Religious Institutions Update: January 2019 - Lex Est Sanctio Sancta

by Holland & Knight LLP
Contact

Holland & Knight LLP

Courts continue to grapple with the scope and meaning of the ministerial exception doctrine. In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & Sch. v. EEOC, 565 U.S. 171 (2012), the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed that a ministerial exception doctrine grounded in the First Amendment precludes application of certain anti-discrimination laws to claims concerning the employment relationship between a religious institution and its ministers. In that case, the plaintiff was a kindergarten teacher who was appointed as a "called" teacher by a member congregation of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. After she became ill with narcolepsy and had to go on disability leave, then threatened legal action, the church rescinded her call and terminated her. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) brought suit on her behalf for violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The U.S. Supreme Court determined that were the state to impose an unwanted minister on the congregation through enforcement of the ADA, the state would 1) infringe the Free Exercise Clause, which protects a religious group's right to shape its own faith and mission and 2) violate the Establishment Clause, which prohibits government involvement in ecclesiastical decisions. But what if the plaintiff sued over an alleged hostile work environment or sexual harassment while she was an employee of a religious organization, rather than for so-called tangible employment action such as hiring or firing?

The U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois concludes, as discussed in more detail below, that the ministerial exception doctrine does not apply to a hostile work environment claim but that the Religion Clauses may still preclude the suit if it requires entanglement with religion. The district court ruled that this would be the case under Title VII, in the event the litigation pertained to the employee's sex, sexual orientation or marital status, but not a hostile-work environment ADA claim. Religious institutions should take notice that the nature of the purported discrimination matters, as does the nature of the plaintiff's role and responsibilities. The Supreme Court identified several relevant considerations when deciding whether an employee is a minister subject to the doctrine, such as 1) the formal title given to the employee by the church, 2) the substance reflected in that title, 3) her own use of that title and 4) the important religious functions she performed. When the factors point in mixed directions, as discussed in more detail below, the Ninth Circuit ruled the doctrine inapplicable, whereas the U.S. District Court for the District of South Carolina applied the doctrine based, most importantly, on the notice to the employee of ministry responsibilities contained in her employment agreement. The dissent in the Ninth Circuit also considered the language of the employment agreement and handbook key. Religious institutions are wise to have church-state counsel review these documents to maximize legal protection.

Key Cases

Elementary School Teacher States ADA Claim Against Catholic School

In Biel v. St. James School, No. 17-55180, 2018 WL 6597221 (9th Cir. Dec. 17, 2018), the court of appeals reversed summary judgment granted in favor of the defendant against a former elementary school teacher who alleged violation of the ADA against a Catholic school when it did not renew her contract for the next academic year after she told her employer that she had breast cancer and would need to miss work to undergo chemotherapy. The court determined that the ministerial exception doctrine did not prevent her claim. Applying Hosanna-Tabor, the court determined that the school did not hold out the plaintiff as a minister and that she did not hold herself out as such or claim ministerial benefits. The court also concluded that the plaintiff's title, "Grade 5 Teacher," did not reflect ministerial substance or training and that the school had no religious requirements for the plaintiff's position. The school required her to attend a one-day conference at the Los Angeles Religious Education Congress, covering methods of incorporating God into lessons. The court determined that the "religious substance was limited." The court conceded that the plaintiff had religious functions such as teaching a 30-minute religion class four days per week, but determined that they were not important enough to apply the ministerial exception doctrine. The plaintiff taught religion from a book required by the school, entitled Coming to God's Life, and incorporated religious themes into her other lessons. The plaintiff did not teach, lead or plan devotions but gave students the opportunity to lead twice-daily prayers and joined in. She accompanied students to monthly Mass and made sure they were quiet and sitting in their seats, but she had no other responsibilities in religious services. The court concluded that, although the First Amendment insulates a religious organization's selection of those who will personify its beliefs, it "does not provide carte blanche to disregard antidiscrimination laws when it comes to other employees who do not serve a leadership role in the faith."

D. Michael Fisher, a Third Circuit Judge sitting by designation, dissented, pointing out that the plaintiff taught and tested students in her religion class about the Catholic sacraments, the lives of Catholic saints, Catholic prayers, Catholic social teaching, Gospel stories and church holidays. The plaintiff was expected to incorporate Catholic teachings even in secular classes. The dissent was also impressed that the plaintiff signed an employment contract, which indicated that she understood the school's mission was "to develop and promote a Catholic School Faith Community within the philosophy of Catholic education" and mandated that she, inter alia, model, teach and promote behavior in conformity to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church. Likewise, the faculty handbook included "basic values" for the faculty such as "[t]o personally demonstrate our belief in God ... to actively take part in worship-centered school events." It incorporated a "Code of Ethics for Professional Educators in Catholic Schools," indicating that the success of Catholic education, an important mission of the church, depends upon the teacher and detailed commitments that Catholic school teachers were to make, such as modeling the faith life and exemplifying the teachings of Jesus Christ. The handbook required staff to guide the spiritual formation of the student and to integrate Catholic thought and principles into secular subjects.

