BAG zum Ausschluss von Vorsatzhaftung durch vertragliche Ausschlussklauseln

by McDermott Will & Emery

Die Klägerin macht gegen ihren ehemaligen Arbeitgeber Schadenersatzansprüche wegen Mobbings geltend, die dieser – nicht überraschend – zunächst mit dem Nichteinhalten der vertraglich vereinbarten Ausschlussfrist abwehren will. Ausschlussfristen wie die im vorliegenden Fall finden sich in zahlreichen deutschen Arbeitsverträgen: „Alle beiderseitigen Ansprüche aus dem Arbeitsverhältnis und solche, die mit dem Arbeitsverhältnis in Verbindung stehen verfallen, wenn sie nicht innerhalb von drei Monaten nach der Fälligkeit gegenüber der anderen Vertragspartei schriftlich erhoben werden. Lehnt die Gegenpartei den Anspruch ab oder erklärt sie sich nicht innerhalb von zwei Wochen nach der Geltendmachung des Anspruchs, so verfällt dieser, wenn er nicht innerhalb von drei Monaten nach Ablehnung oder dem Fristablauf gerichtlich geltend gemacht wird.

Das BAG hat nunmehr in seinem Urteil vom 20. Juni 2013 – 8 AZR 280/12 entschieden, dass diese Ausschlussklauseln keine vertraglichen oder deliktischen Ansprüche wegen vorsätzlicher oder grob fahrlässiger Pflichtverletzung eines Erfüllungsgehilfen auszuschließen geeignet sind. Ein Ausschluss von vorsätzlichen Pflichtverletzungen wäre gemäß § 202 Abs. 1 BGB und § 276 Abs. 3 BGB ohnehin unwirksam. Man könne nicht davon ausgehen, dass die Vertragsparteien mit der Ausschlussklausel die ohnehin bereits vom Gesetz geregelten Ge- und Verbote regeln wollten, so das BAG. Ohne explizite Vereinbarung im Vertragswerk selbst wird man eine Ausschlussklausel aber auch nicht dahingehend auslegen können, dass zulässige Rückausnahmen von den gesetzlichen Ge- und Verboten – wie etwa der Ausschluss von Vorsatzhaftung für die Pflichtverletzungen eines Erfüllungsgehilfen nach § 278 Satz 2 BGB – erfasst werden sollen. In AGBs wäre ein solcher Haftungsausschluss für Pflichtverletzungen des Erfüllungsgehilfen jedoch ebenfalls unwirksam (§ 309 Ziffer 7 b BGB).

Interessant an dieser Entscheidung ist insbesondere, dass tarifliche Ausschlussklauseln aufgrund ihrer normativen Wirkung – und der Nichtanwendbarkeit des § 202 BGB – eine Vorsatzhaftung sehr wohl ausschließen können (vgl. BAG vom 18. August 2011 – 8 AZR 187/10).


Written by:

McDermott Will & Emery

McDermott Will & Emery on:

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