Infringement, Copyright Litigation, Fair Use, Video Recordings

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Sexual Abuse at St. George's School and the School's Reponse: 1970 to 2015

In January 2016, I was asked to conduct an investigation concerning sexual abuse at St. George’s School, and the school’s response to reports of abuse, from 1960 to the present. At the time, St. George’s faced a firestorm of…more

Bullying, Crime Victims, Criminal Prosecution, Educational Institutions, Hazing

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The European Watchdogs Issue First Guidelines On GDPR

The new (EU) 2016/679 General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will enter into force on 25 May 2018. Its scope is broader than that of the current 95/46/CE Directive, which means that more companies headquartered outside of the…more

Article 29 Working Party (WP29), Data Protection, Data Protection Officers (DPOs), EU, European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs)

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MA Superior Court Adopts “Relief from Duties” Test to Determine If Meal Breaks Are Compensable

In a recent decision, a Massachusetts Superior Court judge clarified the standard for determining whether employers must pay employees for time spent on meal breaks under Massachusetts law. In Devito v. Longwood Security…more

DOL, Employer Liability Issues, FLSA, Rest and Meal Break, Wage Act

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Delaware Corporation Law Amended to Eliminate Need for Stockholder Approval of Back-End Merger following Successful Tender Offer

Recent amendments to the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL) include a new subsection that will, in many cases, eliminate the need to obtain stockholder approval of a back-end merger following a successful tender offer,…more

Mergers, Short-Form Mergers, Stockholders' Meetings, Tender Offers, Voting Rights

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SEC Issues Staff Legal Bulletin No. 20: Clarifying Disclosure Requirements For Proxy Advisory Firms

Background - On June 30, 2014, the SEC’s Divisions of Investment Management and Corporation Finance released Staff Legal Bulletin No. 20, a set of thirteen Questions and Answers offering guidance on..…more

Disclosure Requirements, Proxy Advisors, Proxy Solicitations, SEC, Securities Exchange Act

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New IRS Memo Concludes Benefits Paid by Fixed-Indemnity Health Plans May Be Taxable Income

On January 20, 2017, the Office of Chief Counsel of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued a Memorandum on the tax treatment of benefits paid by fixed-indemnity health plans. In the Memorandum, the OCC concludes that payments…more

Health Insurance, Indemnity, IRS, OCC, Wellness Programs

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Product Liability Update - July 2015

Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Holds Failure-to-Warn Claim Against Drug Manufacturer Not Preempted Because There Was No “Clear Evidence” FDA Would Not Have Approved Plaintiffs’ Suggested Warning; Also Holds Non-Physician’s…more

Admissible Evidence, Asbestos, Asbestos Litigation, Bayh-Dole Act, Biologics

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Naming Your Sales Division “Replica Products” Is Never A Good Idea or How Not To Facilitate Counterfeiters

Here’s some advice for online marketplaces giving sellers a platform to hawk their wares: Do not name any of your sales divisions “Replica Products” or “Replica Retention.” Do not let your employees tell sellers…more

Counterfeit Goods Regulation, Counterfeiting

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Venture Perspectives - March 2013: Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: Fourth Quarter and Year 2012

In This Issue: - Activity Level of 2012 New England Transactions - All Rounds - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level…more

Clean Tech, Life Sciences, Seed Financing, Series A, Series B

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Product Liability Update: January 2017

Massachusetts Appeals Court Holds Birth Control Patch Manufacturer Had Duty to Warn Patient Directly But Packet Insert Adequately Warned of Greater Risk of Blood Clots As Compared to Birth Control Pill; Design Defect Claim…more

Birth Control Pill, Design Defects, Duty to Warn, Manufacturers, Pharmaceutical Industry

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Halo’s Aura: How the Supreme Court’s Halo Decision Will Impact Patent Damages and Influence Pre-Litigation Conduct

Patent infringers take note: clever defenses by ingenious litigation counsel may come too late to save you from an award of exemplary damages. On Monday, June 13, in Halo Electronics v. Pulse Electronics and Stryker Corp. v…more

