Choice Of Entity, Shareholder Disputes, And The Discovery Of Tax Returns

by Farrell Fritz, P.C.
Contact

Decisions, Decisions

The reduction in the Federal income tax rate for C corporations, from a maximum of 35-percent to a flat 21-percent, along with several other changes made by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”) that generally reflect a pro-C corporation bias, have caused the owners of many pass-through entities (“PTEs”) to reconsider the continuing status of such entities as S corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships.

Among the factors being examined by owners and their advisers are the following:

  • the PTE is not itself a taxable entity, and the maximum Federal income rate applicable to its individual owners on their pro rata share of a PTE’s ordinary operating income is 37-percent[i], as compared to the 21-percent rate for a C corporation;
  • the owners of a PTE may be able to reduce their Federal tax rate to as low as 29.6-percent if they can take advantage of the “20-percent of qualified business income deduction”;
  • a PTE’s distribution of income that has already been taxed to its owners is generally not taxable[ii], while a C corporation’s distribution of its after-tax earnings will generally be taxable to its owners at a Federal rate of 23.8%, for an effective combined corporate and shareholder rate of 39.8%;
  • the capital gain from the sale of a PTE’s assets will generally not be taxable to the PTE[iii], and will generally be subject to a Federal tax rate of 20-percent in the hands of its owners[iv], while the same transaction by a C corporation, followed by a liquidating distribution to its shareholders, will generate a combined tax rate of 39.8%.[v]

The application of these considerations to the unique facts circumstances of a particular business may cause its owners to arrive at a different conclusion than will the owners of another business that appears to be similarly situated.

Even within a single business, there may be disagreement among its owners as to which form of business organization, or which tax status, would optimize the owners’ economic benefit, depending upon their own individual tax situation and appetite.[vi]

In the past, this kind of disagreement in the context of a closely held business has often resulted in litigation of the kind that spawned the discovery issue described below. The changes made by the Act are certain to produce more than their share of similar intra-business litigation as owners disagree over the failure of their business to make or revoke certain tax elections, as well as its failure to reorganize its “corporate” structure.

A Taste of Things to Come?

Corporation was created to invest in the development, production, and sale of a product. Among its shareholders was a limited partnership (“LP”), of which Plaintiff was the majority owner.

Plaintiff asserted that Corporation’s management (“Defendants”) had breached their fiduciary duty to LP and the other shareholders. This claim was based upon the fact that Corporation was a C corporation and, as such, its dividend distributions to LP were taxable to LP’s members, based upon their respective ownership interest of LP.[vii]

Plaintiff claimed that this “double taxation” of Corporation’s earnings – once to Corporation and again upon its distribution as a dividend to its shareholders – had cost the business and its owners millions of dollars over the years, was “unnecessary,” had reduced the value of LP, and could have been avoided if Corporation had been converted into an S corporation, at which point LP would have distributed its shares of Corporation stock to its members, who were individuals.

Plaintiff stated that it had made repeated requests to Defendants to “eliminate this waste,” but to no avail.

Thus, one of the forms of relief requested by Plaintiff was “[p]ermanent injunctive relief compelling the Defendants to take all appropriate actions necessary to eliminate the taxable status of [Corporation] that results in an unnecessary level of taxation on distributions to the limited partners of [LP].”

“Prove It”

Defendants asked the Court to compel Plaintiff to produce Plaintiff’s tax returns for any tax year as to which Plaintiff claimed to have suffered damages based upon Corporation’s tax status.

Defendants asserted that, in order to measure any damages that were suffered by Plaintiff by reason of Corporation’s status, Defendants needed certain information regarding Plaintiff’s taxes, including Plaintiff’s “tax rate, deductions, credits and the like.”

Plaintiff responded that their “tax returns have no conceivable relevance to any aspect of this case.” Among other reasons, Plaintiff asserted that the action was brought derivatively on behalf of LP such that Plaintiff’s personal tax returns were not germane.

Defendants countered that, even if Plaintiff’s claims were asserted derivatively, the tax returns nevertheless were relevant since Plaintiff was a member of LP, the entity on whose behalf the claims were made.

The Court’s Decision

According to the Court, tax returns in the possession of a taxpayer are not immune from civil discovery. It noted, however, that courts generally are “reluctant to order the production of personal financial documents and have imposed a heightened standard for the discovery of tax returns.”

The Court explained that a party seeking to compel production of tax returns in civil cases must meet a two-part test; specifically, it must demonstrate that:

  • the returns are relevant to the subject matter of the action; and
  • there is a compelling need for the returns because the information contained therein is not otherwise readily obtainable.

