IP Protection Post-Brexit: A Right-by-Right Analysis

Morrison & Foerster LLP

SUMMARY

The United Kingdom is set to leave the European Union on 29 March 2019 (“Exit Date”).  With Brexit fast approaching, on 25 November 2018 the EU and the UK announced their consensus on a withdrawal agreement that sets out the terms of the UK's exit. But the withdrawal agreement is subject to approval by the UK Parliament ­ which is likely to be controversial.

The post-Brexit treatment of intellectual property (IP) is one of the issues addressed in the withdrawal agreement. For months leading up to the announcement of this agreement, the UK government has also been preparing contingency plans for what might happen if an agreement either couldn’t be reached or was agreed but then rejected by Parliament (the so-called “no-deal” scenario).

In this article, we summarise what IP owners can expect in relation to the various categories of IP when the UK leaves the EU on 29 March 2019. We also set out recommended actions that can be taken to address IP risk – especially in a potential no-deal scenario. At the bottom of this article, you will find a table that sets out the various implications of Brexit for intellectual property in both a deal and no-deal scenario.

BACKGROUND

In an effort to harmonise national IP rules and create a unitary European IP system that reduces costs and makes the EU an attractive market for IP owners, the EU has made a significant effort over the years to create an EU-wide IP protection regime. These supranational rights that take effect in all EU Member States include, inter alia, European Union trade mark registrations (EUTMs), Registered Community Designs (RCDs), Unregistered Community Design Rights (UCDs) and granted Community Plant Variety Rights (CPVRs) (together, EU-IP). A pan-European patent right regime – the Unitary Patent system – has also been long in the making but has not yet been ratified by all required Member States.

With the UK’s public vote in June 2016 to leave the EU, one of the countless questions to be addressed in the Brexit negotiations has been: “What will become of this EU-IP post-Brexit?” Without an agreement between the EU and the UK in place after the Exit Date, EU law will no longer apply to the UK, and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) will not have jurisdiction over the UK. In this worst-case scenario, EU-IP will simply cease to extend to the UK from one day to the next. IP rights holders that had mainly or exclusively relied on such EU-IP could end up without any form of protection in the UK. Given the thriving activities of UK businesses in filing, for example, EUTMs (with the UK generating the second-highest number of filings in the EU), this is not only a concern for EU-IP holders in the mainland Member States but also of particular interest to EU-IP holders in the UK.

So IP rights holders looked to the EU and the UK government for guidance.

The European Commission got the ball rolling in March 2018 by releasing the “Draft Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community”, which reflected the state of affairs with regard to post-Brexit protection of pan-European IP.

In April 2018, the UK ratified the Unified Patent Court Agreement, and the Hague Agreement for industrial designs took effect in June 2018. Additionally, the UK and EU jointly released a statement in June 2018 (“Joint Agreement”), stating that they had reached an agreement with regard to the Draft Agreement relating to, inter alia, the protection of pending Supplementary Certificates (SPCs).

Crucially, EU and UK negotiators agreed on a version of the UK’s withdrawal agreement on 14 November 2018 (the “Draft Agreement”), before the leaders of the 27 EU Member States also formally agreed to it on 25 November 2018. However, the Draft Agreement must still be voted through UK Parliament in order to be adopted. Such approval is far from guaranteed, and it is looking increasingly likely that if UK Parliament does not vote in favour of the Draft Agreement, a no-deal scenario will be the only alternative.

But the UK government spent the first part of 2018 doing contingency planning for a no-deal scenario. This might still be relevant if Parliament rejects the Draft Agreement. So, in July 2018, the UK government released a white paper setting out a proposed structure for the future relationship between the UK and the EU in terms of IP rights. That white paper highlighted the importance of further co-operation in matters of IP protection and touched on issues such as the participation in the Unified Patent Court system and the establishment of the UK’s own protection scheme for Geographical Indications (GIs). And the UK followed that up in September 2018 by publishing technical notices on IP explaining what will happen to IP in a no-deal scenario.

AGREED AND NOT AGREED (UNTIL EVERYTHING IS AGREED)

1. Transition Period and Certain Common Principles

The Draft Agreement provides for certain common principles that apply to most EU-IP. Other arrangements only apply to certain types of IP.