Minister's Hostile Work Environment Claim Survives

In Demkovich v. St. Andrew the Apostle Parish, No. 1:16-cv-11576, 2018 WL 4699767 (N.D. Ill. Sept. 30, 2018), the district court ruled that the Title VII hostile work environment claim of a former parish minister, the "Music Director, Choir Director and Organist," who entered into a same-sex marriage, was not barred by the ministerial exception doctrine because it did not challenge a tangible employment action and did not pose excessive entanglement with the religious employer, but was barred under the First Amendment's Religion Clauses. The court distinguished Hosanna-Tabor as pertaining to an employer's decision to hire and fire ministers and, thus, determine who will minister to the faithful, as opposed to whether a church may harass one of its own. Although the ministerial exception doctrine did not apply, the court ruled that litigation over the alleged harassment based on the former employee's sex, sexual orientation and marital status would excessively entangle government in religion, and, thus, the employee's Title VII hostile work environment claims were barred under the First Amendment's Religion Clauses. The archdiocese offered a religious justification for the employee's supervisor's alleged derogatory remarks and other harassment regarding the employee's same-sex marriage, i.e., that they reflected the supervisor's opposition, in accord with Catholic doctrine, to same-sex marriage. Litigation would put the archdiocese in the position of having to affirmatively introduce evidence of its religious justification. In addition, the archdiocese could seek to prove an affirmative defense, namely that it took reasonable care to prevent or to correct harassment and that the employee failed to take advantage of the archdiocese's preventive or corrective efforts, which would require examination of its employment practices, including on preventing sexual-orientation discrimination. In contrast, the court determined that the former employee's ADA hostile work environment claims were not barred under the Religion Clauses and that the employee sufficiently stated a hostile work environment claim under the ADA. The plaintiff's hostile-work environment ADA claim, alleging that his supervisor harassed him because of his diabetes and a metabolic syndrome, did not pose any risk of religious entanglement. The archdiocese did not offer a religious justification based on church doctrine or defense for the supervisor's harassment.

Ministerial Exception Doctrine Barred Faculty Member's Title VII Claims Against University

In Lishu Yin v. Columbia Int'l Univ., No.: 3:15-cv-03656-JMC, 2018 WL 4691194 (D.S.C. Sept. 30, 2018), the district court granted the defendant's motion for summary judgment and denied the plaintiff's motion based on the ministerial exception doctrine. The plaintiff, a former faculty member, sued her former employer for violation of Title VII by discriminating and retaliating against her on the basis of race, sex and national origin, arising from her termination that occurred as a result of the university's financial difficulties. The court first determined that the university was a religious group under the First Amendment's ministerial exception. The university trained Christians for global missions, full-time vocational Christian ministry and marketplace ministry, and as part of its mission educated people from a biblical world view. The court then ruled that the faculty member qualified as a minister covered by the ministerial exception. On the one hand, two of the Hosanna-Tabor factors weighed in favor of applying the ministerial exception: the substance of the plaintiff's title and the religious functions performed by the plaintiff. The plaintiff required her students to pray, prayed with her students, led students during chapels, integrated biblical materials into her courses and prepared students for ministry roles. On the other hand, two of the factors weighed against the ministerial exception, the plaintiff's formal title (i.e., TEFL-ESL instructor and the Director of the TESOL Program) and her use of that title. She did not hold herself out as a minister. Reviewing the totality of factors, the court determined that it was still proper to bar the plaintiff's claims under the ministerial exception doctrine. The court considered it most important that, based upon her job description, the plaintiff had notice of possible ministry responsibilities and knowingly decided to undertake them.

