Make-Whole Doctrine

News & Analysis as of

"Recent Rulings Underscore Importance of Careful Drafting of Make-Whole Payment Provisions"

Under long-established common law, loans must be paid only upon maturity, not before. This "perfect tender in time" rule is the default rule in a number of jurisdictions. Many indentures and credit agreements therefore either...more

Court of Appeals of Wisconsin: Insured Must Be “Made Whole” For Total Loss Before Insurer Can Recover Subrogated Funds

Dufour v. Progressive Classic Ins. Co., No. 2014AP157, 2015 WL 4275292 (Wis. Ct. App. July 16, 2015). The Court of Appeals of Wisconsin reverses the Circuit Court for Dodge County and remands for proceedings on damages...more

New Decision on Enforceability of Make Whole Provisions

Another bankruptcy court — this time in New York — has weighed in on the issue of whether “make whole” provisions are enforceable in bankruptcy. See In re MPM Silicones, LLC, et al. (a/k/a Momentive Performance...more

Ninth Circuit Holds that Monetary “Make-Whole” Relief Is Not Available Absent Loss to Plan or Unjust Enrichment for Defendant...

A Ninth Circuit panel recognized that reformation, equitable estoppel and surcharge were among the “appropriate equitable relief” potentially available under Section 502(a)(3) of ERISA (following dictum in CIGNA Corp. v....more

"Enforcement of Make-Whole Provisions in Bankruptcy: The Importance of Careful Drafting"

Indentures typically contain provisions that offer protection to bondholders and borrowers in the event of early repayment of or, in some instances, default on the loan. This includes make-whole provisions, which...more

Connecticut Supreme Court: “Make Whole” Doctrine Is Default Rule, But Does Not Apply to Policy Deductibles

In Fireman’s Fund Ins., Co. v. TD Banknorth Insurance Agency, Inc., SC 18796 (Conn. 07/30/2013), the Connecticut Supreme Court answered two certified questions of first impression under Connecticut insurance law: - Is...more

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