Most helpfully, the negotiators have agreed on a transition and implementation period that will run from 30 March 2019 to 31 December 2020 (the “Transition Period”). During the Transition Period, EU rights – including EU-IP – will extend to the UK and will:

  • have the same effect in the UK as in the rest of the EU;
  • be interpreted and applied in accordance with the same methods and general principles as those applicable within the EU; and
  • be deemed to include the UK when making any reference to Member States in EU.

The Draft Agreement also states that EU-IP granted before 31 December 2020 will also automatically be registered as a separate right in the UK (“UK Equivalent”). This applies to all registered rights i.e., EUTMs, RCDs and CPVRs. The UK Equivalents will have the same filing, renewal and priority dates as the original EU-IP rights.

If an EU-IP right is subject to an invalidation/revocation, nullity or cancellation proceeding that was started prior to the end of the Transition Period and such EU-IP is declared invalid/revoked or cancelled in such a proceeding (even after the end of the Transition Period), the UK Equivalent will also be held invalid/revoked from the same date. However, in accordance with Article 54, Sec. 3 of the Draft Agreement, the UK will have no obligation to issue such declaration where the grounds for invalidity/revocation, nullity or cancellation of the EU-IP do not apply in the UK.

Another agreement that could be reached pertains to the exhaustion of IP, which is a principle common to most IP but has found its specific expression in the EU in what is called ‘Fortress Europe’. In principle, exhaustion in the EU applies, and IP is not infringed if the IP, or a product applying the IP, was put on the market in the European Economic Area (EEA) by the proprietor or with his or her consent. The Draft Agreement contemplates that IP so exhausted within the EU (including the UK, for the term of the Transition Period) will remain exhausted in the UK and the EU thereafter.

The Draft Agreement does not address exhaustion after the Transition Period. The UK faces a decision on its position on post-Transition Period exhaustion: if the UK decides on using a national exhaustion regime, it may be possible for UK IP rights to be used to prevent parallel imports from the EU into the UK. While the UK government’s view of the no-deal scenario is that the UK will continue to recognize the EEA regional exhaustion regime, the EU has currently provided no indication that it will reciprocate this recognition. As a result, while there ought to be no change for the importation of goods into the UK, there could still be restrictions on the parallel import of IP-protected goods from the UK into the EU/EEA. The UK government has advised that IP rights-holders take necessary precautions to determine whether they need to obtain any consents or other approvals in order to export goods to the EU after the Exit Date.

2. Trade Mark Rights

In addition to the above-stated principles that will apply to the registration of UK Equivalents, holders of EUTMs that are converted into UK Equivalent trade marks will further benefit from the seniority of a UK trade mark that was claimed in the EUTM registration. EUTMs will convert into UK Equivalents automatically, and without any charge.

Importantly, EUTM applications that were filed within the Transition Period and received a date of filing, but are still pending at the Transition Period’s end, will not automatically be converted into UK Equivalents. Instead, the applicant will have a so-called “right of priority”, meaning the right to file for an identical copy of such EUTM application (i.e., identical mark and identical list of goods and services) in the UK within nine (9) months of the end of the Transition Period, and will then be granted the same filing date and priority as its corresponding EUTM application.

Other trademark issues to be aware of relate to:

A. Genuine Use

UK Equivalent trademarks will not be liable to revocation on the ground that the corresponding EUTM was not used in the territory of the UK before expiry of the Transition Period. It remains unclear, however, when the non-use period will start to run after the end of the Transition Period. This effectively extends the so-called “grace period” of the UK Equivalent trade marks (meaning the period in which to commence use of the mark in the UK before the UK Equivalent trade mark becomes vulnerable to cancellation for non-use). However, there is no such provision for the reciprocal grant of EUTMs used solely in the UK. Even though the EU has previously suggested that use of a EUTM in the UK qualifies as use in the EU (at least as it relates to the period before the end of the Transition Period), that position has not found its way into the Draft Agreement. For businesses that have been operated exclusively in the UK prior to the end of the Transition Period, there remains a risk that their EUTMs may be vulnerable to cancellation for non-use in the EU.

B. Reputation

Until expiry of the Transition Period, UK Equivalent trade marks will benefit from the reputation that the corresponding EUTM enjoys in the EU. Thereafter, reputation will be based on their use in the UK.

C. International Registrations with EU designations

The UK also agreed to take measures to ensure that trade marks protected in the UK through an international registration designating the EU via the Madrid System (i.e., the primary international system for facilitating the registration of trade marks in multiple jurisdictions around the world) will continue to enjoy protection following the end of the Transition Period.

