In what is widely considered to signal intensified focus by the Federal government on Medicaid supplemental payments and related State Medicaid financing mechanisms, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) on November 18, 2019 proposed the Medicaid Financing and Accountability Regulation (MFAR).
According to a press release announcing the proposed rules, MFAR “would take historic steps to ensure transparency in Medicaid payments and clamp down on impermissible financing arrangements to ensure that federal Medicaid dollars are spent in ways that support the direct needs of Medicaid beneficiaries.” CMS has cited to a rapid increase both in overall Medicaid spending and in the Federal share of this spending. Within this, CMS has noted that supplemental payments have steadily increased as a percentage of total Medicaid payments to providers, and that other Federal agencies have made recommendations to CMS “to better oversee and understand Medicaid supplemental payments, disproportionate share hospital payments and the associated non-federal share.”
Broadly stated, supplemental payments are those Medicaid payments made to providers above and beyond the State-determined base Medicaid payment rates for specific services. These supplemental payments serve as a vehicle for States to increase aggregate Medicaid payments to providers up to the permitted Federal limits. Supplemental payments are typically made under State plan authority, or through demonstration and managed care authorities. State shares of supplemental payments (also known as ”non-Federal shares”) are eligible for Federal matching payments if Federal requirements are met. These non-Federal shares are frequently derived from Intergovernmental Transfers (IGTs) and/or provider taxes and donations.
CMS has characterized as “shady” certain “schemes” deployed by some State Medicaid programs in making supplemental payments to providers, and in generating the non-Federal portion of Medicaid payments against which Federal matching funds are made. As a result, the proposed MFAR would dramatically enhance oversight of, and mandatory reporting by, State Medicaid programs. This would include:
The following are key features of the changes to the supplemental payment methodology:
Numerous provisions of the proposed MFAR would increase oversight of, and potentially limit availability of, funds permitted to be used for a State’s non-Federal share. As it relates to provider tax and donation programs, the proposed rule takes the following overall view:
The proposed MFAR would modify the annual DSH audit process to require States to quantify individual audit findings by hospital. In addition, the rule seeks to ensure that DSH overpayments are timely discovered and either returned to the Federal government or redistributed to other hospitals.
The proposed MFAR, if implemented, would have a significant impact on State Medicaid programs and the Medicaid providers reimbursed under these programs. Reporting requirements would increase dramatically, including those related to the production of provider-level data. Supplemental payments would be subject to vigorous and ongoing review. New guidance might invalidate or call into question existing methods used by some States to generate the non-Federal share of Medicaid funding, whether through IGT, provider tax and/or provider donations. And finally, the DSH program would be subject to renewed scrutiny.
It is likely that the proposed MFAR will attract significant attention and objection from State Medicaid programs, Medicaid providers, and the associations that represent both. Comments to the proposed rule will be accepted through January 17, 2020. The Arent Fox Health Group regularly advises providers and associations on submitting comments on proposed regulations to CMS.