35 U.S.C. § 284, Abuse of Discretion, Enhanced Damages, Halo v Pulse, Highmark

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Molecular Diagnostics Clinical Utility Strategy: A Six-part Framework

Payers and technology assessments currently evaluate diagnostic tests in terms of three categories of information. These are “analytical validity” (the performance features of the test), “clinical validity” (the correlation…more

Clinical Laboratories, Clinical Trials, Technology

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New York Fashion Week: A Lineup of The Most Fashionable Trademark and Copyright Claims

It’s that time of the year again when New York City becomes the most fashionable place on the planet. While I would argue that Manhattan is always fashionable, New York Fashion Week adds a bit of extra excitement, glamour and…more

Adidas, Banana Republic, Copyright, Fashion Branding, Fashion Design

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Brazil’s Belo Monte Move: Will National Development Banks Start Taking Human Rights and Environmental Concerns More Seriously?

In late November, the Brazilian national development bank (“BNDES”, by its Portuguese initials) announced its approval of a $10.8 billion loan to finance the construction of the Belo Monte dam, the world’s third largest…more

Corporate Social Responsibility, Human Rights, Infrastructure

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Supreme Court Upholds University of Texas Affirmative Action Admissions Policy

The Supreme Court has rejected a challenge under the Equal Protection Clause to the University of Texas at Austin’s race-conscious admissions program in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin (“Fisher II”). This closely-watched…more

Affirmative Action, College Admissions, Diversity, Equal Protection, Fisher v University of Texas

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Equity Crowdfunding Under Federal Law: Issuers

On October 23, 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission released proposed rules for implementing the crowdfunding exemption from the Securities Act registration requirements that is set forth in the Jumpstart Our Business…more

Crowdfunding, Indiegogo, JOBS Act, Kickstarter, SEC

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Court Dismisses Tarantino’s Copyright Claim Over Hyperlink To Leaked Script; Grants Leave to Amend But Notes That Fair Use Argument Is Strong

We recently reported on director Quentin Tarantino’s copyright lawsuit against Gawker Media over his leaked script for the film The Hateful Eight. The suit alleged that Gawker Media, by encouraging its readers to leak the script…more

Copyright, Copyright Infringement, Fair Use, Leave to Appeal, Quentin Tarantino

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President Trump States He Will Issue New Travel Ban Executive Order

On February 16, 2017, in a court filing and at a press conference, President Trump has stated that he will issue a new Executive Order (“EO”) to supplement or replace his January 27, 2017 Executive Order (“EO”) entitled…more

DHS, Dual Citizenship, Executive Orders, Foreign Nationals, Foreign Workers

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Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: First Quarter 2015

The Numbers - Venture financing activity in New England decreased modestly in the first quarter of 2015 (-12%) with Seed and B/ Later round activity each decreasing by roughly 20% over Q4 2014. Despite this overall downward…more

Business Valuations, Clean Tech, Emerging Technology Companies, Life Sciences, Seed Financing

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Federal Court Halts the Enforcement of the Department of Labor’s “Persuader Rule”

On June 27, 2016, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas issued a nationwide preliminary injunction barring enforcement of the U.S. Department of Labor’s (“DOL”) new “persuader rule,” which as of July 1 would…more

Disclosure Requirements, DOL, LMRDA, Persuader Rules, Reporting Requirements

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Delaware Chancery Court Concludes Indemnification and Other Provisions of a Merger Agreement Are Not Enforceable Against Non-Consenting Stockholders

In November, the Delaware Court of Chancery issued a decision that raises troubling questions about commonly used techniques in private company acquisitions and that, if not modified on appeal or through legislation, could alter…more

CIGNA, Delaware General Corporation Law, Indemnification Clauses, Merger Agreements, Purchase Price

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Foley Hoag Climate Update: February 2016

The Paris Outcome - After two weeks of intense negotiations at the Paris climate conference, 195 countries finally adopted the Paris Agreement and a Decision to limit “the increase in the global average temperature to well…more

Clean Power Plan, Climate Change, Emissions Trading System, EPA, Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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L’Élixir De L’Amour: How A 19th Century French Widow Turned Her Trademark Champagne Into A Lifestyle Beverage

