Employers are Preparing Now to Tackle 2019's Newest Labor and Employment Laws

by Littler

As 2018 draws to a close, employers are looking to the next wave of labor and employment laws and regulations that will take effect in 2019 and beyond. On January 1, and throughout the coming year, employers across the nation must address a host of new or amended federal, state, and/or local obligations. This article summarizes the laws and regulations taking effect in 2019 that will impact most employers, and highlights some anticipated activity in the coming months. 

Federal Activity

The majority of labor and employment bills stalled in the 115th Congress. The most significant federal legislative development in 2018 that impacted employment law was Congress’s omnibus budget bill, the Consolidated Appropriations Act (“the Act”). The Act amended the Fair Labor Standards Act by addressing rules affecting tipped employees and tip ownership. Specifically, the Act expressly prohibits an employer from keeping tips received by its employees for any purposes (this includes allowing managers or supervisors to keep any portion of employees’ tips), regardless of whether the employer takes a tip credit.1

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which was signed into law on December 22, 2017, impacts certain deductions and reporting provisions for 2018 in 2019. For example, the law eliminated, at least through 2025, the exclusion for employer-paid relocation expenses, the deduction for employer-paid transportation fringe benefits, and the business deduction for entertainment expenses.2

This tax law also included a provision that eliminates a business expense deduction related to nondisclosure agreements (NDAs) in connection with the settlement of sexual harassment claims. The law amends section 162 of the tax code, which generally allows businesses to deduct certain business expenses, to provide that no business expense deduction will be allowed for: (1) any settlement or payment related to sexual harassment or sexual abuse if such settlement or payment is subject to a nondisclosure agreement, or (2) attorney’s fees related to such a settlement or payment. This exclusion applies to amounts paid or incurred after December 22, 2017, the date the tax bill was enacted. As a practical matter, this new restriction means employers must decide on a case-by-case basis whether any amount paid to settle a sexual harassment claim is significant enough to be worth the tax deduction at the expense of an NDA.

Immigration policy and enforcement remains a Trump administration priority. Although no immigration-related bill advanced in 2018, employers will likely continue to see increased U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement activity and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) policy initiatives in response to White House directives on immigration.3 Further changes are anticipated from USCIS in 2019.4

For the most part, federal employment law activity has been confined to the regulatory arena. For example, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) issued a proposed rule in September that would reverse the NLRB’s 2015 Browning-Ferris Industries decision and clarify the standard for joint employment.5 The comment period for the proposed rule will close on December 13, 2018; and a final rule is expected sometime in 2019.  The DOL's Wage and Hour Division also may propose its own joint employer rule, a re-vamped “white collar” overtime proposed rule, and a rule clarifying the “regular rate” of pay calculation for purposes of overtime compensation.6  Some final rules will take effect immediately, while others might afford employers a compliance grace period.

State and Local Activity

While federal legislative developments may have been slow in 2018, state and local lawmakers picked up the slack. As the chart below demonstrates, states and municipalities have adopted new laws and ordinances that will take effect in 2019 on a variety of topics, including protected time off, sexual harassment training, and salary history inquiries.

Many new state and local laws enacted in 2018 have already taken effect. The chart below focuses only on those laws with effective dates in 2019 or later. Readers interested in keeping abreast of legislative activity at the state and local levels should follow State of the States, our monthly report featuring notable bills and trends percolating in the statehouses and city halls nationwide.7

Laws Taking Effect in 2019

The chart below briefly recaps laws and regulations that will become effective in the few remaining weeks of 2018 and in 2019. Although local and industry-specific laws may be listed, these samples are included primarily to highlight compliance challenges employers face. Further, this chart does not include all state and local minimum wage updates. A complete discussion of minimum wage rate changes for 2019 can be found in a separate Littler Insight to be published later this month. Because the below chart is only a summary and does not include all possibly applicable federal, state, and local laws, employers are encouraged to discuss with knowledgeable counsel the local, state, and/or federal laws that will apply to the employer’s workplace in 2019.

