BAG: Keine Anwendung des arbeitsrechtlichen Gleichbehandlungsgrundsatzes bei Zusatzleistungen für Gewerkschaftsmitglieder

by McDermott Will & Emery

Der arbeitsrechtliche Gleichbehandlungsgrundsatz findet keine Anwendung, wenn ein Arbeitgeber mit einer Gewerkschaft im Rahmen von Tarifhandlungen vereinbart, für deren Mitglieder bestimmte Zusatzleistungen zu erbringen. Aufgrund der Angemessenheitsvermutung von Verträgen tariffähiger Vereinigungen findet eine Überprüfung anhand des arbeitsrechtlichen Gleichbehandlungsgrundsatzes nicht statt. Dies hat das BAG am 21. Mai 2014 ( 4 AZR 50/13 ua.) entschieden.

Im Rahmen von Sanierungsvereinbarungen wurden zwischen der Beklagten, der Adam Opel AG, und dem Arbeitgeberverbund sowie der Gewerkschaft IG Metall im Jahr 2010 unter anderem entgeltabsenkende Tarifverträge geschlossen. Die IG Metall hatte gegenüber der Beklagten die Zustimmung dazu von einer “Besserstellung” ihrer Mitglieder abhängig gemacht. Um diese Bedingung zu erfüllen, trat die Beklagte einem Verein bei, welcher sog. “Erholungsbeihilfen” an IG Metall-Mitglieder leistet. Nach der Beitrittsvereinbarung hatte die Beklagte eine Geldsumme in Höhe von 8,5 Mio. Euro an den Verein zu zahlen. Der Verein sicherte daraufhin die Auszahlung von Erholungsbeihilfen an die bei der Beklagten beschäftigten IG Metall-Mitglieder. Die Erholungsbeihilfen betragen 200,00 EUR. Die bei der Beklagten beschäftigten Klägerinnen und Kläger, die nicht Mitglieder der IG Metall sind, verlangten von der Beklagten als Arbeitgeberin ebenfalls eine Erholungsbeihilfe.

Das BAG wies die Klagen - wie bereits zuvor das LAG Hessen (vom 19. November 2012 – 17 Sa 285 ua.) - ab. Der Anwendungsbereich des arbeitsrechtlichen Gleichbehandlungsgrundsatzes sei nicht eröffnet. Die Beitrittsvereinbarung als Bestandteil des “Sanierungspakets” der Tarifvertragsparteien sei aufgrund der Angemessenheitsvermutung von Kollektivverträgen nicht am arbeitsrechtlichen Gleichbehandlungsgrundsatz zu prüfen. Dem BAG zufolge gelte dies unabhängig davon, ob die Leistungen für die Gewerkschaftsmitglieder in einem Tarifvertrag oder einer sonstigen schuldrechtlichen Koalitionsvereinbarung, wie der Beitrittsvereinbarung, geregelt worden sind.

Das BAG bestätigt damit seine jüngere Rechtsprechung aus dem Jahr 2009 zur Zulässigkeit von sogenannten “Differenzierungsklauseln”. Danach bleibt es auch dabei, dass die den Gewerkschaftsmitgliedern vorbehaltenen Leistungen keinen solchen Umfang haben dürfen, dass unzulässiger Druck auf Nichtgewerkschaftsmitglieder ausgeübt und deren negative Koalitionsfreiheit bedroht wird.



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McDermott Will & Emery

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