Financial institutions M&A trends: UK consumer finance

by White & Case LLP

White & Case LLP

 UK consumer crunch

Consumer finance markets differ substantially across Europe. This section centres on the UK (but not exclusively), given significant levels of M&A driven by regulatory change and the resulting investor behaviour.

Regulation has put the brakes on deal activity involving credit card providers and payday lenders, but specialty and marketplace lenders are continuing to attract large amounts of strategic and private equity interest.

The UK specialty finance market is at an inflexion point. If first movers successfully IPO, access to additional capital would boost credit availability for SMEs and consumers, as well as the ABS market.

Credit cards & consumer credit

Tougher rules and public scrutiny give dealmakers reason for pause.

Our M&A forecast

There are deals to be done, but activity will remain steady at best as regulation weighs on credit card providers. The UK FCA estimates its new rules could cost providers anywhere between £310 million and £1.3 billion per annum. Buyers are understandably cautious as a result.

Current market

Upward, marginal

We are seeing

Strategic and financial sponsor-led M&A

Key drivers

  • Healthy buyer appetite from trade consolidators and financial sponsors
  • Banks seeking to dispose of non-core businesses:
    • Concentration on core business lines and geographies
    • Increased operational risks (e.g., fraud)
    • Regulatory pressure to increase transparency and competition in the consumer credit sector
  • Movement towards distribution/white-labelling models

Trends to watch

  • Increasing regulatory burden (e.g., the UK FCA's new rules, which take effect on 1 September 2018, require credit card providers to effect a 3-year recovery process for customers in financial difficulty, ultimately requiring forbearance through reduction, waiver and/or cancellation of interest, fees and charges)
  • Credit card providers taking a more active role in policing 'harmful' consumer purchasing behaviours.

Payday lenders & high-cost credit

The UK watchdog keeps M&A in check.

Our M&A forecast

Players with sound customer practices will continue to attract investment and win market share. However, for most payday lenders, the focus is on bringing internal business practices into line with the UK FCA's requirements rather than deal-making.

Current market


We are seeing

Some financial sponsor support

Key drivers

  • Financial sponsors remaining keen on rich returns from near-prime, subprime and thin credit file borrower demographics
  • Increased operating and regulatory pressures — the UK FCA continues its active drive to reform and abate perceived harm to potentially vulnerable consumers

Trends to watch

  • Continuing high levels of regulatory scrutiny and intervention:
    • Particularly across overdrafts, catalogue credit, doorstep lending and rent-to-own products, which the UK FCA has identified as raising concerns
    • Possible expansion of the UK regulatory perimeter (e.g., introduction of price capping across more high-cost credit products)
    • Public outcry to end 'mega-margin' lending (e.g., Labour's campaign against high-cost credit cards)
  • Diversification by market players with healthier balance sheets and customer practices
  • Growth in the medium-term loan market

Specialty finance & marketplace lending

Stratospheric possibilities, as the first wave of platforms poise for IPO.

Our M&A forecast

High levels of M&A activity as market participants seek to capitalise on their first-mover advantages.

Brexit may also present a unique opportunity for speciality finance — while High Street banks focus more on high-margin corporate lending, speciality finance businesses can strengthen their position in SME and consumer lending niches.

Current market

Upward, significant

We are seeing

Financial sponsor-led and strategic M&A

Key drivers

  • Expanding universe of potential investors, including financial sponsors, banks and trade consolidators
  • JVs and other business partnerships between market participants and service providers
  • 2017 fund-raising successes means larger players have well-stocked M&A war chests — larger players are expanding inorganically, while smaller ones yield to competition
  • Growth of new lenders, encouraged by the UK government's support for responsible consumer/SME alternative finance

Trends to watch

  • The UK market is at an inflection point:
    • First movers are poised for IPO. If IPOs are successful, that could lead to marketplace lending securitisations becoming more of a bright spot, akin to the US asset-backed securities market
    • As UK peer-to-peer lenders transition from interim to full UK FCA authorisation, that increases the scope for growth through product diversification (e.g., LendingCrowd's launch of Innovative Finance ISAs)
  • Increased single market harmonisation and regulatory oversight (e.g., European Commission's Action Plan to assist EU crowdfunding growth)

Credit cards & consumer credit: Publicly reported deals & situations

Healthy buyer appetite

Deal highlight

Tesco's departure limits Irish credit card consumer choice to just six providers. Avantcard has rapidly accumulated market share, having only arrived in Ireland in 2012 through the acquisition of Carrick-on-Shannon – based MBNA.

