Limited Liability Companies

News & Analysis as of

Are LLC Interests Securities in California?

Does California consider membership interests in a limited liability company to be securities? There are two correct answers to this question – yes and no. As I discussed a few years back, the California Corporate Securities...more

Locke Lord QuickStudy: Choice of Entity Considerations

Starting a business can be a daunting but rewarding challenge. One of the key decisions at the early stages of a new business is how to structure your business – i.e., what legal entity to form in order to carry on your...more

Court Of Chancery Upholds Arbitration Clause In LLC Agreement After Conversion

This is an interesting decision because it deals with whether an LLC agreement requiring arbitration may be enforced even after the LLC was converted into a corporation that lacks such an arbitration clause....more

Real Estate Acquisitions in Japan

Interest in acquiring Japanese real estate, such as hotels, office buildings and retail complexes, is increasing due to Abenomics and the depreciation of the yen against major currencies. Japan expects to have a robust estate...more

Substantive Consolidation: When Abuse Goes Too Far An LLC Will Not Shield Assets

In re Carroll, 520 B.R. 491 (Bankr. M.D. La. 2014) – A chapter 7 trustee sought to substantively consolidate the bankruptcy estates of individual chapter 7 debtors with the separate bankruptcy estate of their wholly owned...more

More on California Non-Competes – But This Time from Delaware

When it comes to California non-competes, you can never get enough clarity.  And when that clarity comes from a Delaware Chancery Court, it adds a utility element that our corporate brethren appreciate....more

Court Of Chancery Rejects Delaware Choice Of Law

The public policies of California and Delaware both espouse freedom. Ironically, the freedoms that they espouse are antithetical to each other. California embraces the freedom of people to pursue any lawful and employment...more

Forms and Tools for the Minnesota Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act

The effective date of the Minnesota Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act, August 1, 2015, is rapidly approaching. The following materials are available to implement the Act...more

An Overview of the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act

Delaware’s reputation as the premier jurisdiction for corporate entities is well known. In recent years, however, Delaware has also emerged as a leader in providing cutting-edge alternatives to the traditional corporate form....more

Real Estate Cases: Bad Faith Filing Does Not Necessarily Mean That You Are A Bad Person

In re Sterling Bluff Investors, LLC, 515 B.R. 902 (Bankr. S.D. Ga. 2014) – A mortgagee moved to dismiss a real estate debtor’s chapter 11 case, or in the alternative for relief from the automatic stay. It contended...more

Some LLC Names Slip Past California’s Statutory Ban

The California Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act explicitly bans a number of different words from being included in LLC names: The name shall not include the words “bank,” “trust,” “trustee,”...more

Transfer of Property Title to a Holding Company Did Not Divest Landowner of Owner-Occupant Status Under A.R.S. § 33-1002(B)

Recently, in Marco Crane & Rigging Co. v. Masaryk, 703 Ariz. Adv. Rep. 29 (Dec. 30, 2014), the Arizona Court of Appeals established that a subcontractor on a residential project has no lien rights against an owner-occupant,...more

Proof of Claim: Foreign Qualification Requirements May Be More Important Than You Thought

In re Flex Fin. Holding Co., 518 B.R. 891 (Bankr. D. Kan. 2014) – A landlord filed a proof of claim for ~$1.34 million for a debtor’s prepetition breach of its lease. The debtor objected based on the landlord’s...more

Key Changes to New York's Wage Theft Prevention Act Become Law

After a delay of nearly six months, on December 29, 2014, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo signed into a law a bill (A 8106-C, S5885-B) that amends the state's Labor Law, including the Wage Theft Prevention Act (the WTPA), and...more

A Cautionary Tale: Members of a Defunct LLC May Have Liability For Attorney Fees

In CB Richard Ellis Inc. v. Terra Nostra Consultants the California Court of Appeal for the Fourth Appellate District decided an interesting issue concerning the liability of an LLC member for a fee award imposed against the...more

Member-Employees of Limited Liability Companies

Every now and then, the question arises: can an owner of a limited liability company (LLC) also be an employee of that company? The answer boils down to how the LLC elects to be taxed. ...more

Tax Me Once - December 2014

A Creative – If Complex – Route to Tax Savings When Going Public For technology and other startups, going public can be doubly taxing—literally....more

Structuring an Agreement Among Owners

When forming a new technology company, there are very few documents as important (and unfortunately, as overlooked) as a Shareholders’ Agreement. The discussion in this post is couched as an agreement among shareholders of a...more

California Tax Developments - A Reed Smith Quarterly Update (3rd Quarter 2014)

Case Updates - Court finds ownership of LLC membership interest does not constitute doing business in California On November 14, the Fresno County Superior Court determined that Swart, an Iowa-based corporation with a...more

SEC Files Action Based on Misappropriation of Pre-IPO Shares

The SEC filed a fraud action based on the misappropriation of shares of a private firm held by investors through an LLC. The shares were then resold and reissued to other investors. SEC v. Kumar, Civil Action No. 23145 (N.D....more

Why Am I Taxed Now on My Future Receipts: The Woes of a Profits Interest

Companies often grant stock options to incentivize employees and so that their interests are aligned with the future success of the company, and partnerships (and limited liability companies taxed as partnerships) are no...more

Judge Rules Against FTB In “Doing Business” Definition

Over a year ago, I wrote about an Iowa corporation, Swart Enterprises, Inc., which operates a 60 acre farm in Kansas. Swart has no physical presence in California. It owns no real or personal property in California. However,...more

Limited Liability Company Members May Be Held Liable After a “De Facto” Dissolution of the Entity

Court Of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District (October 7, 2014)- One of the advantages of the Limited Liability Company (“LLC”) structure is, not surprisingly, that it generally limits the liabilities of its Members. One...more

The NC Business Court Rules On Recovering Attorneys' Fees In A Derivative Action Against An LLC

In this week's opinion in Ekren v. K&E Real Estate Investments, 2014 NCBC 56, Judge Bledsoe outlined how a derivative action plaintiff can recover attorneys' fees....more

(INFOGRAPHIC) Amalgamation of Interests - or How to Ensure You Wasted Time Setting Up Multiple Project Companies

There is a fairly customary practice in real estate development and construction intended to take advantage of the liability protections afforded by the Uniform Limited Liability Company Act. The practice is very...more

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