See You In Court! - January 2018

by Shipman & Goodwin LLP

Mr. Superintendent was hoping that the first meeting of the Nutmeg Board of Education after the holidays would be uneventful, maybe even boring. It was not to be. During Public Comment, Peter Parent gave an impassioned speech about how the Nutmeg Public Schools are depriving his daughter of her privacy rights. At the beginning of the current school year, he reported, a transgender student who identifies as female started using the same girls bathrooms and girls locker room as his daughter. With increasing animation, Mr. Parent described how upset he is that his daughter may encounter this student in the bathroom and in the locker room. He ended his comments by slamming on the podium with each of three words, “This. Must. Stop!”

Veteran Board member Bob Bombast picked up on Mr. Parent’s emotion, and he was very curious to learn more. “How long has this been going on?” Bob asked indignantly. Before Mr. Parent could respond, however, Bob whirled around to confront Mr. Superintendent. “Tell me this isn’t true,” he demanded.

Mr. Superintendent demurred, stating that it was not the right time to discuss this matter. But Bob wouldn’t let it go, and fellow Board member Mal Content chimed in, demanding an explanation from Mr. Superintendent.

“OK, OK,” Mr. Superintendent responded, “I’ll explain.” Mr. Superintendent went on to describe a request by a student to identify as female, even though her assigned sex at birth is male. After meetings with the family, Mr. Superintendent explained, the district made a number of accommodations as requested by the parents, including changing all school records to show her chosen new name, which is consistent with her female identity.

Bob Bombast expressed shock at Mr. Superintendent’s statements. He challenged Mr. Superintendent, telling him that he couldn’t imagine that parents can change assigned bathrooms and even official school records just by asking. Mal Content weighed in as well, stating that falsifying public records must be some sort of crime. But other Board members tried to inject some reason into the discussion. Red Cent told both Bob and Mal to calm down and be more respectful in discussing this sensitive subject. Penny Pincher offered the observation that accommodating parent and student wishes does not cost a penny, and she expressed support for the family’s actions. The Board members went on to discuss Mr. Parent’s concerns for another ten minutes, until Mr. Chairman banged on the gavel and declared that the Board has a full agenda for the meeting and needed to get back on track.

“Just one more thing,” said Bob Bombast. “I move that we direct Mr. Superintendent to put this entire accommodation thing on hold until we appoint a study committee to recommend appropriate procedures for the Board to follow.”

“I second,” interjected Mal. But Mr. Chairperson was not having it.

“If and when I decide to put this matter on the agenda,” he intoned, “we can discuss all that. For now, however, the discussion is over.

Given that Mr. Superintendent is the chief executive officer of the Board of Education, were these Board members off base in discussing Mr. Parent’s concerns?

 *    *    * 

These Board members were indeed off base in discussing Mr. Parent’s concerns. However, their error has nothing to do with the respective roles of the Board and the Superintendent. Rather, their discussion of this matter violated the FOIA because the matter was not on the agenda.

The Freedom of Information Act defines a “meeting” (in relevant part) as “any convening or assembly of a quorum of a multimember public agency . . . to discuss or act upon a matter over which the public agency has supervision, control, jurisdiction or advisory power.” (Emphasis added). The FOIA further provides that the agenda of meetings of public agencies must be posted at least twenty-four hours in advance, describing the business to be transacted. Here, the subject of gender identity and expression was not on the agenda, and the Board thus violated the FOIA by discussing Mr. Parent’s concerns and the accommodations made for the student in question.

More generally, it is inadvisable for board members to respond to concerns raised during public comment. Public comment is a time for boards of education to hear from the public, but it is not a time to engage in discussion. In addition to the legal issue of compliance with the FOIA, there are practical concerns. An expectation that the board of education or the superintendent respond ad hoc to concerns expressed during public comment is an invitation to confusion or even error, given that all the facts may not be known and the speaker may even simply be mistaken. Rather, boards of education should clarify that speakers should not expect a response back at that time.

In recent years, there has been much discussion, debate and some confusion over what is or is not discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression. In 2016, the United States Department of Education issued guidance stating in part: “The Departments interpret Title IX to require that when a student or the student’s parent or guardian, as appropriate, notifies the school administration that the student will assert a gender identity that differs from previous representations or records, the school will begin treating the student consistent with the student’s gender identity.” However, that guidance was controversial, and one Texas court even issued an injunction against it. Early in 2017, the United States Department of Education withdrew the guidance.