The UK government’s no-deal scenario position is that it will ensure that all existing registered EU trade marks will continue to be protected and to be enforceable in the UK by providing an equivalent trade mark or design registered in the UK. It will continue to allow rights holders nine (9) months to apply in the UK for the same protections, retaining the date of the EU application for priority purposes.

The government intends that rights holders with an existing EU trade mark will have a new UK Equivalent right granted that will come into force at the point of the UK's exit from the EU “with minimal administrative burden”. It’s not clear what such an administrative burden will include, but rights holders should be aware that there may be some action (however small) required on their part to assert their new UK Equivalent trade mark right.

3. Designs

A. Registered Community Designs (RCDs)

The protection mechanisms provided under the Draft Agreement for RCDs are essentially the same as those for UK Equivalents in general and UK Equivalent trade marks in particular. Here, too, UK Equivalents will have the same filing and priority dates as their RCD counterparts, and RCD applications still pending at the end of the Transition Period must be filed again with the UK IPO within nine (9) months in order to enjoy such privilege.

In addition, with its ratification of the Hague System in March 2018, the UK opened up another possibility for foreign companies and individuals to obtain design protection in the UK. Comparable to the Madrid System for international trademark registrations, the Hague Agreement allows applicants to register a design in any one of the 67 contracting countries through a single application via the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Previously, design protection in the UK via the Hague Agreement could be obtained by means of designating the EU only (which included the UK), but it will now be possible to designate the UK directly through the system. On the other hand, in the Draft Agreement, the UK agrees to take measures to ensure the protection of EU designations via the Hague System that were registered before the end of the Transition Period.

B. Unregistered Community Designs (UCDs)

UCDs are designs that, from the date on which they were first made available to the public within the EU, are protected under the Council Regulation (EC) No. 6/2002. The UCD protection lasts for a period of three (3) years. The Draft Agreement provides that the holders of UCDs that were made available before the end of the Transition Period will benefit from a UK Equivalent for the remaining period of protection. However, the UK still has to provide the relevant mechanism for this, as the UK’s current unregistered design right legislation does not offer the same scope of protection as that provided under the EU regime.

But in its no-deal scenario notice, the government has stated that it will ensure that all UCDs which exist at the Exit Date will continue to be enforceable in the UK. Additionally, the UK will create a new UK unregistered design right which mirrors the characteristics of the Unregistered Community Design. This means that designs which are disclosed after the UK exits the EU will also be protected automatically in the UK under the current terms of the Unregistered Community Design. This new right will be known as the Supplementary Unregistered Design right. The UK also intends to amend legislation to ensure that the UK unregistered design right regime functions effectively once the UK is no longer part of the EU system for designs.

4. Geographical Indications and Protected Designations of Origin

According to the Draft Agreement, the UK will provide holders of GIs and Protected Designations of Origin with continued protection of their rights in the UK after expiry of the Transition Period without any re-examination, and GIs will be granted at least the same level of protection under UK law as they are under the relevant EU equivalent.

However, the White Paper states that the UK will establish its own GI scheme consistent with, and possibly going beyond, the provisions of the World Trade Organisations Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The new scheme will provide a clear and simple set of rules on GIs and continuous protection in the UK for UK GIs, notwithstanding exit from the EU. It will be open to new applications from both UK and non-UK applicants.

The current UK position is that, post-Brexit, it anticipates that all current UK GIs will continue to be protected by the EU’s GI schemes. If this is not the case, UK producers wishing to regain the protection offered by EU GI status, and the right to use the EU GI logo, would need to submit their applications to the European Commission as “third country” producers. The application process would be similar to that used by EU countries, with the additional need to show that the GI was protected in the UK.

The UK is working to replicate EU free trade agreements and other sectoral agreements, including accommodating the protection of UK GIs in third countries. After March 2019, irrespective of the outcome of EU negotiations, the UK expects that UK GIs currently named in and protected by EU free trade agreements and other sectoral agreements will continue to be protected.

5. Community Plant Variety Rights (CPVRs)

UK Equivalents relating to CPVRs benefit from the same principles common to all registered EU-IP, as discussed above. Additionally, the term of the UK Equivalent will be at least equal to the remaining period of protection under EU law.

