Entschädigung aufgrund Benachteiligung wegen Schwangerschaft

by McDermott Will & Emery

Kündigt ein Arbeitgeber einer schwangeren Arbeitnehmerin unter Verstoß gegen das Mutterschutzgesetz (MuSchG), stellt dies grundsätzlich eine Benachteiligung wegen des Geschlechts dar und kann einen Anspruch auf Entschädigung auslösen. Dies ist jedenfalls der heute veröffentlichten Pressemitteilung des Bundesarbeitsgerichts zu entnehmen (Pressemitteilung Nr. 77/13 zum Urteil vom 12. Dezember 2013 – 8 AZR 838/12).

Das Urteil des Bundesarbeitsgerichts geht zurück auf die Entschädigungsklage einer Arbeitnehmerin nach § 15 Abs. 2 des Allgemeinen Gleichbehandlungsgesetzes (AGG), die sich wegen ihres Geschlechts von ihrem Arbeitgeber benachteiligt fühlte. Aufgrund bestehender Schwangerschaft galt für sie der besondere Kündigungsschutz des § 9 MuSchG. Darüber hinaus wurde für die Klägerin aus medizinischen Gründen ein Beschäftigungsverbot nach § 3 Abs. 1 MuSchG ausgesprochen. Der Aufforderung ihres Arbeitnehmers, dieses Beschäftigungsverbot nicht zu beachten, widersetzte sich die Klägerin. Zwei Wochen nach Ausspruch des Beschäftigungsverbots wurde festgestellt, dass ihre Leibesfrucht abgestorben war. Noch am gleichen Tag setzte die Klägerin ihren Arbeitgeber darüber in Kenntnis und informierte ihn, dass sie nach einem deswegen erforderlichen operativen Eingriff und entsprechender Genesung keinem Beschäftigungsverbot mehr unterliegen werde. Der Arbeitgeber sprach aber umgehend die ordentliche Kündigung aus.

Wie auch die Vorinstanz werte das Bundesarbeitsgericht das Verhalten des Arbeitgebers als Benachteiligung wegen des Geschlechts und sprach der Klägerin eine Entschädigung in Höhe von EUR 3.000,00 zu. Die Klägerin wurde wegen ihrer Schwangerschaft von der Beklagten ungünstiger behandelt und daher wegen ihres Geschlechts benachteiligt (§ 3 Abs. 1 S. 2 AGG i.V.m. § 1 AGG). Die Benachteiligung der Klägerin ergibt sich dabei allein schon aus der Kündigung des Arbeitgebers unter Verstoß gegen das MuSchG. Da Mutter und totes Kind noch nicht getrennt waren, bestand die Schwangerschaft noch im Zeitpunkt des Zugangs der Kündigung. Auch die Tatsache, dass der Arbeitgeber versuchte die Klägerin zum Ignorieren des Beschäftigungsverbots zu bewegen und der Ausspruch der Kündigung noch vor der künstlich einzuleitenden Fehlgeburt erfolgte, indizieren die ungünstigere Behandlung der Klägerin wegen der Schwangerschaft. Insbesondere in Anbetracht des durch § 3 Abs. 1 AGG betonten Schutzes der schwangeren Frau vor Benachteiligungen, rechtfertigt dies nach Ansicht des Bundesarbeitsgerichts einen Entschädigungsanspruch nach § 15 Abs. 2 AGG.


DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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