School District Can Exclude Private School from Transportation Funding

In St. Augustine School v. Evers, 906 F.3d 591 (7th Cir. 2018), the court of appeals affirmed summary judgment against the plaintiffs who sued the school district and superintendent alleging constitutional violations because of its refusal to provide school transportation or equivalent cash benefits. Wisconsin law requires school districts to bus private-school students, Wis. Stat. §121.54, but that obligation extends only to one private school "affiliated with the same religious denomination" within each geographic attendance area, Wis. Stat. §121.51. In an effort to avoid an unconstitutional interpretation of this limitation, the Wisconsin Supreme Court construed Section 121.51 to reach any two private schools "affiliated or operated by a single sponsoring group, whether ... secular or religious." The plaintiffs self-identified as Catholic. The school district was already providing transportation benefits to another Catholic school in the catchment zone. The plaintiffs, including the school and parents whose children attended the school, argued that the defendants violated the Free Exercise Clause by depriving them of a public benefit on account of their religion. The court rejected this on the grounds that the statute, as interpreted, is a facially neutral and generally applicable law that deprives all private schools – religious and secular alike – of receiving a subsidy already claimed by another school affiliated with the same group or organization. The plaintiffs also claimed that the defendants' application of the statute violated the Establishment Clause by entangling the state actors with religious doctrine and belief when they categorized the school as Catholic. The court decided that this claim lacked support in the record, which shows that the school, rather than the state, defined itself as Catholic. The court added that, in reality, the school's approach, not the state's, required entanglement with religion by expecting officials to look beyond its self-designation. Without deciding the question, the court guessed in response to the plaintiffs' and the dissent's "parade of horribles," that the statute would not prevent different denominations within the same tradition; e.g., Lutherans of the Missouri Synods versus the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, from qualifying separately for funding. Judge Kenneth Francis Ripple dissented, asking if this is possible, why are the plaintiffs foreclosed from arguing that they are governed by a separate entity than the archdiocese, for example, based on the school's articles of incorporation? He also considered the ruling at odds with the U.S. Supreme Court's recent reaffirmation in Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. v. Comer, 137 S.Ct. 2012 (2017), that "denying a generally available benefit solely on account of religious identity imposes a penalty on the free exercise of religion" and with the protection of "freedom to act" in Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296 (1940), not merely the "freedom to believe."

Interim Final Rules for Contraceptive Coverage Exemption Enjoined

In California v. Azar, No. 18-15144, 18-15166, 18-15255, 2018 WL 6566752 (9th Cir. 2018), the court of appeals affirmed in part and vacated in part the district court's grant of a nationwide preliminary injunction against the secretaries of the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Labor and Treasury, alleging that two interim final rules (IFRs) exempting certain entitieswith religious and moral objections from the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) mandate to employers to provide contraceptive coverage were invalid under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). Exempt organizations include entities with sincerely held religious beliefs objecting to contraceptive or sterilization coverage, "additional entities and persons that object based on sincerely held moral convictions" and organizations with "sincerely held moral convictions concerning contraceptive coverage." The court of appeals first determined that the case is not moot, despite the agencies publishing final versions of the exemptions to become effective on Jan. 14, 2019. There was an interim period during which the interim rules were still applicable. Next, the court ruled that the venue was proper despite the defendants' argument that the state "resides" exclusively in the Eastern District of California, where the state capital is located. According to the court, the state resides at every district within its borders. The court also ruled that the states had standing to file the lawsuit. On the merits, the court of appeals determined that the secretaries lacked good cause to forgo notice and comment required under the APA prior to promulgating IFRs; the district court did not abuse its discretion by determining that states were likely to suffer irreparable procedural harm in the absence of a preliminary injunction; and the district court did not abuse its discretion by determining that the balance of equities and public interests weighed in favor of entry of preliminary injunction. However, the court of appeals ruled that the district court abused its discretion by issuing a nationwide preliminary injunction; therefore, the court of appeals vacated that portion of the injunction barring enforcement of rules in non-plaintiff states and remanded the case. Judge Andrew Kleinfeld dissented on the grounds that the plaintiffs lacked standing because their harm was "self-inflicted." Whereas the exemption imposes no obligation on the states to provide money for contraception, the narrowing of the federal mandate meant that the plaintiff states that chose to provide contraception benefits to employees of the employers exempted by the federal insurance requirement would spend more. According to Judge Kleinfeld, this was self-inflicted harm. The majority rejected the relevance of this limitation on standing except when state laws directly and explicitly tie the states' finances to another sovereign's laws.

