25 Is the New 40: California’s AB-1687

by Garvey Schubert Barer

“It is time to stop the ageism that permeates Hollywood’s casting process,” wrote SAG-AFTRA President Gabrielle Carteris.[1] On September 24, 2016, California Governor Jerry Brown took a controversial step toward achieving such a goal when he signed the Customer Records bill, AB-1687 (effective January 1, 2017), into law. This new state law requires that Internet Movie Database “IMDb” remove an actor’s listed age upon request by that actor.[2] IMDb is a well-known website in the entertainment industry that offers information about movies, television shows, and actors. Its subscription service, IMDbPro, allows actors to create their own profile page and access job listings posted by industry professionals. Industry professionals directly use the website for casting calls and auditions and have been known to frequently filter out potential actors though information posted on the website. Thus, the broader goal of this law is to alleviate age discrimination in an industry that has been alleged to phase out ageing actors in a discriminatory fashion.

The current state and federal age discrimination laws may be said to fail to adequately protect employees in the entertainment industry. In 1967, Congress implemented The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 29 U.S.C. §§ 621-634.[3] The purpose of the ADEA is “to promote employment of older persons based on their ability rather than age” and “to prohibit arbitrary age discrimination in employment.”[4] Under the ADEA, it is unlawful for an employer “to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s age.”[5]

However, the ADEA may not go far enough in covering individuals employed in the entertainment industry. Age discrimination in the entertainment industry is alleged to start before the age of 40, which is the requisite age an employee must be to allege an age discrimination claim under the ADEA. In fact, many female actresses claim to lose out on roles, because of their age, as early as age 30.[6] In such cases, the actor would be unable to make out a prima facie case of age discrimination under the ADEA, because they do not meet the age 40 threshold. These individuals also tend to have further difficulty proving an age discrimination claim under state law because most states have similar age discrimination requirements as the ADEA.

There are numerous examples of actresses claiming to have been turned down for parts because of their age. Anne Hathaway has, at age 32, explained in interviews that she lost parts to 24 year-olds.[7] Similarly, Elizabeth Banks claimed that she was turned down for the role of Mary Jane Watson in Spider-Man in 2002 when she was 28 years old.[8] The 18 year-old Kirsten Dunst was instead offered the female lead, and played 27 year-old Toby Maguire’s on-screen girlfriend.[9] Olivia Wilde was turned down for the role of Leonardo DiCaprio’s wife in The Wolf of Wall Street when she was 28 years-old, ten years DiCaprio’s junior.[10] Instead, Margot Robbie, at age 23, was chosen as the female lead. Most notably, Maggie Gyllenhaal made headlines last year when she went public about how she was told she was too old, at age 37, to play the love interest of a 55 year-old male lead.[11] Each of these actresses is under 40 years old and would be barred from bringing an age discrimination claim under the ADEA.

In 2013, a less well-known actress, Huong “Junie” Hoang, litigated this issue of age discrimination in Huong Hoang v. Amazon.com, Inc. As an aspiring actress, Hoang had signed up for IMDbPro services in 2001 “[because it’s the bible of the industry.”[12] She utilized the services that came with an IMDbPro profile but wanted to conceal her true age of 30 years-old so she falsified her birthday on the profile to represent that she was seven years younger.[13] In 2007, Hoang decided to correct her age and contacted IMDb to remove her age from her profile.[14] An IMDb customer service representative conducted an investigation into Hoang’s birthday and published her actual birthday on the website, while Hoang continued requesting that her birthday be removed.[15]

Hoang filed suit in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington alleging wrongful use of her IMDbPro account that caused her to suffer age discrimination after her age information was published on the Internet.[16] She sought to recover for her lost acting income, which she termed “career damages.”[17] The jury rejected her breach of contract claim, which asserted that IMDb breached its Subscriber Agreement and incorporated Privacy Policy for failing to act “‘carefully and sensibly’ in the way it handles subscribers’ personal information,” and found in favor of IMDb.[18] Hoang appealed the verdict that permitted IMDb to list her age information on the website.[19]

In a 2015 appeal, Hoang objected to the jury instruction citing her agreement to provide IMDb with accurate information upon signing up for its service.[20] Two motions were made to file amicus briefs in support of Hoang: the first, by four screenwriters; and the second, by SAG-AFTRA and WGAW.[21] Both motions were denied for failing to address the grounds upon which Hoang appealed.[22] The Ninth Circuit unanimously affirmed in favor of IMDb. In response, SAG-AFTRA commented that the site was “facilitating age discrimination.”[23]

