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What Kind Of California Corporation Must Include A Salary Limitation In Its Articles Or Bylaws?

I suspect that at least a few California corporate lawyers are unaware of a provision in the California Corporations Code requiring the articles or bylaws of certain corporations to contain a limitation on the salaries paid...more

Bylaws And Supermajority Board Voting Requirements

Yesterday’s post concerned various provisions that, although not required to be included in the articles of incorporation, must be included if they are to be effective. One of these provisions relates to supermajority voting...more

Putting These Provisions In Bylaws Won’t Be Sufficient

Section 202 of the California Corporations Code lists those provisions that must be included in a California corporation’s articles of incorporation in order for them the be accepted by the Secretary of State for filing. ...more

Incorporating Under A Disparaging Name

In Matal v. Tam, 2017 U.S. LEXIS 3872 (June 19, 2017), the U.S. Supreme Court found the “disparagement clause” of the Lanham Act violates the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment. The “disparagement clause” prohibits...more

Referring To Extraneous Agreements In The Articles of Incorporation

I didn’t take note of AB 1535 (Maienschein) when it was introduced earlier this year because I thought it was a “spot” bill. See “See Spot Run“. As introduced, the bill simply added “which may include a reference to a...more

Can Pseudo-Foreign Corporations Exonerate Their Directors?

Corporations Code Section 2115 is not an easy read. Fortunately, California Supreme Court Chief Justice Tani Cantil-Sakauye has provided a more digestible overview of the statute...more

Why Some Delaware Corporations May Be Concerned With California’s Supermajority Vote Requirements

Section 710(b) of the California Corporations Code defines a “supermajority vote” as a requirement set forth in a corporation’s articles of incorporation (or certificate of determination) that specified actions be approved by...more

Hiring & Firing Officers In California

John Jenkins at The Mentor Blog addresses the question of who has authority to hire and fire officers? He notes...more

10th Circuit Highlights Difference Between Delaware And Nevada Exculpatory Statutes

Because the power to manage a corporation’s affairs rests with the board of directors, it is normally up to the board to decide whether the corporation will pursue a claim. A shareholder who believes that the corporation...more

Was This Director Duly Elected Or Appointed?

Suppose that a corporation’s bylaws includes the following two provisions: 1.  The Board of Directors shall consist of one or more members, the number thereof to be determined from time to time by the Board...more

Court Declines To Declare “S” Corporation Shareholders’ Agreement Unenforceable

In general, shareholders of a corporation that has elected to be taxed under Subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code are taxed on corporate profits regardless of whether the corporation makes any distribution of those...more

Why A Form LLC-1 May Be Only Half Right

Under California’s new Revised Uniform Limited Liability Act, an LLC is formed when the California Secretary of State’s Office files the articles of organization. Cal. Corp. Code § 17702.01(d). Only five items of...more

Where Exactly Is It Written That Shareholders Aren’t Liable For Corporate Debts?

Recently, UCLA Law School Professor Stephen Bainbridge took notice of Section 6.22(b) of the Model Business Corporation Act and asked what might lead a corporation to waive the limited liability of shareholders in its...more

In This Church Versus State Battle, The State Prevailed

Borrowing a bon mot from the riding arena, there are two kinds of California corporate lawyers, those who have had a filing rejected by the Secretary of State’s office and those that will. As almost every corporate lawyer in...more

The General Corporation Law Is “English Only”

In China’s Hunan province, a written syllabic script was created, used and understood only by women. This script is called NüShu (??), meaning women’s book. As far as I know, NüShu is the only exclusively gender based...more

Directors May Be Invested With Super Powers In Nevada But Not California

Directors With Super Powers - Sometimes investors would like to endow one or more directors with greater voting powers. This is possible with a Nevada corporation by virtue of NRS 78.330(3) which provides “ The articles...more

Are Charter Indemnification Provisions Contracts?

Public companies typically include provisions in their articles and bylaws that mandate indemnification of directors and officers. Often, these provisions include a statement to the effect that the rights to indemnification...more

Does The Authorization Or Issuance Of A New Class Of Stock Require Qualification?

Corporations often amend their articles of incorporation to create one or more new classes of securities. These newly created classes often have priority over the previously issued and outstanding shares. Does the amendment...more

1/18/2013  /  Articles of Incorporation
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