Alert: The EPO’s Approach to the Patentability of Plant-Related Inventions

Cooley LLP

Last month, the European Patent Office (EPO) issued the much anticipated Written Decision associated with case T1063/18. We have previously written about this case in our alert "EPO May Return to Patenting Plants Obtained by an Essentially Biological Process", where we discussed how the EPO's approach has appeared to flip-flop between either excluding or not excluding claims directed to plant products that have been obtained by an essentially biological process. T1063/18 firmly adopts the stance that claims directed to such products are patentable. However, whether this position will be maintained by the EPO is unclear.

As we previously reported, the EPO announced the take-home message of this Decision in an earlier press release, such was the interest surrounding the Decision. The now-issued Decision is consistent with that announcement and provides the Board’s reasoning. The Board also provides an explanation of when, in its opinion, this issue should be referred to the Enlarged Board of Appeal (EBoA); i.e. when the EPO’s approach should be reconsidered.

This Decision is the latest development in a long-running debate relating to the patentability of plant-related inventions under the European Patent Convention (EPC). Broadly speaking, three separate points of law have been the subject of debate since the EPC was adopted. These are: i) when product claims directed to plant varieties are patentable, ii) when methods for the generation of plant products are patentable, and iii) whether plant products are patentable even if they have been obtained by unpatenable methods. To put the latest decision in context, we describe this background below.

The legislation

Article 53(b) EPC sets out the relevant exclusions from patentability, and recites:

European patents shall not be granted in respect of: (b) plant or animal varieties or essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals; this provision shall not apply to microbiological processes or the products thereof;

Product claims directed to plant varieties

The first question, when plant varieties are patentable, was addressed in G 1/98 (Dec 1999). Essentially, the EBoA needed to be decide whether "European patents shall not be granted in respect of: … plant or animal varieties" should be interpreted broadly or narrowly.

Firstly, it is important to know what a "plant variety" actually is. The EPC provides the following definition:

"Plant variety" means any plant grouping within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, which grouping, irrespective of whether the conditions for the grant of a plant variety right are fully met, can be: (a) defined by the expression of the characteristics that results from a given genotype or combination of genotypes, (b) distinguished from any other plant grouping by the expression of at least one of the said characteristics, and (c) considered as a unit with regard to its suitability for being propagated unchanged. Rule 26(4) EPC

The rationale for excluding plant varieties from protection was apparently to avoid dual protection with that provided by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plant (UPOV) Convention. As such, it is important to note that the definition within the EPC is identical to that in the UPOV Convention.

In G 1/98, the EBoA decided that a product claim that identified a specific plant variety would not be patentable (Section 3.10). However, it was noted that plant breeders’ rights would not protect inventions where the technical feasibility of the invention is not confined to a particular plant or variety, for instance in the case of an invention involving the insertion of a particular gene that would be of benefit to multiple plant varieties. As such, the EBoA decided that a product claim embracing plant varieties, but not individually claiming specific varieties, would not be excluded from patentability.

The EPO has maintained this approach and it is still applied today.

Method claims for producing plant products

Methods applied to plants, such as genetic engineering techniques, that work primarily through the purposeful insertion and/or modification of one or more genes in a plant are considered to be "technical" and hence patentable. However, the more complicated question is whether methods that involve classical crossing and selection, but also advanced technical methods, are excluded from patentability.

To answer this question the EBoA was required to interpret: "European patents shall not be granted in respect of: … essentially biological processes for the production of plants", and this analysis was provided in two consolidated EBoA decisions (G 2/07 and G 1/08; Dec 2010).

It was decided that non-microbiological processes are excluded from patentability if they contain the steps of sexual crossing the whole genomes of plants and subsequently selecting plants with desired traits, unless the process also includes a step of a technical nature that by itself introduces a trait into the genome or modifies a trait in the genome of the plant produced. If the step of a technical nature merely serves to enable or assist the performance of the steps of sexually crossing the whole genomes of plants or of subsequently selecting plants, then the process remains excluded from patentability.