Since Hoang, SAG-AFTRA has publicly condemned IMDb for publishing the birth dates of actors without their consent.[24] Many of the actors include those less famous and unknown to the general public. The issue is that when an actor’s actual age becomes known to the casting personnel, the age range that casting personnel perceive the actor to be able to portray shrinks, and, thus, limits the actor’s opportunity to be selected for roles.[25] SAG-AFTRA stated that IMDb could “remove the temptation for employers to engage in age discrimination” and “step up and take responsibility for the harm it has caused” by removing age information from its website.[26]

The holding in Hoang and the perceived lack of age discrimination protection afforded to actors by federal and state laws may be some of the reasons for SAG-AFTRA’s ardent support of a new California law. The law, AB-1687, is intended to fill the void in both federal and state age discrimination laws. It specifies that paid subscribers who enter into a contractual agreement with a “commercial online entertainment employment service provider” to provide “specified employment services” may prohibit that provider “from publishing information about the subscriber’s age in an online profile.”[27] The law requires that the provider “remove from public view . . . certain information regarding the subscriber’s age on any companion Internet Web site under the provider’s control” within 5 days of a subscriber requesting such action.[28]

The law’s stated purpose is to ensure that the age information of a subscriber will not be used “in furtherance of employment or age discrimination.”[29] The law notably includes individuals employed in entertainment industries such as television, film, and video games. It is limited to a subscriber, who is defined in Subsection 4 “as a natural person who enters into a contractual agreement . . . to receive employment services in return for a subscription payment.”[30] Thus, this law leaves the door open for age information to be displayed on websites where viewers do not pay a subscription fee.

Proponents of the new law advocate that it will help alleviate some of the age discrimination female actresses allegedly face when passed over for roles, by limiting age information from a widely used website in the industry. This limitation would also help lesser known actors who have allegedly suffered from exclusionary hiring practices during auditions when competing for smaller roles because casting directors directly use IMDb profile information to fill smaller roles.[31] One of the most compelling arguments is that the law will halt the dangling of an actor’s age in front of casting directors, who dictate who is hired for a role and who may already have biases against older performers.[32]

Proponents also argue that the law will not be challenged as a restriction on First Amendment free speech, because the limitation placed on the law, which is its restricted application to only those who pay for a subscription, effectively insulates it from constitutional challenges.[33] The law only limits free speech in an effort to advance the important government interest of preventing age discrimination and does so in a manner substantially related to that interest. Thus, the law does not purport to limit other expressions of age-related free speech. Yes, age information will still be available on other prominent websites, but those who support the law argue that it provides actors with a new legal sword.

Contrastingly, critics speculate that the law will end up challenged before the Supreme Court for restricting free speech despite the limitation. Arguments suggest that the new law is not insulated from constitutional challenges simply because it advances a government interest and is limited to those people who pay for a subscription.[34] Further, critics oppose the removal of factually accurate age information from the Internet. Michael Beckerman, of The Internet Association, a political lobbying organization representing Internet companies, argues that the new law will not stop the “bad actors” who can search for age information on other websites.[35] “This is not a question of preventing salacious rumors,” argues Beckerman, “rather it is about the right to present facts that live in the public domain.”[36] The law effectively punishes Internet companies for the way in which people use the public data companies present.[37] Requiring only paid subscription websites to remove age information may create an unfair competitive advantage for websites that are not required to abide by the new law.[38]

The lawsuit that critics speculated about recently began on November 10, 2016, when IMDb filed a Complaint in federal court in California against California Attorney General Kamala Harris to overturn AB-1687 in an effort to protect its right to post actors’ ages on their website.[39] IMDb argues that not only is the goal of combatting age discrimination not achieved with AB-1687, but also that the law is unconstitutional and chills free speech while limiting public access to factual information.[40] IMDb is asking the court to enter a permanent injunction to ban California and its agencies from enforcing the law and also to declare the law unconstitutional and unenforceable.[41] Harris has yet to answer the Complaint.


*Krista Irons, a law student at Brooklyn Law School, was GSB’s fall 2016 legal extern who worked out of its New York office.

[1] Allie Gimmel, How California’s New IMDb Age Law Helps Actors In More Ways Than One, Bustle, (Oct. 12, 2016, 12:59PM), http://www.bustle.com/articles/186069-how-californias-new-imdb-age-law-helps-actors-in-more-ways-than-one.