Limited partnerships, the Court continued, “are taxed as ‘pass-through’ entities, do not pay any income tax, but instead file information returns and reports to each partner on his or her pro-rata share of all income, deductions, gains, losses, credits and other items.” The partner then reports those items on his or her individual income tax return. “The limited partnership serves as a conduit through which the income tax consequences of a project or enterprise are passed through to the individual partners.”

The Court found that Plaintiff’s tax returns were relevant to the claims asserted. The crux of Plaintiff’s argument regarding Corporation’s status, the Court stated, was that LP’s partners, including Plaintiff, were subject to “double taxation” and were thereby damaged.

The Court also found that Defendants had established a compelling need. The Court was satisfied that, in order for Defendants to ascertain whether or not Plaintiff, who owned a majority interest in LP, would have paid less tax if Corporation had been converted to an S corporation, Plaintiff had to produce their tax returns to Defendants. The tax returns would disclose, among other things, Plaintiff’s tax rate, deductions and credits that affected the tax due by Plaintiff.

Furthermore, the Court continued, Plaintiff failed to demonstrate that there were alternative sources from which to obtain the information. “While the party seeking discovery of the tax returns bears the burden of establishing relevance, the party resisting disclosure should bear the burden of establishing alternative sources for the information.”

Any concerns that existed regarding the private nature of the information contained in the tax returns could be addressed, the Court stated, by making the tax returns subject to the terms of the “stipulation and order of confidentiality” previously entered in the case.[viii]

Accordingly, the Court granted Defendants’ motion.

What’s Good for the Goose?

For years, oppressed or disgruntled shareholders and partners have often found in the tax returns of the business, of which they are owners, the clues, leads, or circumstantial evidence that help support their claims of mismanagement or worse by those in control of the business.

As a result of the Act, it is likely that some non-controlling owners will find cause for questioning or challenging the “choice of entity” decisions made on behalf of the business by its controlling owners.[ix]

In some cases, their concerns will be validated by what turn out to be true instances of oppression intended to cause economic harm and, perhaps, to force out the intended target.

In others, however, the controlling owner’s decision will have been reached only after a lot of due diligence, including financial modelling and consulting with tax advisers. In such cases, the controlling owner may want to examine the complaining party’s tax return, as in the Court’s decision described above, so as to ascertain whether the loss claimed was actually suffered.

It bears repeating, though, that even if the tax return information may be relevant to the controlling owner’s defense, there is a judicial bias against the disclosure of such information that is manifested in the application of “a heightened standard for the discovery of tax returns.” As stated earlier, the requesting party has to demonstrate that there is a “strong necessity” for the returns, and that the return information is not readily obtainable from other sources.

In the end, the best course of action for the “choice-of-entity” decision-maker, and their best defense against any claims of oppression or mismanagement, is to demonstrate that they acted reasonably and responsibly; they should thoroughly document the decision-process, and explain the basis for their decision. With that, a potential owner-claimant would be hard-pressed to second-guess them with any reasonable likelihood of success.


[i] If the PTE’s business is a passive activity with respect to the owner, the 3.8% Federal surtax on net investment income may also apply, bumping their maximum Federal tax rate up from 37% to 40.8%.

[ii] Because of the upward basis adjustment to the owner’s partnership interest or S corp. stock resulting from the inclusion of the PTE’s income or gain in the owner’s gross income.

[iii] There are exceptions; for example, the built-in gains tax for S corps. https://www.taxlawforchb.com/2013/09/s-corp-sales-built-in-gain-and-2013/ . In addition, the gain from the sale of certain assets may generate ordinary income that would be taxable to the PTE’s owners at a Federal rate of 37%; for example, depreciation recapture.

[iv] But see endnote i, supra.

[v] The operating income and capital gain of a C corporation are taxed at the same rate; there is no preferential Federal capital gain rate as in the case of individuals.

[vi] You may have heard your own clients debating the pros and cons of spinning off “divisions” so as to position themselves for maximizing the deduction based on qualified business income. All this before the issuance of any guidance by the IRS (which is expected later this month), though the Service intimated last month that taxpayers may not be pleased with its position regarding such spin-offs.

[vii] See the third bullet point, above.

[viii] Such an order may be used in cases requiring the exchange, as part of the discovery process, of what the parties to the law suit believe is confidential information.

[ix] For example, a shareholder of an S corporation that does not make distributions, who is not employed by the business, who is a passive investor in the business, and whose pro rata share of the corporation’s income is subject to federal tax at a rate of 40.8%, may wonder why the controlling shareholder does not agree to revoke the “S” election, to at least start making tax distributions.

[View source.]

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Farrell Fritz, P.C. | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Farrell Fritz, P.C.
Contact
more
less

Farrell Fritz, P.C. on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.