Head’s Up: Increased Risk of Consumer Class Actions With Growing Trend of Local Restrictions on Reporting and Considering Criminal History for Rental Housing

Seyfarth Shaw LLP
Contact

On January 21, 2020, the Oakland City Council unanimously passed the Fair Chance Housing Ordinance (“FCHO”), which will restrict landlords in their ability to reject a potential tenant because of prior criminal history. It also impacts background check companies that offer a tenant screening product (“consumer reporting agencies”) because they will have to modify their processes and procedures to ensure that information that is “off limits” to landlords and property managers is not included in a tenant screening report (“consumer report”). The Council will take a final vote on February 4, 2020. Given that Oakland is not the first jurisdiction to enact such an ordinance, and there are other similar laws pending across the country, background check companies need to monitor this evolving area of the law and take affirmative steps to avoid a class action.

Seattle Paved the Way for Laws Restricting Reporting and Consideration of Criminal History for Rental Housing Purposes

In the context of tenant screening, restrictions on consideration of criminal history appear to be gaining traction. The first such law was passed in 2017, when the City of Seattle enacted its own “Fair Chance Housing Ordinance.” In Seattle, it now is an unfair practice for any “person” (broadly defined to include landlords/property managers and their agents) to, among other things, “[r]equire disclosure, inquire about, or take an adverse action against a prospective occupant, a tenant or a member of their household, based on any arrest record, conviction record, or criminal history.” The exceptions are quite narrow, however, Seattle allows landlords and property managers to consider a tenant applicant’s status as a registered sex offender (but an applicant only can be denied on this basis if there is a “legitimate business reason” to do so).

While at first blush it appears the Seattle ordinance only restricts the information that landlords and property managers may request and consider, Seattle’s FAQ expressly states that “[u]nless there is an exclusion, neither landlords nor any person may run criminal background checks,” adding that “any person” includes, but is not limited to “property managers, owners, screening companies, etc.” As a result, we previously have recommended that background check companies consider modifying their processes to ensure that criminal history information is not reported to Seattle landlords and property managers, absent clear proof that an exception applies (e.g., sex offender registry status).

Oakland Follows the Trend With a More Comprehensive Ordinance

Citing a need “to give previously incarcerated persons or other persons with a criminal history a fair opportunity to compete for rental housing and to be able to reside with family members and others,” and also to reduce the incidence of homelessness for persons with a criminal history, the FCHO will make it unlawful for a housing provider (e.g., landlord, property manager, etc.) to, “at any time or by any means, whether direct or indirect,” inquire about a rental or leasing applicant’s criminal history, require an applicant to disclose or authorize the release of their criminal history or, if such information is received, base an adverse action in whole or in part on an applicant’s criminal history. Retaliation against any individual for exercising or attempting in good faith to exercise any protected rights under the FCHO is expressly prohibited.

“Criminal history” is broadly defined to include virtually any type of criminal record, regardless of how it is transmitted or obtained, and from whom, including one or more convictions or arrests, convictions that have been sealed, dismissed, vacated, expunged, sealed, voided, invalidated, or otherwise rendered inoperative by judicial action or by statute, juvenile records, or records reflecting participation in or completion of a diversion or a deferral of judgment program.

There are limited exceptions. First, it is not unlawful for a housing provider to comply with federal or state laws that require the housing provider to automatically exclude tenants based on certain types of criminal history, including, but not limited to:

  • Ineligibility of Dangerous Sex Offenders for Admission to Public Housing (42 U.S.C. § 13663(a).
  • Ineligibility of Individuals Convicted for Manufacturing Methamphetamine on Premises of Federally Assisted Housing for Admission to Public Housing and Housing Choice Voucher Programs (24 C.F.R. § 982.553).

If such a requirement applies, however, the FCHO states that the housing provider may not inquire about, require disclosure of, or, if such information is received, review an applicant’s criminal history until after the housing provider does the following: (1) informs the applicant in advance that the housing provider will check for certain types of criminal history; and (2) requests written consent, or if the applicant objects, provides the applicant the opportunity to withdraw the rental application.