[2] Andrew Pulver, Law Passed Enabling Actors to Remove Age from IMDb, The Guardian, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:01PM), https://www.theguardian.com/film/2016/sep/26/law-passed-enabling-actors-to-remove-age-from-imdb.

[3] 29 U.S.C.S. § 621 (West 2016).

[4] 29 U.S.C.S. § 621 (West 2016).

[5] 29 U.S.C.S. § 623 (West 2016).

[6] Nassiri Law, Hollywood Age Discrimination Target of Bill, Orange County Employment Lawyers Blog, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:03PM), http://www.orangecountyemploymentlawyersblog.com/2016/08/21/hollywood-age-discrimination-target-of-bill/.

[7] Scott Mendelson, At Age 32, Is Anne Hathaway Already Too Old To Be A Movie Star?, Forbes, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:11PM), http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottmendelson/2015/09/07/on-anne-hathaway-and-the-jennifer-lawrence-problem/#4679dd0f789e.

[8] Chris Eggertsen, Elizabeth Banks: I was told I was ‘too old’ to Play Mary Jane in ‘Spider-Man’, HitFix, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:06PM), http://www.hitfix.com/the-dartboard/elizabeth-banks-i-was-told-i-was-too-old-to-play-mary-jane-in-spider-man.

[9] Id.

[10] Chris Eggertsen, Olivia Wilde: ‘Too old’ to play Leonardo DiCaprio’s wife in ‘Wolf of Wall Street’, HitFix, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:09PM), http://www.hitfix.com/news/olivia-wilde-i-was-deemed-too-old-to-play-leonardo-dicaprios-wife-in-wolf-of-wall-street.

[11] Id.

[12] Huong Hoang v. Amazon.com, Inc., No. C11-1709MJP, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 190477, at *2-3 (W.D. Wash. Mar. 18, 2013).

[13] Id. at *4-5.

[14] Id.

[15] Id. at *7.

[16] Id. at *2-3.

[17] Id. at *17.

[18] Id. at *4-5.

[19] Id. at *2-3.

[20] Huong Hoang v. IMDb.com, Inc., 599 F. App’x 674, 675 (9th Cir. 2015), aff’g, Huong Hoang v. Amazon.com, Inc., No. C11-1709MJP, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 190477 (W.D. Wash. Mar. 18, 2013).

[21] Acting Unions Criticise IMDb in Age Row, BBC, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:20PM), http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-15492579.

[22] Huong, 599 F. App’x at 4, n. 1 (9th Cir. 2015).

[23] Id.

[24] Id.

[25] AFTRA, SAG Urge IMDb To Stop Facilitating Age Discrimination Against Actors, Deadline, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:22PM), http://deadline.com/2011/10/aftra-sag-urge-imdb-to-stop-facilitating-age-discrimination-against-actors-188031/.

[26] Acting Unions Criticise IMDb in Age Row, BBC, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:20PM), http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-15492579.

[27] S. AB 1687 Gen. Assemb., Reg. Sess. (Ca. 2016). Available at: http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billTextClient.xhtml?bill_id=201520160AB1687.

[28] Id.

[29] Id.

[30] Id.

[31] Gabrielle Carteris, SAG-AFTRA’s Gabrielle Carteris: Actors Need a Law to Keep Ages Off IMDb, The Hollywood Reporter, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:28PM), http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/sag-aftras-gabrielle-carteris-actors-922253.

[32] Id.

[33] Id.

[34] Michael Beckerman, Law to Keep Actor Ages Off IMDb “Suppresses Free Speech”, The Hollywood Reporter, (Oct. 12, 2016, 1:30PM), http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/law-keep-actor-ages-imdb-924441

[35] Id.

[36] Id.

[37] Id.

[38] Id.

[39] Alex Dobuzinskis, Revealing an Actor’s Age, Metro, (Nov. 21, 2016, 1:43PM), http://www.metro.us/entertainment/revealing-an-actor-s-age-is-illegal-imdb-website-sues-california/fIqpkk—lhQ_JP80PVSlPiCkKbmzWw/.

[40] Id.

[41] Ashley Cullins, IMDb Sues to Invalidate California’s Actor Age Censorship Law, The Hollywood Reporter, (Nov. 21, 2016, 1:45PM), http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/thr-esq/imdb-sues-invalidate-californias-actor-age-censorship-law-946261.

Written by:

Garvey Schubert Barer

Garvey Schubert Barer on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.