  • Trade consolidators:
    • SIA: Acquisition of First Data's card processing European operations (May 2018)
    • Santander: Acquisition of WiZink's Portuguese debit and credit card business (May 2018)
    • Avantcard: Acquisition of Tesco Bank's Irish credit card portfolio (April 2018)
    • Sovcombank: Acquisition of Sovcomcard (April 2018)
  • Private equity:
    • Goldman Sachs: Acquisition of Final and Clarity Money (January – April 2018)
    • Värde Partners: Acquisition of the remaining 49% of WiZink (March 2018)
    • Elliott Advisors: Investment in Chetwood Financial (March 2018)

Banks disposing of non-core businesses

  • Tesco Bank: Disposal of Irish credit card portfolio (April 2018)
  • Banco Popular Español: Sale of 49% of WiZink (March 2018)
  • Bank Leumi: Ongoing disposal process for its controlling interest in Leumi Card (February 2018)
  • Bank Hapoalim: Disposal process for Isracard (February 2018)
  • Prudential: Disposal of Prudential Vietnam Finance Co. (January 2018)

Increasing operational risks

  • Inadequacy of automated accounting systems:
    • Citigroup: Refund of US$335m to its credit card customers (February 2018)
  • Growing fraud risk:
    • Revolut: Launch of single-use virtual cards (March 2018)

Restrictive business practices

  • Virgin Money: Ban on credit card customers purchasing bitcoin (February 2018)
  • Lloyds: Ban on credit card customers purchasing bitcoin (February 2018)
  • Monzo: Phase out of fee-free overseas prepaid Mastercard (January 2018)

Wider market influence

  • Regulatory burden:
    • Credit card charges on financially distressed customers: UK FCA's new rules for imposing charges on credit card customers in financial difficulty (February 2018)
    • Bank consumer credit risk reporting: UK PRA's requirement on banks to improve consumer credit risk reporting (January 2018)
  • Political pressure:
    • 84 MPs and Which? Petition to the UK FCA to restrict 'exorbitant' unarranged overdraft charges (June 2018)

Payday lenders & high-cost credit: Publicly reported deals & situations

Continuing PE support

  • Apollo and Värde Partners: Consortium acquisition of OneMain (January 2018)
  • Victory Park: £35m debt investment into Oakam (January 2018)

Regulatory pressure

  • High-cost credit products: UK FCA's update on high-cost credit highlighted the need for increased consumer choice of high-cost credit options as well as concerns relating to certain existing products (e.g., rent-to-own and home-collected credit) (January 2018)

Increased operating risks

  • Provident Financial: £170m customer compensation and £2m fine relating to failures in informing customers of the true cost of its repayment option plan add-on product (February 2018)
  • Payday UK: Compensation of £75 per customer for erroneous credit searches (January 2018)

Specialty finance & marketplace lending: Publicly reported deals & situations

Market inflexion point

Deal highlight

Amigo Loans is amongst the first to take the plunge.*

  • Upcoming IPOs:
    • Amigo Loans: Announcement of LSE free float of ≥25% (June 2018)
    • LendInvest: Near-term sights on LSE IPO (May 2018)
    • Funding Circle: Preparations for LSE IPO (January 2018)
  • Success of US marketplace lending securitisation:
    • US$4.3bn of total issuance in Q1 2018. Up 34% from Q1 2017. Cumulative issuances of US$33.4bn across 114 deals since 2013**
    • SoFi, Prosper, Lending Club, Marlette and CommonBond: MPL securitisations*** (January – March 2018)

Growing buyer interest

  • Private equity:
    • Kinnevik: Equity investment into Pleo (May 2018)
    • Quilam Capital: Equity investment into 1plus1 Loans and Catfoss Finance (February – May 2018)
    • White Oak: Acquisition of LDF (April 2018)
    • Cerberus Capital: Acquisition of Bluestone Holdings Australia (February 2018)
    • Finstar: Equity increase in Spotcap (February 2018)
  • Strategic:
    • Banca Sella: Acquisition of Vipera (April 2018)
  • Trade consolidators:
    • Paragon: Investment into Liberis and acquisition of Iceberg (January – April 2018)

'Survival of the fittest'

  • Expansion:
    • Bibby Financial Services: Application for Irish FX licence (May 2018)
    • Marcus: Expansion in the UK and Germany (May 2018)
    • Liberis, Supply Finance and Unity Trust Bank: Successful fund raisings in H1 2018 (April 2018)
    • Banco BNI Europa and Varengold Bank: Investment into MarketInvoice (March 2018)
    • EstateGuru: Launch into Finland and Spain (February 2018)
    • Octopus Property: Bridging loan JV with Acuitus Finance (February 2018)
    • Funding Circle: UK SME lending JV with Citibank, US SME lending JV with Intrust Bank and German SME lending JV with Banco BNI Europa (January 2018)
  • Exiting the market:
    • Collateral: Entry into administration (March 2018)
    • RateSetter: Exit from unsecured business loans market (January 2018)
  • New entrants:
    • Orange Bank: Launch of mobile subscription personal loans offering (March 2018)
    • TSB: Lending marketplace JV with Funding Options (March 2018)
    • Triodos Bank: Launch of its crowdfunding platform (February 2018)
    • City of London Group: Banking licence application to offer SME and development loans (January 2018)

Vertical integration

  • Bank of Ireland: UK mortgage intermediary services JV with The Post Office (April 2018)
  • TSB: Customer credit history improvement JV with LOQBOX (April 2018)
  • PrePay Solutions: Business accounting and banking JV with Countingup (April 2018)
  • Enra Group: Acquisition of Vantage Finance (January 2018)

Click here to download PDF of this chapter.

[View source.]

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© White & Case LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

White & Case LLP

White & Case LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.