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Labor & Employment Constitutional Law

Read need-to-know updates, commentary, and analysis on Labor & Employment issues written by leading professionals.
Jackson Lewis P.C.

Freelance Isn’t Free: A Contract Ingredient for New York’s Restaurants

Jackson Lewis P.C. on

New York’s Freelance Isn’t Free Act, which requires that a business provide any freelance worker with a written contract if the freelance work is worth at least $800, inclusive of multiple projects over a 120-days period,...more

Cole Schotz

Philadelphia Court Sides with Federal Trade Commission and Refuses to Enjoin FTC’s Ban on Non-Competes

Cole Schotz on

On July 23, 2024, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania considered another challenge to the Federal Trade Commission’s (“FTC”) Non-Compete Rule (the “Rule”) banning the vast majority of non-compete...more

Jackson Lewis P.C.

Pennsylvania Bans Most Non-Compete Agreements for Healthcare Practitioners

Jackson Lewis P.C. on

Pennsylvania Governor Josh Shapiro has signed the “Fair Contracting for Health Care Practitioners Act” (House Bill 1633), which restricts the ability of employers and healthcare practitioners to enter into non-compete...more

Fisher Phillips

California Court Rules That Egg Retrieval and Freezing Procedures Do Not Qualify for Pregnancy Protection – But Employers Should...

Fisher Phillips on

A recent decision from the California Court of Appeal concluded that a worker could not advance a pregnancy discrimination claim based on alleged mistreatment following egg retrieval and freezing procedures – but employers...more

Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart,...

U.S. Census Bureau Seeks Feedback on Implementing New Federal Race and Ethnicity Categories in 2027

The U.S. Census Bureau is seeking feedback on its plan to implement the White House’s newly adopted statistical standards for race and ethnicity data collection for federal agencies in 2027. Federal agencies must implement...more


CFPB Departs From Precedent and Reverses Itself by Proposing Novel Interpretive Rule That Applies TILA and Regulation Z to...

Goodwin on

On July 18, 2024, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) issued an interpretive rule (Proposed Rule) applying the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and Regulation Z (collectively referred to hereafter as Regulation Z) to...more

Miller Canfield

Michigan Supreme Court Expands Employer Exposure to Public Policy Retaliation Claims

Miller Canfield on

In Michigan, various state employment laws prohibit employers from retaliating against employees. But can an employee pursue a public policy retaliation claim against the employer in addition to a statutory retaliation claim?...more

Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart,...

Pennsylvania Bans Healthcare Practitioner Noncompete Agreements Longer Than 1 Year

In a major noncompete development for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, beginning January 1, 2025, certain noncompete agreements with doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare practitioners will no longer be...more

Ervin Cohen & Jessup LLP

Another Blow to E-Signed Arbitration Agreements in California

Over the last decade, the use of e-signatures has become the norm for human resources departments when onboarding new employees. The advent of resources like DocuSign, Taleo, BabooHR, and others have made this process simple,...more

McAfee & Taft

New HIPAA privacy standards for reproductive health care — action required by employer health plans

McAfee & Taft on

Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued new regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). The rules impose new restrictions on the use and...more

Keating Muething & Klekamp PLL

District Court Finds in Favor of FTC, Declines to Issue Injunction

The Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) push to invalidate non-compete agreements for millions of workers gained steam today, courtesy of a ruling out of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. As noted by this blog, in April of...more

Bricker Graydon LLP

Return to Sender - OSHA Obtains Injunction Against Postal Service for Retaliatory Termination of Employees

Bricker Graydon LLP on

On July 3, 2024, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) obtained an injunction against the United States Postal Service (USPS), protecting USPS employees from retaliation for reporting workplace injuries....more


Pennsylvania Court Keeps FTC Non-Compete Ban on Life Support

Polsinelli on

Yesterday (July 23), a Pennsylvania judge—in ATS Tree Services, LLC v. Federal Trade Commission—upheld the legality of the FTC's non-compete ban. This ruling contradicts the ruling recently issued in a parallel proceeding in...more

Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart,...