To simplify: processes to generate plants where a new trait is the result of crossing and selection are not patentable, even if new or advanced technologies are used to assist the process. Only if the new trait is introduced or modified by a technical step, and so is not just the result of mixing the parental genes, are such processes patentable.

This approach is still applied by the EPO.

Product claims directed to plant varieties obtained by unpatentable processes

The above Decisions did not address product claims that are directed to plants that have been obtained by an essentially biological process. It was only stated that the methods themselves are not patentable. For instance, it was unclear as to whether tomatoes or tomato plants generated by a new and inventive but essentially biological process would be patentable.

To put this in context, the English translation of the corresponding German provision is set out below:

Patents shall not be granted for
1. plant or animal varieties or for essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals and plants and animals exclusively obtained by such processes.

As can be seen by a comparison of the above provision with Article 53(b) EPC, the final clause is not present in the EPC. There has been debate as to whether Article 53(b) EPC should be interpreted to implicitly state this clause.

EBoA issued consolidated decisions stating that Article 53(b) EPC should be interpreted such that plant products that have been obtained by an essentially biological process are patentable (G2/12 and G2/13; Mar 2015). The Board noted that there is no reason to interpret the process exclusion broadly such that it also included products. It was explicitly noted that jurisdictions that have decided to exclude such products from patentability have updated their legislation in a similar manner to the German approach set out above, and hence have deviated from Article 53(b) EPC.

However, this EBoA decision proved controversial. The European Commission (an EU body) disagreed with the interpretation, and issued a Notice stating that the EU Biotech Directive (98/44/EC), which is written into the EPC, was intended to exclude from patentability products (plants/animals and plant/animal parts) that are obtained by means of essentially biological processes (2016/C 411/03; Nov 2016). The views of EC are not binding on the EPO; however, in 2017 the EPO’s Administrative Council amended the Implementing Regulations to include Rule 28(2) EPC which states:

Under Article 53(b), European patents shall not be granted in respect of plants or animals exclusively obtained by means of an essentially biological process.

This change was made upon the EPO President's recommendation, who stated that the change is "In order to align the EPO's law and practice with the interpretation of the Directive and to safeguard uniformity in harmonised European patent law".

However, according to the Board responsible for new Decision T1063/18, the Administrative Council does not have the power to alter how the Articles of the EPC should be interpreted simply by amending the Implementing Regulations. If the Implementing Regulations and the Articles are in conflict, the Articles prevail (Article 164(2) EPC). As such, introducing an Rule that conflicts with an Article (as interpreted by the EBoA) is not a legitimate way to change the law.

It is explained in T1063/18 that, because Rule 28(2) EPC is set aside, the correct interpretation of Article 53(b) EPC is as outlined in G2/12 and G2/13. Product claims directed to plant products that have been obtained by an essentially biological process are not excluded from patentability.

The future

An outstanding question is: "will the EPO change its mind again?". The present Decision was issued by a Technical Board of Appeal (TBoA), and such Decisions are not binding on later TBoAs or the EPO’s Examining Division (the Decision is only binding with respect to the individual application to which T1063/18 relates). However, the Decision is not without effect. Firstly, TBoA Decisions are persuasive, and secondly, if a later TBoA considers it necessary to deviate from this interpretation it must provide the grounds for the deviation and notify the president of the EPO. If two TBoAs have given different Decisions on the same question, the President may refer the point of law to the EBoA. Furthermore, if a later Board were to take a different approach then, at least according to T1063/18, this would deviate from the previous EBoA decisions and would necessitate a referral to the EBoA from the Board in question. As such, if a later TBoA takes a different view, the EBoA will probably need to determine the correct approach, and such a process is likely to take years.

The Board responsible for the present Decision also considered which subsequent developments could render it necessary to deviate from the EBoA’s previous interpretation, and hence necessitate a referral. The notice issued by the EC was not considered a relevant development because it has no legal authority. Instead, a decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) seems to be viewed by this Board to be a development that would be sufficient to require a new EBoA referral.