Valentine’s Day is upon us yet again. Chances are, you and your sweetheart will find yourselves together in a restaurant on February 14th. Roses may be gifted, chocolate confections may be consumed, and to drink – why, champagne…more

Counterfeiting, Trademark Registration, Trademarks

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Federal Circuit Expands Scope of Liability for Divided Infringement

The Federal Circuit, sitting en banc in Akamai Technologies, Inc. v. Limelight Networks, Inc., this week adopted a new standard governing divided infringement under 35 U.S.C. § 271(a). The new standard is likely to enhance the…more

Covered Business Method Patents, Direct Infringement, Divided Infringement, En Banc Review, Induced Infringement

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New Nasdaq Rule Requires Disclosure of Third Party Compensation of Directors and Nominees

Effective August 1, 2016, companies listed on Nasdaq are subject to a new rule requiring annual disclosure of the material terms of agreements or arrangements between directors or director nominees and third parties that relate…more

Board of Directors, Compensation Agreements, Disclosure Requirements, Exceptions, Executive Compensation

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While The Outcome In the Lower Fox River Case Continues to Change, The Legal Standard For Apportionment Is The Same

In 1832, Abraham Lincoln said that ” it is better to be only sometimes right, than at all times wrong, so soon as I discover my opinions to be erroneous, I shall be ready to renounce them.” Judge Greisbach of Eastern District…more

Apportionment, Burlington Northern, Contamination, Environmental Litigation, Hazardous Waste

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Further Uncertainty on DOL Fiduciary Rule

We reported in a Foley Adviser on February 3 that President Trump had delayed implementation of the Fiduciary Rule by 180 days. This was based on the draft executive order that the White House had circulated that day. We have…more

DOL, Executive Orders, Fiduciary Rule, Presidential Memorandum, Trump Administration

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FATCA: Crunch Time (April 25th Deadline is Imminent)

Every foreign entity must take steps immediately to determine whether FATCA will apply to it and, if so, whether FATCA registration will be required by April 25, 2014…more

Deadlines, FATCA

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Non-GAAP Financial Disclosures – Redux

Prefaced by public statements of SEC officials about improper use of non-GAAP financial measures, the Staff of the Division of Corporation Finance issued new and revised Compliance & Disclosure Interpretations (“C&DIs”) on May…more

C&DIs, EBITDA, Financial Reporting, GAAP, Non-GAAP Financial Measures

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Cybersecurity 2017: The Year in Preview

Introduction - Cybersecurity was a prominent factor in 2016 in all aspects of government, business and personal affairs. Russian and other foreign national hacking has the potential to spark a new form of cold (cyber)war…more

Cloud Computing, Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), Cyber Attacks, Cyber Threats, Cybersecurity

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Settlement in False Advertising Class Action Leaves First Amendment Questions Unanswered

On April 30, 2014, the plaintiffs in Bezdek v. Vibram, a class action in the District of Massachusetts, filed for court approval of a class wide settlement. The case had been brought against Vibram, the Italian manufacturer of…more

Class Action, False Advertising, First Amendment, Settlement, Vibram

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Supreme Court Decides Employers Must Make Religious Accommodations Regardless of Knowledge of Need for Accommodation

On June 1, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court held, in Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc., that an employer violates federal anti-discrimination law where an applicant’s need for a religious…more

Abercrombie & Fitch, Discrimination, Dress Codes, EEOC, EEOC v Abercrombie

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Increased Risk of FCPA Prosecution of Foreign National Executives of U.S. Issuers: Recent Court Decision Allows Open-Ended Statute of Limitations and Bases FCPA Jurisdiction on Email Routed Through US Servers

A recent federal court decision highlights the increasing risk of prosecution for foreign national executives under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA”). The decision from the federal district court in New York denied a…more

Bribery, DOJ, Email, FCPA, Government Officials

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First Circuit Clarifies Remedies for Retaliation Under the Wage Act

On Tuesday, December 15, 2015, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit issued a decision that addresses the potential remedies available under the Massachusetts Wage Act. In addition to requiring the timely…more

Employer Liability Issues, Retaliation, Treble Damages, Wage Act, Wrongful Termination

