FTC Bugged by Unsubstantiated Mosquito Repellant Claims and Endorsements With Undisclosed Material Connections

by Dorsey & Whitney LLP

The FTC announced an enforcement action last week that focused on two hot button issues – unsubstantiated health claims and failure to disclose material connections between endorsers and product marketers. In re Mikey & Momo, Inc. et al.

The Complaint and Proposed Consent Order involve a business named Aromaflage, which markets sprays and candles advertised as DEET-free mosquito repellants containing essential oils and fragrance. Aromaflage advertised its products, which were sold at $30 for an 8 milliliter spray bottle and $40 for a 7.5 ounce candle, “as effective as 25% DEET over 2.5 hours.” More specifically, Aromaflage claimed that the products were “scientifically tested,”  “rigorously tested at one of the world’s leading Universities and found to be as effective at repelling mosquitos as the leading brand” and would repel mosquitos “that may carry Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya and Yellow Fever.” By expressly mentioning product testing, Aromaflage was required to meet a stringent standard for making what are called “establishment claims” – ad claims that specifically refer to tests having been conducted to support the advertising claims.

Turns out that the testing had two significant problems – the test methodology was not scientifically rigorous and reliable and the results did not support the company’s positive claims. Here’s what bugged the FTC about the methodology: the testing did not include candles, even though the advertising claims were made for both sprays and candles; no human subjects were used, even though the products were intended to overcome mosquitoes’ attraction to human odors; and Aromaflage did not use more than one species of mosquito, even though other species can carry many of the diseases specifically mentioned in Aromaflage’s advertising material and could react differently to the same repellant. And the actual test results? Among other things, the data showed that at the 30 minute mark, more mosquitoes were in the Aromaflage-treated half of the testing chamber than in the untreated half and performed worse than water.  Unsurprisingly, the 25% DEET product performed better than the Aromaflage sprays for at least the first ninety minutes.

Aromaflage compounded its regulatory problems as a result of glowing testimonials on Amazon that were posted as independent reviews when in fact they were written by one of the company’s officers, her mother and two of her aunts – without disclosing these material connections to Aromaflage.

The FTC proposed consent order details an onerous 20-year compliance monitoring program that we are sure that defendants didn’t contemplate when they talked about their own “rigorous testing.” In fact, the order mandates that the defendants have “competent and reliable scientific evidence” to support their claims going forward – meaning:

tests, analyses, research, or studies that (1) have been conducted and evaluated in an objective manner by experts in the field of insect repellency; (2) are generally accepted by such experts to yield accurate and reliable results; and (3) are human clinical testing of the covered product, when such experts would generally require such human clinical testing to substantiate that the representation is true.

If that wasn’t enough, the order goes on to require that:

when such tests or studies are human clinical testing, all underlying or supporting data and documents generally accepted by such experts as relevant to an assessment of such testing as set forth in the Provision entitled Preservation of Records Relating to Competent and Reliable Human Clinical Tests or Studies must be available for inspection and production to the Commission.

While the order did not include a monetary judgment, it looks like defendants will be spending a pretty penny if they want to continue advertising their candles and sprays as beneficial.


  1. Making health-related advertising claims? – The FTC is watching and focused on protecting consumers from false or misleading claims relating to products advertised to prevent, treat or cure diseases from Alzheimer’s to Zika.
  2. If your ad says that your product was scientifically tested, that testing better be reliable and the methods should be well accepted in the relevant scientific community.
  3. On the subject of testing, make sure that your ad claims fit your testing – the claim should be designed based on what the testing shows and nothing more.
  4. The FTC isn’t saying your mom can’t go on Amazon and review your company’s products, but you’ll need to tell her that she’s going to have to tell everyone that she’s your mom when she writes her glowing review.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Dorsey & Whitney LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Dorsey & Whitney LLP

Dorsey & Whitney LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
Sign up using*

Already signed up? Log in here

*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
Privacy Policy (Updated: October 8, 2015):

JD Supra provides users with access to its legal industry publishing services (the "Service") through its website (the "Website") as well as through other sources. Our policies with regard to data collection and use of personal information of users of the Service, regardless of the manner in which users access the Service, and visitors to the Website are set forth in this statement ("Policy"). By using the Service, you signify your acceptance of this Policy.

Information Collection and Use by JD Supra

JD Supra collects users' names, companies, titles, e-mail address and industry. JD Supra also tracks the pages that users visit, logs IP addresses and aggregates non-personally identifiable user data and browser type. This data is gathered using cookies and other technologies.

The information and data collected is used to authenticate users and to send notifications relating to the Service, including email alerts to which users have subscribed; to manage the Service and Website, to improve the Service and to customize the user's experience. This information is also provided to the authors of the content to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

JD Supra does not sell, rent or otherwise provide your details to third parties, other than to the authors of the content on JD Supra.

If you prefer not to enable cookies, you may change your browser settings to disable cookies; however, please note that rejecting cookies while visiting the Website may result in certain parts of the Website not operating correctly or as efficiently as if cookies were allowed.

Email Choice/Opt-out

Users who opt in to receive emails may choose to no longer receive e-mail updates and newsletters by selecting the "opt-out of future email" option in the email they receive from JD Supra or in their JD Supra account management screen.


JD Supra takes reasonable precautions to insure that user information is kept private. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. However, please note that no method of transmitting or storing data is completely secure and we cannot guarantee the security of user information. Unauthorized entry or use, hardware or software failure, and other factors may compromise the security of user information at any time.

If you have reason to believe that your interaction with us is no longer secure, you must immediately notify us of the problem by contacting us at info@jdsupra.com. In the unlikely event that we believe that the security of your user information in our possession or control may have been compromised, we may seek to notify you of that development and, if so, will endeavor to do so as promptly as practicable under the circumstances.

Sharing and Disclosure of Information JD Supra Collects

Except as otherwise described in this privacy statement, JD Supra will not disclose personal information to any third party unless we believe that disclosure is necessary to: (1) comply with applicable laws; (2) respond to governmental inquiries or requests; (3) comply with valid legal process; (4) protect the rights, privacy, safety or property of JD Supra, users of the Service, Website visitors or the public; (5) permit us to pursue available remedies or limit the damages that we may sustain; and (6) enforce our Terms & Conditions of Use.

In the event there is a change in the corporate structure of JD Supra such as, but not limited to, merger, consolidation, sale, liquidation or transfer of substantial assets, JD Supra may, in its sole discretion, transfer, sell or assign information collected on and through the Service to one or more affiliated or unaffiliated third parties.

Links to Other Websites

This Website and the Service may contain links to other websites. The operator of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using the Service through the Website and link to another site, you will leave the Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We shall have no responsibility or liability for your visitation to, and the data collection and use practices of, such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of this Website and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our privacy policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use the Service or Website following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes. If you do not agree with the terms of this Policy, as it may be amended from time to time, in whole or part, please do not continue using the Service or the Website.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this privacy statement, the practices of this site, your dealings with this Web site, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: info@jdsupra.com.

- hide
*With LinkedIn, you don't need to create a separate login to manage your free JD Supra account, and we can make suggestions based on your needs and interests. We will not post anything on LinkedIn in your name. Or, sign up using your email address.