CJEU Decisions, while potentially persuasive, are not legally binding on the EPO which is not an EU body. The EPO has attempted to harmonise its approach with EU law, at least with regards to biotech inventions. However, European patents can provide protection in non-EU states. As such, it is questionable as to what degree the EPO should follow the EU, bearing in mind that the non-EU states may not wish to be bound by EU rulings.

The matter could be unambiguously settled if the Administrative Council amends the Articles of the EPC. However, this is very difficult to do, requiring either a Diplomatic Conference of at least three-quarters of the Contracting States (there are currently 38 Contracting States), or the use of an alternative mechanism that requires unanimity of the Contracting States. The Articles of the EPC have only been revised twice in their history. As such, it is hard to predict whether this is a feasible option for the Administrative Council.

To address this, the EPO has issued the following press release, reproduced in full:

EPO member states discuss patentability of plants obtained by essentially biological processes 20 February 2019 In the meeting of the Committee on Patent Law, the Office and the representatives of the 38 EPO Contracting States, together with the European Commission as observer, had a first exchange of views on possible next steps following the recent decision T 1063/18 of an EPO Board of Appeal on plant patentability. The Committee addressed different potential options for the way forward and particularly supported measures to obtain an opinion from the Enlarged Board of Appeal on the matter. The need for legal certainty in the interest of the users of the European patent system and the general public was strongly underlined in the debate. Discussions will continue with the intention to find a solution in the short term.

The Committee on Patent Law advises the Administrative Council, and it is not clear which “measures to obtain an opinion from the Enlarged Board of Appeal on the matter” are available to the Administrative Council. As described above, there are specific requirements for when an EBoA opinion can be sought. The TBoA are independent and cannot be compelled to refer a question to the EBoA if the TBoA do not view it to be necessary according to the provisions of the EPC. The EPO President can refer a question to the EBoA directly, but only if two TBoAs have given different decisions on same question, otherwise the referral would be held to be inadmissible.

Key takeaways

For the moment, the EPO has returned to granting patents in respect of plants or animals exclusively obtained by means of an essentially biological process. T1063/18 is not binding on the EPO's Examining Divisions (aside from, as mentioned, when assessing the individual application to which T1063/18 relates), but it is likely to be persuasive. Furthermore, a refusal that deviated from T1063/18 could be appealed and, if the TBoA assessing such an appeal diverged from T1063/18, then a referral to the EBoA seems likely (or, according to T1063/18, required) to determine the correct interpretation once again.

It is, therefore, worth considering whether to seek European patent protection for such subject matter, bearing in mind that the latest guidance is favourable, and that protection can extend beyond the EU states. Of course, applicants should also take into account that such patents may not be enforceable in some jurisdictions, and there are specific provisions in the national law of Austria, Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Portugal (from 1 July 2019) that exclude these products from patentability. In addition, applicants should bear in mind that the EPO is free to alter its approach (again).

Finally, it is important to note that T1063/18 relates only to product claims directed to plants or plant material obtained by an essentially biological process. The latest decision does not affect the EPO’s long-standing approach that plants and plant material obtained by a technical process are patentable. Of course, it must still be borne in mind that individual plant varieties are not patentable, but it is allowable to have claims embracing plant varieties "if the technical feasibility of the invention is not confined to a particular plant or animal variety" (EPO Guidelines; G-II, 5.2).

Action recommended for companies seeking to protect germplasm in European market

Many companies seeking to protect plant innovation have eagerly followed the developments at the EPO. The current T1063/18 decision is favourable, but as aforementioned, does not permanently settle the issue for the European market. Consequently, it is important for companies to realise that patent terms run for 20 years and that a global filing strategy which includes the European market is still a high priority for many crops. As we have seen, the tides have begun to change for protecting plant innovation and commercial germplasm via patents in the EPO. Companies interested in the European market should consider maintaining EP applications directed to key germplasm and arguing in their own cases that the T1063/18 decision should be persuasive authority. Maintaining a pending application at the EPO will allow companies the ability to protect key germplasm in the European market once the legal certainty around this topic is finally settled at the EPO.

[View source.]

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Cooley LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Cooley LLP

Cooley LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.