PortMiami espera continuar con el éxito de las P3

by Bilzin Sumberg
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Una nueva colaboración público-privada (“P3” o “PPP”) llega a PortMiami. Royal Caribbean Cruises, LTD (“RCCL”) busca diseñar, construir, financiar, operar y mantener una nueva terminal para cruceros en el área noreste del puerto. Los planes de RCCL se han formalizado por escrito de forma preliminar en un memorándum de entendimiento no vinculante que se aprobó en la reunión de la Comisión del Condado de Miami-Dade el miércoles pasado. Se necesitarán aprobaciones posteriores de la Comisión para los documentos y acuerdos vinculantes.

Como es típico en una P3, RCCL hará más que simplemente arrendar un terreno para obtener espacio en una terminal. Compartirá el riesgo de diseñar, construir, operar y, lo que es más importante para el puerto, financiar la terminal. Las responsabilidades de mantenimiento estarán divididas entre el mantenimiento que corresponde a las mejoras de las instalaciones arrendadas por parte de RCCL y el mantenimiento de las áreas comunes fuera del predio arrendado por parte del condado, lo que satisface el elemento “M” restante en la sigla DBFOM (diseño, construcción, financiación, operación, mantenimiento [design, build, finance, operate, maintain]), utilizada para caracterizar una P3.

La P3 con RCCL llega tras la finalización exitosa de la P3 para el túnel del puerto, que ha recibido la visita y los elogios del presidente Obama, quien la alabó como ejemplo del tipo de P3 que se debería usar en todo el país para modernizar la infraestructura obsoleta de transporte. La P3 de 1000 millones de USD se construyó con el objetivo de desviar los vehículos y reducir la congestión del tránsito en el centro de Miami, además de reducir el tiempo de viaje hacia y desde el puerto. En menos de un año, el túnel del puerto alcanzó e incluso superó varios objetivos.

La P3 del túnel del puerto se estructuró como un acuerdo de concesión basado en pagos por disponibilidad. Con esta estructura de financiación, el sector privado construye, opera y mantiene las instalaciones con sus propios fondos, y la entidad pública (en el caso del túnel de puerto, Departamento de Transporte de Florida) realiza pagos a su socio con base en la disponibilidad del proyecto para el uso por parte del público. La entidad pública asume los riesgos asociados a la demanda de las instalaciones, dado que el monto que paga al sector privado no cambia incluso si el proyecto no se usa en la medida en que fue previsto, aunque la tarifa por disponibilidad puede estar compensada por las tarifas del usuario que se reciben del uso público del proyecto o instalación. El riesgo para la parte privada incluye el hecho de que su estructura tarifaria depende del presupuesto público, lo que puede estar sujeto a condiciones y restricciones presupuestarias y presiones políticas. También existen riesgos asociados con retrasos, reparaciones y aumento de costos que pueden hacer que el socio del sector privado no logre cumplir fechas límite o dé de baja al proyecto, lo que conllevaría penalizaciones por falta de disponibilidad.

Es probable que también se haga en PortMiami un nuevo desarrollo comercial de la esquina sudoeste, dado el interés que varios grupos han expresado, entre ellos, uno cuya solicitud de exención del proceso competitivo fue rechazada. A medida que el condado de Miami-Dade continúa avanzando en la financiación de proyectos y la solución de problemas de infraestructura por medio de P3, puede recurrir al éxito del puerto como garantía de que las P3 pueden funcionar bien en el condado de Miami-Dade.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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