Connecticut responded quickly. Governor Malloy issued Executive Order 56 on February 23, 2017, directing that bathrooms and locker rooms in public schools be considered places of public accommodation, subject to the prohibitions against discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression. Governor Malloy also directed the State Department of Education, in consultation with the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities, to develop guidance for school districts that allows students access to school facilities consistent with their gender identity and expression.

In June 2017, the State Department of Education issued Guidance on Civil Rights Protections and Supports for Transgender Students, as well as a helpful Frequently Asked Questions document, both of which are available on its website. Based on this guidance and the Governor’s Executive Order, school officials must accommodate the gender expression and identity of transgender students and their families in various ways, including using their chosen names and providing access to school facilities. Thus, the rights of transgender students in Connecticut are clear, even while the debate continues nationally.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Shipman & Goodwin LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Shipman & Goodwin LLP

Shipman & Goodwin LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
Sign up using*

Already signed up? Log in here

*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
Privacy Policy (Updated: October 8, 2015):

JD Supra provides users with access to its legal industry publishing services (the "Service") through its website (the "Website") as well as through other sources. Our policies with regard to data collection and use of personal information of users of the Service, regardless of the manner in which users access the Service, and visitors to the Website are set forth in this statement ("Policy"). By using the Service, you signify your acceptance of this Policy.

Information Collection and Use by JD Supra

JD Supra collects users' names, companies, titles, e-mail address and industry. JD Supra also tracks the pages that users visit, logs IP addresses and aggregates non-personally identifiable user data and browser type. This data is gathered using cookies and other technologies.

The information and data collected is used to authenticate users and to send notifications relating to the Service, including email alerts to which users have subscribed; to manage the Service and Website, to improve the Service and to customize the user's experience. This information is also provided to the authors of the content to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

JD Supra does not sell, rent or otherwise provide your details to third parties, other than to the authors of the content on JD Supra.

If you prefer not to enable cookies, you may change your browser settings to disable cookies; however, please note that rejecting cookies while visiting the Website may result in certain parts of the Website not operating correctly or as efficiently as if cookies were allowed.

Email Choice/Opt-out

Users who opt in to receive emails may choose to no longer receive e-mail updates and newsletters by selecting the "opt-out of future email" option in the email they receive from JD Supra or in their JD Supra account management screen.


JD Supra takes reasonable precautions to insure that user information is kept private. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. However, please note that no method of transmitting or storing data is completely secure and we cannot guarantee the security of user information. Unauthorized entry or use, hardware or software failure, and other factors may compromise the security of user information at any time.

If you have reason to believe that your interaction with us is no longer secure, you must immediately notify us of the problem by contacting us at In the unlikely event that we believe that the security of your user information in our possession or control may have been compromised, we may seek to notify you of that development and, if so, will endeavor to do so as promptly as practicable under the circumstances.

Sharing and Disclosure of Information JD Supra Collects

Except as otherwise described in this privacy statement, JD Supra will not disclose personal information to any third party unless we believe that disclosure is necessary to: (1) comply with applicable laws; (2) respond to governmental inquiries or requests; (3) comply with valid legal process; (4) protect the rights, privacy, safety or property of JD Supra, users of the Service, Website visitors or the public; (5) permit us to pursue available remedies or limit the damages that we may sustain; and (6) enforce our Terms & Conditions of Use.

In the event there is a change in the corporate structure of JD Supra such as, but not limited to, merger, consolidation, sale, liquidation or transfer of substantial assets, JD Supra may, in its sole discretion, transfer, sell or assign information collected on and through the Service to one or more affiliated or unaffiliated third parties.

Links to Other Websites

This Website and the Service may contain links to other websites. The operator of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using the Service through the Website and link to another site, you will leave the Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We shall have no responsibility or liability for your visitation to, and the data collection and use practices of, such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of this Website and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our privacy policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use the Service or Website following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes. If you do not agree with the terms of this Policy, as it may be amended from time to time, in whole or part, please do not continue using the Service or the Website.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this privacy statement, the practices of this site, your dealings with this Web site, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

- hide
*With LinkedIn, you don't need to create a separate login to manage your free JD Supra account, and we can make suggestions based on your needs and interests. We will not post anything on LinkedIn in your name. Or, sign up using your email address.