Law Main Topic Summary Effective
Executive Order 13658 Contractor Minimum Wage Increases to $10.60 per hour the wage rate that generally must be paid to workers performing work on or in connection with covered contracts; increases to 7.40 per hour the required minimum cash wage that generally must be paid to tipped employees performing work on or in connection with covered contracts. 1/1/2019
EBSA Rule on Moral Exceptions  Benefits: Contraceptive Coverage These rules finalize expanded exemptions to protect moral beliefs for certain entities and individuals whose health plans are subject to a mandate of contraceptive coverage through guidance issued pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. 1/14/2019
EBSA Rule on Religious Exceptions  Benefits: Contraceptive Coverage These rules expand exemptions to protect religious beliefs for certain entities and individuals whose health plans are subject to a mandate of contraceptive coverage through guidance issued pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. 1/14/2019
OSHA Rule on Crane Operators Construction: Training and Evaluation of Crane Operators Amends standards for construction employers concerning the training, certification or licensing, and evaluation of crane and derrick operators. Evaluation and documentation requirements take effect on February 7, 2019. 12/09/2018
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
HB 79 Workers’ Compensation Amends Alaska Workers’ Compensation Act to define and exclude independent contractors from the benefits of the act, and prevents discrimination against employees who in good faith filed a workers’ compensation claim, but does not prohibit requiring applicants fill out a prior health or disability history form.  11/22/2018
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
AB 1654 PAGA Liability: Construction Employers Excludes construction employees from coverage under the state Private Attorneys General Act, if covered by a collective bargaining agreement that includes certain provisions, such as an express waiver. Remains in effect until January 1, 2028.  1/01/2019
AB 1976 Lactation Accommodation Amends lactation accommodation provisions to require employers to provide a location other than a bathroom to express milk. 1/01/2019
AB 2034 Human Trafficking Notice & Training Mandates updated notice to be posted by January 1, 2019 by numerous types of employers (public transportation, emergency rooms, hotels, rest areas, etc.). Requires training for certain mass transit employees by January 1, 2021.  1/01/2019
AB 22829 Salary History Amends the statewide salary history ban, adding guidance about the questions an employer may ask during an interview and when employers must disclose pay scales for positions. 1/01/2019
AB 233410 Workplace Safety Allows Cal/OSHA to issue recordkeeping citations for errors to logs, for up to five years. Empowers Cal/OSHA to consider enforcing electronic recordkeeping requirements if the federal agency ceases doing so. 1/01/2019
AB 2338 Sexual Harassment Training: Talent Agencies Requires agencies to distribute anti-harassment materials, along with information about nutrition and eating disorders. 1/01/2019
AB 2455 Home Care Aide Registry Authorizes disclosure of home care aide contact information to labor unions, upon request, after July 1, 2019. 1/01/2019
AB 2587 Family Temporary Disability Insurance Repeals the seven-day waiting period for the initial receipt of insurance benefits under the California family temporary disability insurance and the provision allowing employers to apply vacation leave to the waiting period.  1/01/2019
AB 2610 Commercial Driver Exception to Meal Period Laws For certain commercial drivers, requires a meal period after six hours of work, instead of five hours, if the driver is paid at 1.5 times the minimum wage and receives overtime compensation. 1/01/2019
AB 277011 Discrimination and Harassment: References Allows a former employer to state it would not rehire a former employee based on the employer’s determination that the former employee engaged in sexual harassment. 1/01/2019
AB 2844 Insurance Broker Commissions Creates rebuttable presumption that commission is lawful if compliant with other provisions and paid per written agreement. 1/01/2019
AB 3109 Waivers of Right of Petition or Free Speech Provides that a contract or settlement agreement provision is void and unenforceable if it waives a party’s right to testify about criminal conduct or sexual harassment committed by the other party. 1/01/2019
AB 3247 Arbitration Agreements Mandates that if a party to an arbitration agreement refuses to arbitrate, the court must order arbitration when petitioned by another party, unless grounds exist for rescission of the arbitration agreement.  1/01/2019
SB 224 Harassment Liability Amends Civil Code to impose liability on a defendant who “holds himself or herself out as being able to help the plaintiff establish a business, service, or professional relationship with the defendant or a third party,” including elected officials, lobbyists, directors, and producers. 1/01/2019
SB 820 Non-Disclosure Agreements Prohibits confidentiality provisions in settlement agreements that would thwart disclosure of information related to claims of sexual assault, harassment, and discrimination.  1/01/2019