Comparable to the provisions on pending EUTM and RCD applications at the end of the Transition Period, CPVR applications will not automatically be converted into corresponding UK applications. The applicant will instead have an ad hoc right of priority, meaning the right to file an identical UK application that secures the priority of the CPVR application for the UK application for the purpose of determining distinctness, novelty and entitlement to the right of such a UK application. However, the period in which to file a priority-saving application in the UK has been reduced to six (6) months only.

6. Database Rights

Database rights were introduced in the UK with the implementation of the EU Database Directive (Directive 96/9/EC). This protects databases where, at the time the database is made, its maker is (1) an individual who is a national of or habitually resident in the EEA; or (2) a company incorporated, or an unincorporated body formed, under the law of an EEA state that has its central administration, principal place of business or registered office within the EEA.

In the Draft Agreement, the UK agrees that the holder of a right in relation to a database that arose before the end of the Transition Period will be granted an IP right in respect of the United Kingdom with the same level of protection as that afforded under the EU Database Directive if such person or entity is: (i) a UK national, (ii) a person with a habitual residence in the UK or (iii) an undertaking established in the UK.

In relation to (iii), where an undertaking has only its registered office in the UK, its operations must be genuinely linked on an ongoing basis with the economy of the UK or of a Member State.

7. “.eu” country code Top Level Domains (“ccTLD”)

In addition to the Draft Agreement, the European Commission released another statement in March 2018, announcing that the regulatory framework pertaining to .eu ccTLDs will cease to apply to the UK from 30 March 2019. Thus, undertakings and organisations that are established in the UK but not in the EU and natural persons who reside in the UK will:

  • no longer be eligible to register or renew .eu ccTLDs;
  • be subject to revocation actions by EURid without the right to submit the dispute to any extrajudicial settlement of conflicts (as provided for in Article 20(b) of the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 874/2004);
  • no longer be eligible to rely on IP that is recognized or established under UK law but not under EU Member States (e.g., common law rights) in .eu domain name dispute proceedings, which, until such date, has been the case in accordance with Article 21 of the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 874/2004; and
  • not be eligible to rely on a choice-of-law clause in agreements concluded between the Registrar and the .eu domain registrant if such clause designates UK law.

The statement of the European Commission stresses that a transitional arrangement may be contained in the final Withdrawal Agreement. The Draft Agreement in its current form, however, provides no information in this regard.

8. Patents

In general, there will be no impact on European patent protection in its current form, which is granted as a bundle of national rights in selected countries of the European Patent Convention (EPC). This is because, in contrast to what its name suggests, the EPC is not a sole EU institution and several non-EU Member States (e.g., Morocco) are party to it.

However, it remains an open question whether the UK will be party to the Unified Patent Court (UPC) system, under which a new type of patent will be issued by the European Patent Office conferring protection across the entire territory of the participating European nations as one single right. As indicated at the beginning of this article, the United Kingdom ratified the UPC Agreement (UPCA) and thereby paved the way for negotiations to ensure the UK’s continued participation in the UPC following Brexit. In the White Paper, the UK again affirmed its intention to further explore staying in the UPC and the Unitary Patent systems post-Brexit and to “work with other contracting states to make sure the Unified Patent Court Agreement can continue on a firm legal basis.

However, as with almost everything concerning Brexit, the UK’s participation in the UPC System is still far from certain. On the one hand, it is yet to be seen whether the UK is willing to accept the role of the ECJ in the UPC System despite its intentions to end the ECJ’s jurisdiction in the UK overall. On the other hand, as reported earlier here, the UPCA must enter into force before the UK leaves the EU – i.e., before 29 March 2019 – but there are still outstanding ratifications, from, inter alia, Germany, where a constitutional claim filed with the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) is currently pending, barring the German Federal President (Bundespräsident) from signing the UPCA and the UPC’s Protocol Privileges and Immunities.

9. Supplementary Certificates (SPCs)

SPCs can provide up to five (5) additional years of protection for a marketed medicine or plant-protection products. Since these SPCs are based on EU regulations No. 1610/96 and No. 469/2009, the UK will need to replace the existing legal framework for rights of patent term extension with a new framework to be available at the end of the Transition Period. Under Article 60 of the Draft Agreement, SPC applications filed before the end of the Transition Period and still pending at its end will be granted even after the end of that Period and provide the same level of protection under UK law as under the EU Regulations.

WHAT’S LEFT TO DECIDE?