Next, a housing provider may review California’s sex offender registry, provided that it (1) has stated the lifetime sex offender screening requirement in writing in the rental application, and (2) does not inquire about, require disclosure of, or, if such information is received, review an applicant’s criminal history until after the housing provider:

  • determines whether the applicant is qualified for the rental under all of the housing provider’s criteria for assessing applicants (except for any criteria related to criminal history);
  • provides to the applicant a conditional rental agreement that commits to providing the rental to the applicant as long as the applicant meets the housing provider’s criminal history criteria with respect to the registry of lifetime sex offenders; and
  • informs the applicant in advance that the housing provider will be checking the sex offender registry and requests written consent or, if the applicant objects, provides the opportunity to withdraw the rental application.

If a housing provider takes adverse action against an applicant based in whole or in part on their criminal history, it must provide a written notice to the applicant regarding the decision that includes, at a minimum:

  • the reason(s) for the adverse action;
  • instructions regarding how to file a complaint about the decision with the City;
  • a list of local legal services providers, including contact information;
  • a copy of any criminal history, background check report, or other information related to the applicant’s criminal history that served as a basis for the decision; and
  • an opportunity to respond with rebutting or mitigating information prior to the denial of the application.

Notably, the FCHO requires that the adverse action notice go above and beyond what the Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”) and the California Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act (“ICRAA”) require. While both statutes require a notice that simply advises of the adverse decision, the right to submit a dispute, the right to request a copy of the report, and the contact information for the consumer reporting agency that furnished the report, the FCHO adds to these by requiring a copy of the report, an explanation for the decision, and an opportunity for rebuttal (in addition to the other information described above).

The FCHO also makes it unlawful for a housing provider to require reimbursement or payment from the applicant for providing any criminal history or criminal background check report.

The FCHO requires housing providers to follow additional requirements, such as posting a notice advising of applicants’ rights (in a form to be published by the City), including a copy of that same notice with any rental or leasing application, and maintaining a record of any criminal history obtained for any applicant for a period of three years.

Aggrieved applicants can file a complaint with the City, who, upon the finding of a violation, may issue a civil penalty of up to $1,000 for each violation, recover the costs of any investigation or issuance of civil penalties, and/or issue a warning letter and assess costs in lieu of issuing a civil penalty for a violation. Alternatively, aggrieved applicants (as well as the City Attorney or a tax exempt organization whose mission is to protect the rights of tenants or incarcerated persons in Oakland or Alameda County) may file a civil lawsuit against the housing provider. Aside from equitable relief, damages may include liquidated damages (e.g., three times the greater of either actual damages (including damages for mental or emotional distress), one month’s rent that the housing provider charges for the rental unit in question, or the fair market value of such rental unit); punitive damages; and attorney’s fees and costs. The City Attorney also may include requests for civil penalties of up to $1,000 per violation.

Violations of the FCHO also are subject to criminal liability: an infraction for a violation, and a misdemeanor for a violation that is knowing and willful. Especially important for background check companies, the criminal penalties section of the FCHO recognizes an aiding and abetting theory of liability by stating that any person who “aids” a housing provider can be criminally responsible. Thus, like Seattle, background check companies should consider modifying their processes to ensure that criminal history information is not reported to housing providers in Oakland unless an exception applies and any request for such information comports with the procedural requirements set out above.

Increased Risk of Consumer Class Actions

Given the growing trend of reporting and restrictions on consideration of criminal history, there is an equivalent growing risk of consumer class actions against landlords, property managers, and/or background companies for non-compliance. Alternatively, an enterprising plaintiffs’ bar may look to create a new basis to bring class action claims against these parties. Both providers and recipients of criminal history information for any purpose should evaluate state and local laws that regulate use of such of information, modify their policies and practices, and take steps to stay abreast of this evolving area of law.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Seyfarth Shaw LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Seyfarth Shaw LLP
Contact
more
less

Seyfarth Shaw LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.