News from Abroad: Canada's New Patent Rules -- Twelve Notable Changes and Tips

by McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP

[authors: David Schwartz* and Jeff Leuschner**]

On December 1, 2018, the Canadian government released its proposed new Patent Rules in the Canada Gazette, Part I.  This is one of the last steps necessary for implementing significant changes to Canada's patent law, which are expected to come into force in 2019.

There will be many changes to Canadian patent law and practice.  In this article, we discuss the most notable changes expected, and some tips for safe and effective practice under the new rules.

Six changes to look forward to

The intent of many of the changes is to implement the Patent Law Treaty and to help minimize the risk of loss of rights.  Changes we look forward to include:

1.  Restoration of priority will be available

Currently, in order to make a valid priority claim in Canada, the Canadian patent application must be filed no more than 12 months after the filing date of the priority application.

The new system will allow for the 12-month priority period to be extended to 14 months if the failure to meet the 12-month deadline was unintentional.  This change will bring Canadian practice into line with the right of restoration of priority provided for in Rule 49ter of the Regulations under the PCT.

However, the Federal Court of Canada can reverse the restoration of priority and declare the priority claim invalid if it is later determined that the failure to meet the 12-month deadline was intentional.

Tip: The "unintentional" standard for restoration of priority in Canada will likely be easier to meet than a "due care" standard applied by some other patent offices.  Consider Canada as a favourable choice for situations in which restoration of priority must be relied upon.

2.  Easier to secure a filing date in Canada

Under the current system, in order to obtain a filing date in Canada, the patent application must be in English or French, and a filing fee must be paid.

The new system will relax this requirement for direct filings not entering through the PCT: if the filing fee is not paid, or if the patent application is not in English or French, then the Canadian Patent Office will still grant a filing date.

It will also be possible to obtain a filing date on a day the Canadian Patent Office is closed, e.g., on a weekend or holiday, by filing the application electronically.  It will even be possible to defer filing a specification and drawings by instead making reference to a previously regularly filed application.

However, most of these relaxed filing requirements will not apply to PCT national phase applications.  For example, it will remain necessary to pay the filing fee at the time of national entry and, if the international application is not in English or French, a translation into English or French must be submitted at the time of national entry.

Tip: As discussed in greater detail below, restrictions will be placed on amendments after a translation is filed.  Care should be taken to ensure that all translations submitted to the Canadian Patent Office are free of errors.

3.  Opportunity to submit missing content contained in a priority application

A patent application occasionally is filed missing content, e.g., due to a clerical error when preparing the application.

Under the new system, the applicant may add the missing content, without loss of the original filing date, if the addition is wholly contained in a priority document, and the addition is made within two months from filing or, if the Commissioner of Patents sends a notice indicating that a part of the application appears to be missing, within the earlier of two months from the notice or six months from filing.  The addition cannot add to the claims of the application.

Tip: This procedure is only applicable to direct filings not entering through the PCT.  Advise immediately if missing content is discovered because the deadline to add the missing content may expire as soon as two months from filing.

4.  Amendment after allowance practice streamlined

Currently, only very limited amendments are permitted after an application is allowed.  In order to re-open prosecution, it is necessary to allow the issue fee deadline to pass such that the application becomes abandoned, and then reinstate the application.  This is complex and time-consuming.

Under the new system, the procedure will be streamlined such that the notice of allowance can be withdrawn and prosecution re-opened simply upon payment of a fee within four months of the date of allowance (and before the issue fee is paid).

Tip: Use the new simplified amendment after allowance procedure to add claims instead of filing a "voluntary" divisional application that could be rejected for obviousness double patenting.

5.  Excess page fees will not apply to a sequence listing submitted in electronic form

Currently, the issue fee is CAD $300 plus $6 for each page of specification and drawings in excess of 100.

The fee schedule will be updated to clarify that the excess page fee does not apply to pages of a sequence listing submitted in electronic form.  This will come as welcome news to biotechnology patentees who have in some instances been stuck with exorbitant issue fees due to long electronic sequence listings.

Tip: Consider deferring allowance of applications having very long sequence listings until after the new Rules come into force, in order to avoid excess page fees.

6.  More certainty regarding the deadline to correct certain errors

The current system allows for the correction of "clerical" errors, ultimately at the discretion of the Commissioner of Patents.  This has led to a complicated body of law concerning whether an error truly is "clerical" and, if it is, what if anything the Commissioner ought to do about it.

The new system does remove the ability to request correction of "clerical" errors, but it introduces more certainty by establishing clear deadlines for correcting common types of errors.  For example, specific deadlines are set in relation to correcting errors in priority claims, correcting errors in the inventor and applicant, and correcting obvious errors found in the patent.

Tip: Check filing documents and granted patents promptly, and advise immediately if an error is discovered.  In some cases, the window in which to correct an error is small.

Six changes to prepare for

Some of the expected changes will reduce the rights of patent applicants/patentees.  Changes we suggest you prepare for include:

1.  No more 42-month national phase entry by right

Under the current system, a PCT application can enter the Canadian national phase as late as 42 months from the priority date, although a late fee must be paid if the applicant enters the national phase more than 30 months from the priority date.

Under the new system, the option to enter late by right is removed.  If the applicant fails to enter the national phase by the 30-month deadline, it is still possible to enter national phase within 42 months of the priority date, but only upon submitting a statement that the failure to enter the national phase by the 30-month deadline was unintentional.