SB 826 Board of Directors Membership Mandates that publicly held corporations must have a set number of women on their board of directors, based on the number of individuals on the board. 1/01/2019
SB 1123 Paid Family Military Leave Amends the Family Temporary Disability Insurance Program to include time off for a servicemember to participate in a qualifying exigency related to a covered active duty. 1/01/2019
SB 1252 Wage Record Receipt Allows current and former employees to request a copy of their wage record that they can keep.  1/01/2019
SB 130012 Discrimination and Harassment Among other things, curtails an employer’s ability to utilize non-disparagement clauses and certain waivers for claims asserted under the state Fair Employment and Housing Act. 1/01/2019
SB 1343 Sexual Harassment Training: General Requires employers with five or more employees to provide at least two hours of sexual harassment training to all supervisory employees and at least one hour of sexual harassment training to all nonsupervisory employees by January 1, 2020, and once every two years thereafter.  1/01/2019
SB 1402 Customer Liability in Labor Contracting: Port Drayage  Establishes joint and several liability for customers who use or engage port drayage motor carriers if those carriers have unpaid wages, taxes, or workers’ compensation claims. 1/01/2019
SB 1412 Criminal History Creates additional exemptions to the restriction on inquiring about an applicant’s prior arrest and detention record. 1/01/2019
SB 1428 Employment of Minors Work permits may not be denied based on grades, GPA, or school attendance for minors seeking to participate in government-administered programs during school breaks. 1/01/2019
SB 1500 Discrimination Against Service Members Prohibits employers from discharging or halting benefits of an employee for being a member of the military reserve or because of ordered military duty or training. 1/01/2019
Oakland, Measure Z Hotel Worker Protections Amends Oakland municipal code to raise minimum wage for covered hotel employees, require employers to provide panic buttons, and limit mandatory overtime, among other items. Minimum wage increase takes effect in 2019, with potential regulations and enforcement mechanisms likely by 2020. 7/01/2019
AB 37513 Consumer Privacy Allows a consumer to request a business disclose the personal information it collects, the categories of sources that collect the information, the business purposes for collecting or selling the information, and the categories of third parties with which the information is shared. 1/01/2020
SB 97014 Human Trafficking Training: Hotels and Motels Requires hotels and motels subject to the Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) to provide at least 20 minutes of training regarding human trafficking awareness to each employee likely to interact or come into contact with victims of human trafficking. 1/01/2020
SB 1121 Consumer Privacy Amends the new California Consumer Privacy Act (AB 375, above) to allow consumers to recover damages from a business if the business does not use reasonable security procedures to protect confidential information, and a breach occurs.  1/01/2020
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
HB 1186 Benefits: Contraceptive Coverage Requires health benefit plans to cover a multiple-months’ supply of prescription contraceptives or contraceptive ring intended to last for a three-month period.  1/01/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 31-410 et seq.15 Mandatory IRAs Requires private-sector employers without their own workplace-based retirement plans to enroll employees in Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) sponsored by the state. Per recent announcement, the law will be phased-in beginning in 2019. The requirement stems from legislation enacted in 2016. 1/01/2019
HB 5210 Benefits: Essential Health Care  Requires insurance coverage of certain health benefits, and expands benefits for women and individuals age 21 and under to include coverage for preventive services and screenings, immunizations, and contraceptives.  1/01/2019
HB 538616 Salary History Inquiries  Prohibits an employer from inquiring about an applicant’s salary history before an offer of employment, unless the applicant voluntarily discloses such information. 1/01/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
HB 36017 Sexual Harassment Protections and Training Requires employers with 50 or more employees to provide sexual harassment training to new employees within one year of employment, to existing employees within one year of the effective date of this act, and every two years thereafter. 1/01/2019
HB 483 Training and Youth Wages Creates a minimum training wage and youth wage of no more than $0.50 less than the state minimum wage. Training wage applies during the first 90 days of employment of an employee who is age 18 or older.  1/01/2019
HB 409 Mini-WARN Requires employers with 50+ employees to provide 60 days’ notice to affected employees, the Delaware Department of Labor WARN Act Administrator, and the Delaware Workforce Development Board of mass layoffs, plant closings, or relocations that will cause employment loss.  1/07/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