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IRS Releases Streamlined Application for Tax-Exempt Status

The Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) has significantly streamlined the application process for small nonprofits seeking recognition as tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organizations through the release of a new application form on July…more

501(c)(3), Applications, IRS, Non-Profits, Tax Exempt Entities

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SEC Extractive Industry Transparency Requirements Move Forward

On December 11, 2015, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a new proposed rule to implement a key provision of the Dodd-Frank Act that targets corruption and increases transparency requirements for payments made…more

Dodd-Frank, EU, Form SD, Oil & Gas, Public Comment

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Aw, Tartar Sauce! Is the Krusty Krab Restaurant Trademark A CopyBob DittoPants?

With some cases, you just shake your head. In this case, a restaurant purveyor thought it would be okay to open a restaurant by the name of the “Krusty Krab.” For those of you who have no reason to have been watching cartoons…more

Cartoons, Nickelodeon, Secondary Meaning, Trademark Infringement, Trademarks

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Patent Troll Watch - States Are Pushing Patent Trolls Away from the Legal Line

Oregon enacts statute to make improper patent license demands a violation of its unlawful trade practices law - In March 2013, Senate Bill 1540 was signed into law by the governor of Oregon. The law makes patent trolling…more

Bad Faith, Corporate Counsel, IP License, New Legislation, Patent Infringement

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Product Liability Update: January 2017

Massachusetts Appeals Court Holds Birth Control Patch Manufacturer Had Duty to Warn Patient Directly But Packet Insert Adequately Warned of Greater Risk of Blood Clots As Compared to Birth Control Pill; Design Defect Claim…more

Birth Control Pill, Design Defects, Duty to Warn, Manufacturers, Pharmaceutical Industry

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Department of Education Issues Final Regulations on Campus Sex Offense Reporting and Training, While Leaving Some Key Issues Unresolved

On Monday, the Department of Education published final regulations on how colleges and universities should prevent, report, and respond to sexual offenses on campus. These regulations interpret changes recently made by Congress…more

Clery Act, Colleges, Dating Violence, Department of Education, Disclosure Requirements

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SEC Waives Custody Rule Requirements for Certain Affiliated Sub-Advisers

Under the SEC Rule 206(4)-2, the “custody rule,” registered investment advisers with custody of client funds or securities are required to take a number of steps designed to safeguard those client assets. One such step is that…more

Custody Rule, Investment Adviser, Investor Protection, No-Action Letters, PCAOB

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Patent Strategies For Start-Up Companies

Patents can be vitally important for protecting the innovations of a start-up company, just as it is important for start-ups to be mindful of trademark, copyright, and domain name strategies (see our other guides for start-ups,…more

IP Assignment Agreements, Patent Applications, Patent-Eligible Subject Matter, Popular, Provisional Applications

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Venture Perspectives - January 2013: Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: Third Quarter 2012

In This Issue: - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series B/Later Round Transactions - Size of New England…more

Emerging Growth Companies, Funding, Startups, Venture Capital, Venture Funding

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Massachusetts Legislature Enacts Significant Energy Bill in Support of Offshore Wind and Hydro Procurement, Storage and Transmission

Late last night, the Massachusetts legislature enacted House Bill 4568, an act to promote energy diversity (the “Act”). Overall, the Act marks a compromise between the House’s original procurement-only legislation and the…more

Energy Sector, Energy Storage, Hydro Issues, Offshore Wind, Omnibus Guidance

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En Banc Federal Circuit Clarifies Application of On-Sale Bar to Contract Manufacturing

On July 11, 2016, the Federal Circuit, sitting en banc in The Medicines Company v. Hospira, held that a contract manufacturer’s sale of manufacturing services to an inventor did not constitute a sale of the patented invention…more

Hospira, On-Sale Bar, Patent Litigation, Patents

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Venture Perspectives - January 2013: Quarterly Review of Seed, Series A and Series B/Later Round Financings: Third Quarter 2012

In This Issue: - Activity Level of New England Seed Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series A Transactions - Activity Level of New England Series B/Later Round Transactions - Size of New England…more

Emerging Growth Companies, Funding, Startups, Venture Capital, Venture Funding

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The Madrid Protocol: Passage to India Now Open