School District's Campaign Against Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Bullying Constitutional

In Citizens for Quality Education San Diego v. Barrera, 333 F.Supp.3d 1003 (S.D. Cal. 2018), the district court denied the plaintiffs' motion for preliminary injunction against several district board members, alleging that an initiative and "action steps" to address Islamophobia and anti-Muslim bullying were a mere pretext to establish the district's preference for Islam and Muslim students, in violation of the First and Fourteenth Amendments, California's state constitution and various state statutory provisions. The plaintiffs, who were the parents of students in the school district, lacked taxpayer standing because they did not allege specific tax dollar appropriations spent solely on the challenged conduct. But the parents established standing to seek preliminary injunction where one parent averred that her child had direct contact with a Muslim civil rights organization's book, which was available for checkout in the school library; other parents averred that they were "spiritually affronted" by the defendants' conduct, which had chilled their participation in school district activities, and another parent averred that the defendants' conduct would cause her to remove her child from the school district. The plaintiffs also included two organizations, ruled to lack standing for lack of evidence that either suffered any harmful diversion of resources frustrating its mission or that any member had standing to sue in his own right. The defendants argued that the case was moot based on its revised policy, but the court disagreed because the revised policy indicated that addressing Islamophobia and anti-Muslim bullying remained district objectives, and, although the revised policy clarified the district's intention not to single out a particular religion and redirected staff from forming a formal partnership with any Muslim civil rights organization, it did not sever the district's ties with the organization nor prevent organizations from addressing Islamophobia in the district.The court also disagreed that, under the Lemon test, the parents showed an Establishment Clause violation. The school district had a valid, compelling interest in preventing anti-Muslim bullying and Islamophobia to which the initiative and action steps were narrowly tailored. The court also ruled that the reasonable observer would not conclude that the initiative was an endorsement of religion or had the primary effect of advancing religion and that the initiative did not result in excessive entanglement with religion because there was no formal partnership between the district and a Muslim civil rights organization. In addition, the initiative was consistent with California's No Preference Clause (Cal. Const. Art. I, S. 4) and Blaine Amendment or No Aid Clause (Cal. Const. Art. I, S. 5). The court ruled that no separate analysis of the No Preference Clause was needed in that government action permissible under the Establishment Clause necessarily passes muster under it. With respect to the Blaine Amendment, the court determined there was no evidence that the state was providing any financial benefit to a sectarian organization or under the direction of one. The purchase of books relating to the initiative involved exclusively a permissible incidental benefit. Furthermore, any non-financial, intangible benefit that the school district's initiative and "action steps" provided Muslim students was available on an equal basis to all students and, thus, was consistent with the Blaine Amendment, where the district's instructional materials addressed all major world religions. Finally, the court ruled that the parents failed to show irreparable harm or that the balance of hardships and public interest favored preliminary injunction.

Federal Grant Funding Neutrally Benefiting Religious Organizations Constitutional

In Am. Civil Liberties Union of N. California v. Azar, No. 16-cv-03539-LB, 2018 WL 4945321 (N.D.Cal. 2018), the court denied the plaintiff's motion for summary judgment and granted the defendants' cross-motion for summary judgment in connection with the plaintiff's argument that grant funding neutrally available to nonreligious and religious organizations associated with two government programs violates the Establishment Clause. The Unaccompanied Alien Children Program provides services to undocumented minors who arrive in the U.S. without being accompanied by a parent or guardian, and the Trafficking Victim Assistance Program provides services to victims of human trafficking. The court determined that the government's grant relationships and interactions with religious organizations such as the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops had a secular purpose, did not have a principal or primary effect of advancing religion and did not foster an excessive entanglement with religion. The plaintiff admitted that the programs' secular purpose and the mere fact that a religiously affiliated organization such as the Conference of Catholic Bishops receives government grants, without more, does not have the primary effect of advancing religion. But the plaintiff argued that the government endorsed the Conference of Catholic Bishops' religious views when it entered into grant agreements with the organization despite its opposition to abortion. The court disagreed and said, if anything, the government acted opposite to the organization's religious beliefs when it transferred unaccompanied minors to shelters that arranged for abortion. There was no evidence that the government delegated to the Conference of Catholic Bishops the health services that would be available to unaccompanied minors because of the services available from alternative grantees. Nor was there evidence that any unaccompanied minor or trafficking victim who wanted an abortion or contraception during the time period relevant to the case was unable to obtain them. Some minors who sought an abortion were transferred to another grantee because the Conference of Catholic Bishops and its subcontractors shared a religious objection to providing abortion or contraception, but there was no evidence that they were disadvantaged by this. Nor was there evidence that any grant funding was used for any religious purpose. No unaccompanied minor was a party to the case, and the plaintiff, which brought the claims solely in its capacity as a taxpayer, could not base its claim on putative harms that it did not bear itself. Last, the court determined that grant monitoring does not amount to excessive entanglement with religion.

Religious Institutions in the News


DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Holland & Knight LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Holland & Knight LLP
Contact
more
less

Holland & Knight LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.