SB 235118 Salary History Restrictions and Wage Transparency Prohibits employers from inquiring about an applicant’s salary history or relying on that information when determining what compensation to offer the applicant.  1/01/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
SB 2999 Expense Reimbursement Requires employers to reimburse employees for all necessary expenditures or losses directly related to services performed by the employer. 1/01/2019
SB 3547 Service Member Employee Reemployment Rights Act Prohibits employers from imposing conditions for military leave. Service members must provide notice of pending service to employers to take military leave.  6/01/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
SB 2632 Unpaid Veterans Leave for Memorial Day and Veterans Day Amends prior leave law to require private employers to grant leave, paid or unpaid, for Memorial Day or Veterans Day to an employee who is a veteran.  11/08/2018
HB 464019 Minimum Wage, Sunday and Holiday Premium Pay, and State Paid Family Medical Leave Increases the minimum wage from $11 to $15 over five years, culminating in 2023. Gradually eliminates premium pay for retail employees on Sundays and holidays. Requires employers to provide paid family and medical leave to covered individuals. 1/01/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
Adopted Ballot Measures20 Paid Sick and Safe Time, Minimum Wage Raise The Earned Sick Time Act requires all private employers with one or more employees to provide paid sick and safe leave. The Improved Workforce Opportunity Wage Act raises the minimum wage in yearly steps until January 1, 2023, and each subsequent January 1, when the minimum wage is increased based on inflation. These laws may be subject to amendment during the ongoing legislative session, and the effective date is uncertain. Approx. 4/01/2019
Approved Ballot Measure, Proposal 121 Marijuana Permits adult recreational possession, use, and cultivation of marijuana. Commercial growing, marketing, and sales will follow after regulations are developed. Approx. 12/06/2018
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
Duluth Ordinance No. 15071 Paid Sick Leave Requires employers in Duluth with 5 or more employees to provide employees with one hour of earned sick and safe time for every 50 hours worked. 1/1/2020
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
Approved Ballot Measure, Amendment 222 Marijuana Authorizes qualifying residents or their caregivers to obtain identification cards to purchase marijuana, to alleviate the effect of certain medical conditions. Under this state constitutional amendment, application materials must be made available in June 2019.  Approx. 6/04/2019
New Hampshire
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
HB 1372 Subcutaneous Identification Devices Prohibits requiring, coercing, or compelling another individual to implant a subcutaneous identification device, either internally or externally. 1/01/2019
New Mexico
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
HB 276 Statements of Withholding Requires employers to submit annual statements of withholding electronically to the state tax department.  1/01/2019
New York
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
New York City Int. 0632-201823 Discrimination & Harassment Requires all private NYC employers with 15 or more employees to conduct annual anti-sexual harassment training. 4/01/2019
Westchester County Local Law 1062324 Paid Sick Leave Requires covered employers to allow eligible employees to accrue one hour of earned paid sick time for every 30 hours worked up to 40 hours per year.  4/10/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
SB 22025 Cybersecurity Provides legal safe harbor to businesses that implement a program for protecting personal information that meets industry standards.  11/03/2018
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
San Antonio Ordinance26 Paid Sick Leave Requires employers to provide one hour of earned sick time leave for every 30 hours worked within the City of San Antonio. Enforceability may be affected by pending litigation concerning the Austin paid sick law. 8/01/2019
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
Approved Ballot Measure, Proposition 227 Marijuana Authorizes qualifying residents or their caregivers to obtain identification cards to purchase marijuana, to alleviate the effect of certain medical conditions. Under Proposition 2, cards must be issued no later than March 1, 2020. The Utah legislature may soon pass a bill to amend this measure. In flux
Law Main Topic Summary Effective
SB 5975 Paid Family Leave Requires employers to provide 12 weeks of paid time off for the birth/adoption of a child, or for the serious medical condition of the employee or the employee’s family members.  12/31/2019
HB 2822 Service Animal Misrepresentation Amends Washington’s discrimination law to clearly define “service animal,” and creates a maximum penalty of $500 for misrepresenting an animal as a service animal. 1/01/2019
Seattle Ordinance, CB 11928628 Domestic Worker Ordinance Extends various protections (minimum wage, rest breaks) to domestic workers in Seattle. 7/01/2019



