Fourth Amendment

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth... more +
The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth Amendment applies to the States via the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.  Important areas of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence flow from questions surrounding the definitions of "search" and "seizure," the applicability of the Amendment to so-called "stop and frisk" situations, the level of control that must be exerted by law enforcement before an individual is deemed "seized," and the "exclusionary rule," just to name a few.    less -
News & Analysis as of

The Supreme Court - March, 2017 #2

The Supreme Court of the United States issued decisions in three cases today: SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag v. First Quality Baby Products, LLC, No. 15-927: Petitioner SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag (“SCA”) brought a...more

Federal Appeals Court Upholds Dismissal of Public Employee For Failing Random Drug Test

The Unified Government of Wyandotte County/Kansas City, Kansas did not violate a public employee’s Fourth Amendment rights by requiring the employee to submit to a random drug test or by terminating his employment when he...more

Immigration Fact or Fiction for the U.S. Employer: CBP Searching Electronic Devices – A New Thing?

There has been heightened interest and concern regarding the potential for U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to search laptops and smart phones at the port of entry, due to the mention of such searches in one of...more

Crossing the Border with Electronics - Helpful Tips and Pitfalls to Avoid

International travelers have been reporting that cell phones, computers, and other communication devices are being seized by Officers of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“USCBP”) branch of the U.S. Department of...more

Tech Rally – Industry Giants Back Google's Play to Protect Data

On March 10, 2017, Google Inc. filed its objection to a Pennsylvania magistrate judge's order to comply with search warrants and turn over personal user data partially stored on foreign servers abroad. A number of technology...more

The Supreme Court - March, 2017

The Supreme Court of the United States issued decisions in three cases yesterday: Rippo v. Baker, No. 16-6316: Petitioner Michael Damon Rippo moved to disqualify the Nevada state judge who presided over his criminal...more

Odor of Marijuana Grounds for Vehicle Search

In Robinson, et. al. v State, Nos. 37, 39, & 46, September Term, 2016, decided January 20, 2017 (Watts, J.), the Maryland Court of Appeals, Maryland’s highest court, (the “Court”) held that a law enforcement officer...more

House Legislation Purports To Require Warrants For All Email

On February 6, 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously passed the Email Privacy Act (the “Act”), co-sponsored by Representatives Kevin Yoder (R-KS) and Jared Polis (D-CO), which would require law enforcement to...more

Privacy Tip #74 – What to Do About Customs and Border Patrol

There has been lots of talk about the ripple effects of the Trump travel ban. But here’s a new twist I hadn’t heard before—U.S. Customs and Border Control (CBP) agents are detaining U.S. citizens and requiring them to unlock...more

To Obtain Data Abroad, Government Just Googles It

As technology companies expand globally they increasingly are storing customer electronic data in servers outside the United States. To keep apace, the Justice Department has become more creative in adapting existing legal...more

Illinois Appellate Court Limits Warrantless Searches of Liquor Licensees

The Illinois Appellate Court has found unconstitutional a provision of the Illinois Liquor Control Act (Liquor Act) that authorizes unlimited inspection of liquor retailers' premises by local officials. The court ruled that...more

US Supreme Court Holds That Qualified Immunity Bars 4th Amendment Claim in Deadly Police Force Case

The United States Supreme Court recently held that an officer’s use of deadly force by shooting an armed individual before issuing a verbal warning did not violate a clearly established Fourth Amendment right, and therefore,...more

Second Circuit Court of Appeals Denies Rehearing in Microsoft Case

Back in December 2013, a U.S. magistrate issued a seemingly routine warrant in a narcotics case demanding that Microsoft turn over messages from a customer’s email account that resided on a server in Ireland. That warrant,...more

Is There an Opening to Withdraw or Modify Electronic Logging Device Rule?

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) published its final electronic logging device (ELD) rule on Dec. 16, 2015, which the FMCSA claims, "is intended to help create a safer work environment for drivers, and...more

Supreme Court Update: White V. Pauly (16-67)

Greetings, Court Fans! And Happy New Year! Yes, most of us kicked off 2017 over a week ago, but The Eight reassembled for the new (calendar) year yesterday, and rang it in with a summary reversal. We'll cover that...more

The Supreme Court - December, 2016

The Supreme Court of the United States granted certiorari in seven cases on Friday afternoon: Impression Products, Inc. v. Lexmark International, Inc., No. 15-1189: 1) Whether a "conditional sale" that transfers title to...more

Supreme Court Update: Bravo-Fernandez V. United States (15-537) And Order List

12.2.2016 Greetings Court Fans! The Court issued its first signed opinion of the term this week, a unanimous decision in Bravo-Fernandez v. United States (15-537) holding that the Double Jeopardy Clause does not bar the...more

Law Enforcement Permitted To Obtain GPS Location Data Without A Warrant In A Sex Trafficking Investigation

In United States v. Gilliam, 15-387, the Second Circuit (Newman, Winter, Cabranes) held that, under the exigent circumstances present in that case, law enforcement could use cell phone GPS data to locate a suspect without...more

Ninth Circuit Considers Limits to DEA Access to Oregon PDMP

On November 7, 2016, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit heard arguments in Oregon Prescription Drug Monitoring Program v. United States DEA, No. 14-35402 (9th Cir. 2016). Here, the Drug Enforcement Administration...more

Court Finds Airport Cannot Fly Under the Radar on Employee’s Email Privacy Claims

A federal district court in Virginia recently grounded an airport’s attempt to escape liability for accessing an employee’s email account. (Hoofnagle v. Smyth-Wythe Airport Commission.) The decision, which delivered a mixed...more

Be Reasonable: Qualified Immunity, After-Discovered Facts, and the Case of Hernandez v. Mesa

In some form or fashion, law students learn that the words “reasonable man” denote a person exercising those qualities of attention, knowledge, intelligence and judgment which society requires of its members for the...more

Supreme Court Update: Bosse V. Oklahoma (15-9173) And Order List

Greetings, Court Fans! Fresh from a three-day weekend, the Court made short work yesterday of its first decision of the term, a per curiam summary reversal in Bosse v. Oklahoma (15-9173). Though the case touched upon an...more

Unclaimed Property Disputes Over State Priority Take Center Stage, Head to U.S. Supreme Court and the Third Circuit

Disputes over the unclaimed property priority rules continue to intensify. The U.S. Supreme Court accepted review of a clash involving more than 20 states regarding the right to take custody of official checks. ...more

United States Supreme Court Upholds Constitutionality of Criminal Breath Test Refusal Statutes

The United States Supreme Court recently upheld the constitutionality of state statutes providing criminal penalties for the refusal to provide a breath test after an arrest for DUI, but held them unconstitutional when...more

Delaware District Court Sets Up Another Marathon Unclaimed Property Battle

On September 23, 2016, the Delaware federal district court granted the state’s motion to dismiss in Marathon Petroleum Corp., et al. v. Cook, et al., ending (for now) the plaintiffs’ claims that Delaware’s audit of the...more

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Cybersecurity

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