Posible Inconstitucionalidad de las Decisiones del Consejo Conjunto en el marco del TLC entre México y la Unión Europea

by JPG Asesores Corporativos

La presente investigación tiene como objeto particular de estudio el Acuerdo de Asociación Económica, Concertación Política y Cooperación entre México y la Comunidad Europea y sus Estados Miembros (también denominado como “Acuerdo Global”), pretendiendo analizar particularmente su marco institucional, y sus implicaciones respecto del sistema jurídico mexicano.

Concretamente, y en referencia a lo anterior, es necesario determinar la situación jurídica (internacional e interna) en la que se vería México, en caso de que alguna de las resoluciones del Consejo Conjunto, previsto en el Acuerdo Global, impusiera sobre México – como país contratante – alguna orden o política que contraviniera nuestra Ley Fundamental, mediante la emisión de sus Decisiones – ya que son vinculantes para las partes en términos del propio Acuerdo Global. Para ello es necesario, no solo discutir la disyuntiva entre la observancia de nuestra constitución y el derecho internacional, sino también analizar la posibilidad de cuestionar la constitucionalidad de las Decisiones del Consejo Conjunto, con base en los mecanismos jurídicos de protección constitucional que prevé nuestra Carta Magna.

Podemos establecer como problema medular de la investigación la falta de seguridad jurídica que podría generarse ante la posibilidad teórica de que el Consejo Conjunto previsto en el Acuerdo Global emita una decisión, obligatoria para los Estados parte, que contravenga alguna de las disposiciones de nuestra Constitución.

En tal caso, México se vería (aunque en casos restringidos) en el dilema de elegir entre no aplicar dicha resolución u orden dentro de su territorio, incumpliendo sus obligaciones internacionales y, por lo tanto, recayendo en una posible responsabilidad internacional, o violar su propio sistema jurídico para cumplir así con las obligaciones contraídas a la luz del Acuerdo Global.

Previo al inicio de la investigación, se planteó como hipótesis que existe la posibilidad de que algunas decisiones del Consejo Conjunto constituido mediante el Acuerdo Global, sean calificadas como inconstitucionales por el poder judicial mexicano, respecto de la Constitución mexicana; y consecuentemente, México recaería en responsabilidad internacional ante la imposibilidad jurídica de su cumplimiento, dado que las referidas decisiones son vinculantes según el Acuerdo Global, con lo que su violación implicaría la violación de lo dispuesto en el mismo.

Sin embargo, esta hipótesis se verificó parcialmente, ya que tras analizar los mecanismos de defensa constitucional disponibles en México, resultó que los supuestos en que las decisiones del Consejo Conjunto pueden ser tachadas de inconstitucionales son reducidos. Además, se encontraron posibles escenarios en los que no existiría un mecanismo de defensa constitucional idóneo para invalidar las Decisiones del Consejo Conjunto.

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DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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