1 David Jordan and Eli Freedberg, DOL Clarifies Amendment to the FLSA’s Tip Pool Rules, Littler ASAP (Apr. 12, 2018).

2 Ilyse Schuman, Tom Cryan, and Michael J. Lotito, What Notable Employment Provisions are in the Tax Bill?, Littler ASAP (Dec. 20, 2017).

3 See, e.g., Shireen Judeh, USCIS Publishes Policy Memorandum on H-1B Third-Party Worksite Requirements, Littler ASAP (Feb. 28, 2018); see also Shireen Karcutskie, New USCIS Policy Memo and Efforts to Combat Fraud in the H-1B Visa Program, Littler ASAP (Sept. 28, 2018); Shireen Karcutskie, USCIS Developments on the Discretion Afforded Adjudicators, and H-1B Premium Processing, Littler ASAP (Sept. 17, 2018); Sean M. McCrory and Jorge R. Lopez, ICE Worksite Enforcement Increases as Promised During Fiscal Year 2018, Littler ASAP (May 21, 2018).

4 See James A. Paretti, Jr., Michael J. Lotito, Tammy D. McCutchen, and Tessa Gelbman, Joint Employment, Wage and Hour Changes are on the Regulatory Horizon, Littler ASAP (Oct. 17, 2018) (noting that USCIS is working on 21 separate rules, including a proposed rule governing the H-1B program, as part of its regulatory agenda).

5 See James A. Paretti, Jr., Michael Pedhirney, and Michael J. Lotito, Proposed Joint-Employer Rule Would Reverse NLRB's Controversial Browning-Ferris Case and Restore "Substantial Direct and Immediate Control" Standard, Littler ASAP (Sept. 13, 2018).

6 See James A. Paretti, Jr., Michael J. Lotito, Tammy D. McCutchen, and Tessa Gelbman, Joint Employment, Wage and Hour Changes are on the Regulatory Horizon, Littler ASAP (Oct. 17, 2018).

7 Michael J. Lotito, WPI State of the States: What State and Local Measures Will Appear on the Ballot?, WPI Report (Nov. 1, 2018).

Bruce Sarchet, Corinn Jackson, and Betsy Cammarata, California’s Newest Laws: It’s Shocktober for Employers!, Littler Insight (Oct. 1, 2018).

[1] Alexandra Hemenway, California Provides Guidance Regarding Its Salary History Ban, Littler ASAP (Aug. 7, 2018); see also New and Already Improved! California Clarifies Its Salary History Ban, Littler Podcast (Aug. 21, 2018).