We previously reported that India was scheduled to become the 90th member of the Madrid Protocol Concerning the International Registration of Trademarks (the “Protocol”). We noted that this was a gratifying prospect, since…more

Corruption, Madrid Protocol, Registration

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Foley Hoag Climate Update: February 2016

The Paris Outcome - After two weeks of intense negotiations at the Paris climate conference, 195 countries finally adopted the Paris Agreement and a Decision to limit “the increase in the global average temperature to well…more

Clean Power Plan, Climate Change, Emissions Trading System, EPA, Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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Data Breach Prevention and Response: Avoiding Potential Pitfalls and Implementing Best Practices to Protect Your Company

In This Presentation: - Overview of data breach landscape - Data breach response ..Technical best practices ..Legal best practices - Data breach prevention ..Technical best practices ..Legal best…more

Best Management Practices, Data Breach, Data Protection, Risk Assessment, Risk Management

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District Court Denies Motion To Dismiss In Popcorn App Copyright Fight

This summer, the competition for popcorn popping mobile apps heated up as the creators of “Perfect Popcorn” and “iMunchies” battled over copyright infringement claims. On July 18, 2016, a judge in the Northern District of…more

Copyright, Copyright Infringement, Mobile Apps, Motion to Dismiss, Popular

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Section 501(c)(4) Organizations Subject to IRS Notice Requirement

Nonprofit entities that intend to operate as tax-exempt organizations described in section 501(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) are subject to new reporting requirements with the IRS. Specifically, newly-enacted section…more

501(c)(4), Exempt Organizations, Filing Fees, Internal Revenue Code (IRC), IRS

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SBIC Advisers Relief Act Expected to be Adopted into Law

On December 4, 2015, President Obama is expected to sign into law The SBIC Advisers Relief Act, which amends several key registration provisions and exemptions of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the “Advisers Act”), that…more

Amended Legislation, Exemptions, Investment Advisers Act of 1940, Preemption, SBIC

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En Banc Federal Circuit Clarifies Application of On-Sale Bar to Contract Manufacturing

On July 11, 2016, the Federal Circuit, sitting en banc in The Medicines Company v. Hospira, held that a contract manufacturer’s sale of manufacturing services to an inventor did not constitute a sale of the patented invention…more

Hospira, On-Sale Bar, Patent Litigation, Patents

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Supreme Court Upholds University of Texas Affirmative Action Admissions Policy

The Supreme Court has rejected a challenge under the Equal Protection Clause to the University of Texas at Austin’s race-conscious admissions program in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin (“Fisher II”). This closely-watched…more

Affirmative Action, College Admissions, Diversity, Equal Protection, Fisher v University of Texas

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Want to Know Why Memorial Healthcare Systems Is Paying HHS OCR $5.5 Million?

On February 16, 2017, HHS OCR announced that Memorial Healthcare Systems (MHS) had paid the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) $5.5 million to settle potential violations of HIPAA’s Privacy and Security Rules and…more

Conflict Resolution, Corrective Actions, Data Breach, Electronic Protected Health Information (ePHI), HHS

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Contact

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Contact: Audra Callanan

  • 617-832-1000
  • 617-832-7000

Areas of Practice
  • Administrative Law
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
  • Antitrust & Trade Regulation
  • Bankruptcy
  • Business Organizations
  • Commercial Law & Contracts
  • Construction Law
  • Criminal Law
  • Education
  • Energy & Utilities
  • Environmental Law
  • Finance & Banking
  • Government
  • Health
  • Immigration Law
  • Insurance
  • Intellectual Property
  • International Law & Trade
  • Labor & Employment Law
  • Litigation
See more
Locations
Other U.S. Locations
  • D.C.
  • Massachusetts
Other Countries
  • France
Number of Attorneys

100+ Attorneys

This profile may constitute attorney advertising. Prior results do not guarantee a similar outcome. Any correspondence with this profile holder does not constitute a client/attorney relationship. Neither the content on this profile nor transmissions between you and the profile holder through this profile are intended to provide legal or other advice or to create an attorney-client relationship.

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