Tip: This change affects PCT applications having a filing date on or after the coming-into-force date of the new Rules.  For such applications, plan ahead for Canadian national phase entry no later than 30 months from the priority date.

2.  More complex maintenance fee regime

To maintain a Canadian application or patent, a maintenance fee is due each year beginning on the second anniversary of the filing date.  Under the current system, a missed maintenance fee may be paid up to 12 months late as a matter of right.  In the case of a pending application, this requires a request for reinstatement and reinstatement fee, whereas only a late fee is required in the case of a missed maintenance fee on a patent.

The new system will have a benefit in that it will require the Canadian Patent Office to issue a late notice if a maintenance fee is missed.  Also, anyone will be able to pay a maintenance fee on a pending application.

However, the new system adds complexity and uncertainty: if the maintenance fee deadline is missed, the deadline for late payment of the maintenance fee is not immediately known and therefore cannot be immediately docketed.  Instead, the deadline for late payment is dependent upon when the Canadian Patent Office issues the late notice.  If the deadline for late payment is also missed, then in order to restore rights, a submission showing "due care" must be filed within a prescribed period.  What constitutes "due care" is currently unknown, and restoring rights under the due care standard may be subsequently challenged in Federal Court.  Also, an exemption from infringement ("third party rights") may apply beginning six months after a missed maintenance fee payment, which is also a concept new to Canadian law.  Furthermore, because anyone will be able to pay a maintenance fee on a pending application, it will be more difficult to know with certainty whether a maintenance fee payment deadline has been met.

Tip: Do not miss a maintenance fee deadline.  Take steps now to put in place robust procedures for the payment of maintenance fees on Canadian patent applications and patents.  Consider providing instructions to pay maintenance fees as they come due, absent positive abandonment instructions.  Additionally, consider providing instructions to pay the maintenance fee in the event that the Canadian Patent Office issues a notice indicating that the maintenance fee payment was missed (we anticipate the notice will be sent to the Canadian patent agent of record), and absent positive abandonment instructions.

3.  More significant consequences if the deadline for requesting examination is missed

Before a Canadian patent application is examined, examination must be requested and an examination fee paid.

Under the current system, the deadline to request examination is five years from the filing date of the patent application.  If the deadline is missed, the application is abandoned, but may be reinstated as of right within 12 months.

Under the new system, the deadline for requesting examination is reduced to four years from the filing date of the patent application.  The term for requesting examination in a divisional application filed after the original examination request deadline is reduced from six months to three months from the presentation date of the divisional application.  Also, complexities similar to those described above in relation to maintenance fees are introduced if the deadline for requesting examination is missed.  For example, missing the deadline to request examination could ultimately result in a situation in which third party rights and due care reinstatement applies.

Tip: It may be advantageous to delay the examination request until close to the deadline so that examination can proceed on the basis of claims allowed in a corresponding application filed in another country.  However, do not miss the deadline for requesting examination.  Consider having standing instructions to request examination close to the deadline, absent positive abandonment instructions.

4.  Strict limits on amendments when a translation is filed

An amendment to a Canadian patent application must be reasonably inferred from the application as originally filed, assuming the amended subject matter is not admitted prior art.

However, an additional requirement will be imposed under the new system: if a translation into English or French is filed, then any future amendment to the Canadian patent application must be reasonably inferred from both the application as originally filed (in the foreign language) and the filed translation.

Tip: Take extra caution to ensure that the translation of your patent application is accurate and complete.

5.  Certified copy of priority applications now required

Under the new system, it will be necessary to submit a certified copy of each priority application to the Canadian Patent Office, unless a certified copy is otherwise made available through prescribed means.

Submission of a certified copy to WIPO during the international phase of a PCT application will avoid the need for a certified copy during the Canadian national phase.  So this change will primarily impact direct filings, not entering through the PCT, in which a claim to priority is being made under the Paris Convention.  The deadline to submit the certified copy of each priority application in such a situation will be the later of four months from the filing date of the Canadian patent application and sixteen months from the date of the earliest priority application.

The proposed Rules permit making a priority application available to the Canadian Patent Office in a digital library specified by the Commissioner of Patents, but details are still forthcoming.

Tip: For direct filings not entering through the PCT, or if a certified copy was not filed in the international phase of a PCT application, provide a certified copy of each priority application with your original filing instructions.

6.  Shortened prosecution deadlines

The new system reduces the time the applicant will have to meet certain deadlines and to respond to certain requisitions.  The term for requesting examination will be reduced from five years to four years from the filing date.  Examiner's Reports will have a standard term for response of four months rather than six months.  The final fee will be due four months rather than six months from the notice of allowance.

Tip: It may be possible to extend the time to respond to Examiner's Reports by an additional two months (i.e., six months from the date of the Report).  However, if such an extension of time is obtained, it will not be possible to request or continue accelerated examination under the "special order" procedure.


There is a 30-day public consultation on the proposed new Rules, ending on December 31, 2018.  Subsequently, the final Rules will be published in the Canada Gazette, Part II.  We presently anticipate that the new Rules may come into force later in 2019.  If you have any questions or would like further information, then please contact a member of our firm's Patent group.

* David Schwartz is a partner in Smart & Biggar's Ottawa office.
** Jeff Leuschner is a senior associate in Smart & Biggar's Ottawa office.

This article was reprinted with permission from Smart & Biggar.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP

McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.