El arte en lugares públicos: ¿carga regulatoria u oportunidad?

by Bilzin Sumberg

Bilzin Sumberg

El concepto de arte en lugares públicos está bien establecido en los Estados Unidos. Ya en la década de 1930, el gobierno federal creó los programas New Deal a través de los cuales se les pagaba a artistas para crear obras que serían expuestas en edificios municipales y otras propiedades cívicas públicas. Del mismo modo, el condado de Miami-Dade ha exigido desde la década de 1970 que el monto destinado al arte sea del 1,5 % del total de los costos para la construcción de los desarrollos gubernamentales, incluidos los desarrollos privados en terrenos públicos. El programa del condado ha producido varias obras de arte públicas memorables, incluida “Red M”, que fue creada por Roberto Behar y Rosario Marquardt y se encuentra en la estación Riverwalk Metromover, y “Slide Mantra”, creada por Isamu Noguchi. Los pisos recientemente instalados en la terminal D del Aeropuerto Internacional de Miami también son producto del programa del condado. Otras jurisdicciones locales, incluida la ciudad de Miami Beach, han adoptado recientemente programas similares.

A comienzos de este año, la ciudad de Miami adoptó el requisito de que se instale arte público en los edificios públicos nuevos, pero rechazó, en ese momento, extender el programa a los desarrollos privados de la ciudad. Sin embargo, ahora la ciudad está considerando una nueva ordenanza  que extendería esos requisitos a todos los desarrollos privados, no solo a los desarrollos privados en terrenos públicos, lo que haría al programa de la ciudad el más extenso del sur de la Florida. De ser adoptada, la nueva ordenanza exigiría que los nuevos edificios de construcción privada brinden el equivalente de hasta el 1,25 % del costo total de la construcción en arte público o, en su defecto, que realicen un pago de hasta el 1 % del costo de la construcción a un fondo para las artes.

Muchos desarrolladores de bienes raíces ven estos programas como otra carga regulatoria que sube los costos de los nuevos desarrollos en el sur de la Florida. Ciertamente, los programas de arte en lugares públicos aumentan el costo total de la construcción. Sin embargo, si se utiliza la creatividad, existen oportunidades para reducir los costos de cumplimiento. Hemos estado involucrados en varios desarrollos privados sujetos a los programas de arte en lugares públicos y, en algunos casos, el requisito del 1,5 % establecido por el condado en realidad aumenta el costo total del desarrollo en menos del 0,5 %. Además, el arte público no es simplemente una formalidad burocrática, sino que tiene el potencial de aumentar el valor del desarrollo. Esto también debería tenerse en cuenta cuando se crea una estrategia para cumplir con los reglamentos de arte público correspondientes.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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