Although consensus on the Draft Agreement has been reached by the negotiators of the EU and UK government, the UK government must still steer the Draft Agreement through the UK Parliament for approval. A large chunk of the UK Parliament appears to remain strongly opposed to the Draft Agreement as it stands, so the possibility that it will not vote in favour of the Draft Agreement remains a real one. The EU has been fairly unequivocal in its claims that the Draft Agreement is the only deal possible for the UK, meaning that if the UK Parliament does not approve it, a no-deal scenario will loom large, though whether attitudes on either side may soften remains to be seen.

RECOMMENDED ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN NOW

The UK, at several points in negotiations, has threatened to leave the EU without a deal. And, indeed, the possibility remains that topics other than IP prevent the UK from signing the final draft of the Withdrawal Agreement. IP owners are advised to bear the genuine possibility of a no-deal scenario, as described above, in mind when planning their IP strategy moving forward.

Even though each portfolio is unique and measures should be taken on a case-by-case basis, there are a number of general actions that could be considered at this stage:

1. EUTM and RCD Holders

  • Review of Portfolio.  Owners should review their portfolios for important marks or designs that are protected solely by European or international registrations with EU designation and should consider filing a national UK application or an international registration with UK designation for additional reassurance.
  • Dissimilar Protection.  Likewise, if you hold protection under both the UK and the EU trademark regimes, you may want to make sure that the goods and services that your business offers, or will offer in the near future, are protected by both registrations equally – if this is not the case, you may want to consider filing a separate EUTM or UK trademark as the case may be.
  • Existing UK Trade Marks.  Avoid allowing existing UK registrations to lapse. If you have existing UK registrations, make sure to extend protection where necessary. 
  • New Filings.  With regard to new filings for important EUTMs or RCDs, consider whether it should be accompanied by a national UK application for additional reassurance.
  • Pending EUTM Applications Subject to Oppositions.  EUTM applications that are subject to an opposition based on the earlier national right of countries remaining in the EU (i.e., trademark, company name, etc.) should be pushed forward because, in order to profit from a UK Equivalent, the trademark must be registered at the end of the Transition Period. On the other hand, in relation to pending EUTM applications that are subject to an opposition based on an earlier UK right (e.g., by way of extending the cooling-off period), or pending UK trademark applications that are subject to an opposition based on an earlier EUTM, it may be advisable to slow down the opposition proceeding (e.g., by way of extending the cooling-off period). This is because, after the Exit Date or, respectively, the Transition Period at the latest, these earlier rights will likely not be a legal basis for an opposition against your application anymore. 
  • Sole Use of EUTMs in the UK. Owners of EUTMs that have been put to use exclusively, or almost exclusively, in the UK and are (or will soon be) subject to the use requirement may want to consider starting to use their rights more extensively in other EU countries or to register new national trademarks in important countries of the EU in order to benefit from a new grace period.

2. Breeders: With regard to applications not yet filed or likely not to be granted until December 31, 2020, breeders should prepare to file applications in the EU and immediately following the Transition Period in the UK. Unfortunately, this will likely go hand-in-hand with double the paperwork: two lots of Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability examinations and, of course, an increase in fees.

3. License Agreements: Existing license agreements where (i) the UK is part of the license territory and/or (ii) EU-IP or international registrations designating the EU are licensed should be carefully examined and, with regard to new license agreements, emphasis should be given to the contractual language to not only provide for a license to the EU-IP or the international registration itself but to also encompass its future UK Equivalent. Furthermore, territory definitions should make express reference to the UK, rather than merely to the EU as a whole.

4. .eu ccTLDs: Holders of eu. ccTLDs located in the UK with no establishment in the EU should consider registering other ccTLDs.

 

The table below sets out the various implications of Brexit for intellectual property in both a deal and no-deal scenario. The deal scenario is dictated by the terms of the Draft Withdrawal Agreement, and sets out the lay of the land after the end of the agreed Transition Period at the end of 2020. While the UK government has planned for a no-deal scenario, that would only apply if the Draft Withdrawal Agreement is rejected by the UK Parliament and no replacement is negotiated before the UK leaves the EU on 29 March 2019 (the “Exit Date”).