Cal/OSHA Schedules Advisory Committee Meeting on Enterprise-wide and Egregious Violation Classifications Proposed Rules

The California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) will hold an advisory committee meeting on August 19, 2024, to solicit input on proposed regulations concerning enterprise-wide and egregious violations of...more

Seyfarth Shaw LLP

Federal Court in Pennsylvania Creates District Split on Enforceability of FTC Non-Compete Ban

Seyfarth Shaw LLP on

Yesterday, the Court in the ATS Trees v. FTC case denied Plaintiff ATS Trees’ Motion for Stay and Enjoin the FTC recent Ban on Non-Compete agreements (“Final Rule”), because, the Court held, ATS Trees failed to establish...more

Williams Mullen

Appellate Court Rules that NCAA Athletes May Qualify as Employees Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

Williams Mullen on

On July 11, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (with appellate jurisdiction over federal courts in Delaware, New Jersey and Pennsylvania) issued a decision in Johnson v. National Collegiate Athletic...more

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

PAGA Reform: What California Employers Need to Do Now

California employers have come to know California’s Private Attorneys General Act (“PAGA”) as an expensive cost of doing business within the state. Unfortunately, the new PAGA reform is not likely to lead to any decrease in...more

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission...

EEOC Sues X-Treme Tech Services for Sexual Harassment and Retaliation

Federal Agency Charges Company Fired Female Employee After She Resisted Supervisor’s Sexual Advances - THIBODAUX, La. – X-Treme Tech Services, LLC, which provides marine electronic services, violated federal law when a...more

Oberheiden P.C.

A Guide to Qui Tam Lawsuits for Whistleblowers

Oberheiden P.C. on

One avenue for whistleblowers to take to report fraud against the government is to file a qui tam lawsuit under the federal False Claims Act. These lawsuits are complex because they have not two, but three parties to them –...more


Headwinds in the Retail Labor Market: Mastering Decision-Making and Metrics for Omnichannel Efficiency - Part 4

Ankura on

How Can Retailers Refine Their Omnichannel Strategies Through Effective Decision-Making and Precise Success Metrics? Current headwinds in the retail labor market present formidable challenges and hurdles for retailers in...more

Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP

Alberta : Une entrevue peut être menée sans la présence d’un avocat lors d’une enquête sur un accident de travail

Dans le cadre de l’affaire Neustaedter v. Alberta (Labour Relations Board), la Cour d’appel de l’Alberta (la « CAA ») a récemment confirmé une décision rendue lors d’un appel devant le Conseil des relations de travail de...more

DCI Consulting

Expert vs. Robot, Part I: Different Approaches to Pay Equity

DCI Consulting on

Series Introduction - Earlier this year DCI experts and co-authors of this post, Lisa Harpe and Don Lustenberger, hosted a pay-equity webinar on the topic of “expert vs. robot.” They contrasted the more conventional...more

Constangy, Brooks, Smith & Prophete, LLP

Three PTO Policy Tips to Give Employers a Breezier Summer

We’re already halfway through the summer, and employees who haven’t done so are closing their laptops and heading to the shore to soak up some well-deserved vacation sun. Paid Time Off can be a fantastic tool for employee...more

Harris Beach PLLC

Demystifying the 2025 H-2B Visa Program: What Seasonal Employers Need to Know

Harris Beach PLLC on

The H-2B temporary non-agricultural worker visa programs has traditionally been the “go to” visa option for employers seeking to hire foreign nationals coming to the United States to fill non-professional or non-degreed...more

Mayer Brown

ERISA Cases in a Post-Chevron World

Mayer Brown on

On June 28, 2024, the Supreme Court issued a landmark ruling in Loper Bright Enterprises v. Raimondo that upends a longstanding feature of administrative law—Chevron deference. In Loper Bright, the Court expressly overruled...more

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JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: Dec 28, 2021:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
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  • Title
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Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and companies and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
150 Harbor Drive, #2760
Sausalito, CA 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
150 Harbor Drive, #2760
Sausalito, CA 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

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