9 See Alka Ramchandani, Cal/OSHA Emergency Regulation on Injury and Illness Recording and Recordkeeping Will Require Certain Employer Action by December 31, 2018, Littler ASAP (Oct. 31, 2018) (explaining that, under the emergency regulations, certain employers must submit their Cal/OSHA 300 logs by December 31, 2018).

10 Bruce Sarchet, California Enacts a Privileged Communication Law Regarding Sexual Harassment Claims, Littler ASAP (July 12, 2018).

11 See also Do New California Restrictions on Confidentiality Provisions Tie Employer Hands on Releases and Other Employee Contracts?, Littler Podcast (Oct. 29, 2018).

12 Philip L. Gordon and Andrew Gray, Unraveling the Newest Development in the Data Protection Juggernaut: What Does the “California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018” Mean for Employers?, Littler Insight (July 9, 2018).

13 Michael Manoukian, Michael G. Congiu, Stefan J. Marculewicz, and Lavanga V. Wijekoon, California Enacts Two Laws Aimed At Combating Human Trafficking, Littler ASAP (Oct. 2, 2018).

14 Maura Mastrony, Connecticut to Implement Mandatory IRA Program for Private-Sector Employees in 2019, Littler ASAP (Oct. 22, 2019).

15 Christopher Neary and Sharon Bowler, Connecticut’s New Pay Equity Bill Prohibits Questions Regarding Prospective Employees' Wage and Salary History, Littler ASAP (May 23, 2018).

16 Marissa L. Dragoo and Kevin P. O’Neill, Delaware Adopts Law Expanding Sexual Harassment Protections and Requiring Employee Training, Littler ASAP (Aug. 30, 2018).

17 William J. Simmons, Martha J. Keon and Judy M. Iriye, Hawaii Joins Salary History Ban Trend, Littler ASAP (July 6, 2018).

18 Chris Kaczmarek and Alice Kokodis, Massachusetts Increases Minimum Wage, Eliminates Premium Pay For Sunday Work, And Enacts New Paid Leave Program, Littler ASAP (June 29, 2018); see also Stephen Melnick, The Regular Rate Riddle in the Massachusetts “Grand Bargain” Legislation, Littler ASAP (July 3, 2018).

19 Michael Chichester, Jr., Anton Dirnberger, and Sebastian Chilco, From Ballots to Bills: Michigan Adopts Paid Sick and Safe Time Law and Raises the Minimum Wage, Littler Insight (Sept. 11, 2018).

20 Nancy Delogu and Betsy Cammarata, Voters in Michigan, Missouri, and Utah Expand Access to Marijuana, Littler Insight (Nov. 12, 2018).

21 Id.

22 Devjani H. Mishra and Emily C. Haigh, New York Sexual Harassment Laws – The City Commission Publishes Poster and Fact Sheet, Littler ASAP (updated Aug. 15, 2018).

23 Jill Lowell and Sebastian Chilco, Paid Sick Leave Changes in New York City and Westchester County Impact Empire State Employers, Littler Insight (Oct. 25, 2018).

24 Kwabena A. Appenteng, Fourth Quarter 2018 Workplace Privacy Update, Littler Insight (Sept. 17, 2018).

25 Melissa Ackie and Sebastian Chilco, Texas Two-Step: San Antonio Joins Austin in Mandating Paid Sick and Safe Leave; Then Court Enjoins Austin Law from Taking Effect During Appeal, Littler Insight (Aug. 21, 2018).

26 Voters in Michigan, Missouri, and Utah Expand Access to Marijuana, Littler Insight, supra note 21.

27 Jeremy Wood and Breanne Martell, Seattle Passes Ordinance to Expand Employment Rights to Domestic Workers, Littler ASAP (Aug. 27, 2018).


DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Littler | Attorney Advertising

Written by:


Littler on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.