Comparison of a Deal and No-Deal Scenario

Topic

Deal Scenario

No-Deal Scenario

Registered European Trade Marks (EUTM)
and
Registered Community Designs (RCD)

  • Current right holder will obtain equivalent rights under UK law at the point of the UK’s exit from the EU
  • No changes for UK applicants, as with EU and third-country applicants, to apply for protection in the EU through an EUTM/RCD
  • Automatic conversion and free of charge (Art. 55)
  • First renewal date equal to renewal date of the corresponding original trade mark right (Art. 54.4)
  • Invalid or revoked rights not revived in the UK (Art. 54.3)
  • “New” UK trade mark (UKTM):
    • No details on application process published yet
    • Same filing and priority dates and same rights of seniority (Art. 54.5)
    • Not liable to revocation for lack of genuine use in the UK (Art. 54.5)
    • Trust in reputation acquired in the EU for corresponding UKTM (Art. 54.5)
  • Granted with minimal administrative burden
    • right holders will be notified that new UK right has been granted
    • opt-out option in case of lack of interest in receiving new UK right
    • no further details yet
  • Subject to renewal in the UK after the Exit Date
  • Can form the basis for proceedings before the UK courts and the Intellectual Property Office’s tribunal
  • Can be assigned and licensed independently from the EU right
  • Status of existing rights disputes in UK courts to be determined before the Exit Date

Pending applications of EUTM and RCD at the end of the Transition Period

  • Possibility of filing equivalent UK application within nine (9) months of the end of the Transition Period
  • UKTM:
    • No details on application process yet
    • Same filing and priority dates as the corresponding EU application (Art. 59.1)

Possibility to refile equivalent UK application within nine (9) months of the Exit Date

  • No notification
  • Possibility of refiling under the same terms for a UK equivalent right
  • Normal fee-based application process
  • Filing dates, claims to earlier priority and UK seniority maintained

Unregistered Community Design Right (UCD)

Existing UCDs will continue to be valid in the remaining EU Member States

UK will provide automatic right equivalent to UCD for rights still existing at the end of the Transition Period (Art. 57)

Existing UCDs will continue to be protected on the day of exit (as so-called “supplementary unregistered design right”)

  • UK protection system will be similar to UCD system
  • No action required by the right holder
  • Provisions will be made regarding the status of legal disputes involving UCDs which are ongoing before UK courts

Designs first disclosed in the UK after the Exit Date will be protected as supplementary unregistered design rights in a new system that will mirror the current UCD System

Community Plant Variety Right (CPVR)

  • Holder of a Community Plant Variety Right receives the same right in the UK for the same plant variety (Art. 54.1)
  • Pending CPVR applications: applicant will have an ad hoc right of priority in the UK for six (6) months after the Transition Period, whereby the date of priority is the same for the purposes of the DUS test (Art. 59.2)
  • CPVRs automatically recognised and given protection under UK legislation - no action from rights holders needed
  • Pending CPVR applications: onus on applicant to refile in the UK – normal application process, using same priority date and DUS test
  • For new varieties: two applications necessary to achieve the same geographic coverage – separate protection required in the UK and the EU

Geographical Indications (GIs)

  • GIs – existing and protected in the EU on the last day of the Transition Period - can be used in the UK without any re-examination (Art. 54.2)
  • Granted at least the same level of protection under UK law as under specific provision of EU law (Art. 54.2)

UK will set up its own GI schemes:

  • compliant with WTO TRIPS and broadly mirroring current EU regime
  • All UK GIs (86) will be given new UK GI status automatically
  • UK no longer required to recognise EU GI status
  • EU producers can apply for UK GI status
  • New UK logo expected – producers of GI products must be prepared for this

In the absence of an agreement with the EU, UK GI right holders will lose their EU right

  • UK GI product producers can apply for EU GI status to regain EU GI status by showing that GI was protected in the UK
  • alternatively or in addition: applying for EU Collective Marks or EU Certification Marks

UK patents, UK patent applications and EP applications

Remain generally unaffected by Brexit; the UK will continue to be a member of the European Patent Office (which is not an EU organisation) and will therefore continue to be a contracting state to the European Patent Convention

Remain generally unaffected by Brexit

Supplementary Certificates (SPCs)

UK will uphold the current SPC regime in the UK after the Exit Date and has assured the EU that existing EU laws (including the decisions of the ECJ, by which the UK will be bound during the Transition Period) will continue to apply, in particular:

  • Pending SPC applications submitted to a UK authority before the end of the Transition Period will be subject to the same process and criteria as set out in the current applicable EU regime (Art. 60.1)
  • Any SPC granted shall provide the same level of protection (Art. 60.2)

The applicability of ECJ decisions after the end of the Transition Period is less clear: the indications are that such decisions will not apply to UK law, but this may be clarified during the Transition Period itself

UK will maintain existing EU law on SPCs in UK law:

  • Existing rights and licenses in force in the UK will remain in force automatically after the Exit Date
  • No action is required from the right or license holder
  • No significant change to the legal requirements of the application processes
  • Pending applications will continue to be assessed on the same basis
  • New applications can continue to be filed

Unitary Patent (UP) and Unified Patent Court (UPC)

UK plans to stay in the UP and UPC system - no further details provided

Marketing Authorisation (MA)

Reciprocal obligation to make available information in relation to past authorisation procedures for medicinal products (Art. 45):

  • Upon request from an EU Member State, UK shall make available the MA dossier of a medicinal product authorised by a competent authority of the UK before the end of the Transition Period (Art. 45.1)
  • A Member State shall supply the UK with necessary MA dossiers on medicinal products authorised before the end of Transition Period, but only to the extent that UK’s legislative requirements replicate the circumstances set out in respective EU Directives (Art. 45.2)
  • For centrally authorised medicinal products the MA holder will need to transfer its MA to a holder established in the EEA - addressee of the MA decision changes to the new addressee
  • Transfer of MA must be fully completed and implemented by the MA holder before the Exit Date
  • As of the Exit Date, medicinal products manufactured in the UK will be considered imported medicinal products
  • Generic/hybrid MAs granted before the Exit Date referring to a reference medicinal product (RefMP) authorised by the UK (UK RefMP) remain valid
  • Generic/hybrid applications for which MAs will be granted after the Exit Date should refer to a REfMP that is or has been authorised in an EEA Member State

Copyright Works

UK copyright works’ protection will remain the same

  • UK copyright works’ protection will remain the same
  • Cross-border transfer of accessible format copies of copyright works may be affected between the Exit Date and ratification of the Marrakesh Treaty

EU cross-border copyright mechanisms

  • Certain cross-border copyright mechanisms will cease to apply to the UK from the Exit Date
  • Database rights:
    • Holders of database rights in respect of the UK, which arose before the end of the Transition Period, shall maintain enforceable rights in the UK
    • Same level of protection as provided under the Database Directive, provided that the holder of the right continues to comply with the requirements of Art. 11 of that Directive (Art. 58.1)

Will cease to apply to the UK from the Exit Date:

  • No obligation for EEA states to provide database rights to UK nationals, residents or businesses
  • Portability Regulation will cease to apply to UK nationals when they travel to the EU
  • Simplified clearance system will not apply to UK-based satellite broadcasters - may need to clear copyright in each EEA Member State to which they broadcast
  • UK-based Cultural Heritage Institutions may not rely on the exception to infringement for publication of orphan works
  • UK Collective Management Organisations will not be able to mandate EEA Collective Management Organisations to provide multi-territorial licensing

Ongoing Disputes

  • EU regulations will continue to apply to any legal proceeding which started before the end of the Transition Period; the Draft Agreement provides that the ECJ will continue to have jurisdiction:
    • for any proceedings brought before it by, or against, the UK, before the end of the Transition Period (extending to all stages, including appeal proceedings) (Art. 86.1); and
    • to give preliminary rulings on requests from courts and tribunals of the UK referred to it before the end of the Transition Period (Art 86.2)
  • Representatives who were representing a party will continue to do so at all stages before the Court of Justice, General Court and EU IPO

Remains uncertain

Exhaustion

Exhausted IP rights remain exhausted (Art. 61); no further details have been provided as to IP-protected goods placed on the EEA or UK markets after the end of the Transition Period, and such arrangements will be linked to the state of play of EU and UK trade arrangements more generally

  • Exhaustion regime for the importation of goods into the UK will remain the same
  • IP-protected goods placed on the EEA market after the Exit Date by, or with the consent of the right holder will continue to be regarded as exhausted in the UK – i.e., parallel imports of IP-protected goods from EEA to UK will remain unaffected
  • IP-protected goods placed in the UK market after the Exit Date by, or with the consent of the right holder will not be regarded as exhausted in the EEA - exporting goods from the UK to the EEA might require the right holder’s consent

 

[View source.]

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

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