Bridging The Week - October 2019 #2

Katten Muchin Rosenman LLP

A broker-dealer and its chief executive officer settled charges brought in 2017 by the Securities and Exchange Commission that the firm facilitated manipulative conduct by a customer, despite being alerted by regulators and an insider at the client that the customer might be engaging in spoofing trading. Unrelatedly, while the new chair of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission proclaimed the digital currency ether a commodity and said there soon might be futures or other derivatives contracts based on the second-largest market cap cryptocurrency, the SEC once again stymied the listing of an exchange-traded fund based on bitcoin. As a result, the following matters are covered in this week’s edition of Bridging the Week:

  • Broker-Dealer and CEO Agree to Almost US $2 Million Penalty With SEC for Facilitating Alleged Manipulative Trading by Non-US-Based Trading Firm (includes Compliance Weeds);
  • New CFTC Chairman Says Ether Derivatives Likely Soon While SEC Says No to Another Bitcoin ETF (includes My View);
  • Food Giants and District Court Judge Oppose CFTC Request for Mandamus Order in Ongoing Dispute Over Enforcement Settlement Gag Order (includes My View); and more.

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  • Broker-Dealer and CEO Agree to Almost US $2 Million Penalty With SEC for Facilitating Alleged Manipulative Trading by Non-US-Based Trading Firm: Lek Securities Corp. and Sam Lek, its chief executive officer, settled charges brought by the Securities and Exchange Commission in March 2017 that they facilitated manipulation by a client, Avalon FA Ltd, a non-US entity, and two of its control persons. Avalon and the two control persons were also charged by the SEC in the March 2017 complaint.

According to the SEC, Avalon engaged in spoofing trading involving stocks “in hundreds of thousands of instances” between approximately December 2010 through at least September 2016 by placing orders it did not intend to execute on one side of a market in order to induce executions on the other side. The SEC also claimed that Avalon engaged in cross-market manipulation by buying and selling stock at a loss in order to impact the price of corresponding options in order to trade the derivatives at artificial prices to make profits. This activity, said the SEC, occurred from at least August 2012 through at least December 2015.

The SEC claimed that Lek Securities and Mr. Lek helped Avalon engage in its purportedly illicit conduct by providing the non-US firm access to US markets, relaxing Lek Securities’ layering controls after Avalon objected, and improving Lek Securities’ technology to help Avalon’s trading. In the complaint, the SEC charged that Lek Securities and Mr. Lek had a significant motive to assist Avalon because, from 2012 through 2016, the firm “was Lek’s highest producing customer in terms of commissions and fees and rebates generated.”

The SEC also alleged that Lek Securities and Mr. Lek were aware of Avalon’s improper activities when, among other things, Mr. Lek received an email in May 2012 explicitly describing the layering scheme from an individual who shortly afterwards became an Avalon trade group leader, as well as when regulators, exchanges and other market participants told Lek Securities and Mr. Lek on various occasions that they were concerned Avalon was engaging in layering. In many instances, said the SEC, the regulators provided Lek Securities and Mr. Lek with “detailed descriptions” of Avalon’s supposed problematic conduct.

To resolve the SEC’s complaint, Lek Securities agreed to pay a fine of US $1 million and US $525,892 in disgorgement and prejudgment interest and Mr. Lek consented to remitting a US $420,000 fine. Lek Securities also agreed to certain other sanctions including not providing intraday-trading access to foreign customers except under limited prescribed circumstances, and retaining a compliance monitor for three years. Both Lek Securities and Mr. Lek admitted that Avalon’s trading activities as alleged in the complaint constituted violations of federal securities laws as part of their settlement.

Compliance Weeds: In early 2018, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and the Department of Justice coordinated announcements regarding the filing of civil enforcement actions by the CFTC, naming five corporations and six individuals, and criminal actions by the DOJ against eight individuals – including six of the same persons named in the CFTC actions – for engaging in spoofing activities in connection with the trading of futures contracts on US markets. Two of the corporations that resolved their CFTC enforcement actions were Deutsche Bank AG and its wholly owned subsidiary Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., a CFTC-registered futures commission merchant; they agreed to jointly and severally pay a fine of US $30 million. Although the purported problematic trading activity was undertaken by employees of DB, DBSI was named in this action because of its alleged failure to supervise.

According to the CFTC, while DBSI maintained a surveillance system that detected many instances of potential spoofing by DB traders, it failed to follow up on “the majority” of potential flagged issues. (Click here for background on the multiple CFTC and DOJ actions in the article “CFTC Names Four Banking Organization Companies, a Trading Software Design Company and Six Individuals in Spoofing-Related Cases; the Same Six Individuals Criminally Charged Plus Two More” in the February 4, 2018, edition of Bridging the Week.)

In 2016, the CFTC named Advantage Futures LLC, another FCM, in an enforcement action related to the firm’s handling of the trading account of one customer in response to three exchanges’ warnings, among other matters. The firm and the two officers that were named as defendants agreed to pay a fine of US $1.5 million to resolve the CFTC action.

According to the CFTC, between June 2012 and April 2013, three exchanges alerted Advantage to concerns they had regarding the trading of one unspecified customer’s account which they considered might constitute disorderly trading, spoofing and manipulative behavior, in violation of the exchanges’ relevant rules. The CFTC claimed that Advantage initially failed “to adequately respond to the [exchanges’] inquiries and did not conduct a meaningful inquiry into the suspicious trading.” Only after the three exchanges threatened to hold Advantage responsible for its customer’s conduct did Advantage cut off the trader’s access to the three exchanges. However, Advantage purportedly failed to augment its oversight of the trader’s remaining trading or control his access to other exchanges “despite knowing that he employed the same strategy across all markets.” (Click here for background in the CFTC enforcement action against Advantage Futures in the article “FCM, CEO and CRO Sued by CFTC for Failure to Supervise and Risk-Related Offenses,” in the September 25, 2016 edition of Bridging the Week.)

Both the DBSI and Advantage cases suggest that, like the SEC, the CFTC believes that FCMs have some type of oversight responsibility related to their customers’ trading to help ensure market integrity and must take some appropriate action when they have knowledge of potential wrongdoing.

  • New CFTC Chairman Says Ether Derivatives Likely Soon While SEC Says No to Another Bitcoin ETF: In a speech before the Yahoo! Finance All Markets Summit in New York City, Heath Tarbert, new chair of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, proclaimed that the digital currency “ether is a commodity” within the CFTC’s jurisdictional reach, and implied that “in the near future” there will be ether-related futures contracts or other derivative contracts based on ether. Previously, the CFTC claimed that bitcoin was a commodity and also within the agency’s jurisdictional reach. Subsequently, it approved futures and swaps based on bitcoin that are today traded on designated contract markets and licensed swap execution facilities, and cleared through licensed derivatives clearing organizations.

Separately, the Securities and Exchange Commission disapproved rule changes proposed by NYSE Arca, Inc. to list and trade shares of the Bitwise Bitcoin ETF Trust. The Commission claimed that NYSE Arca’s proposed rules were not adequately designed “to prevent fraudulent and manipulative acts and practices.” The SEC said the NYSE Arca failed to demonstrate that the spot market in bitcoin is “inherently resistant to fraud and manipulation” or alternatively that it had entered into a surveillance-sharing agreement with a regulated market of “significant size” relating to bitcoin. Although NYSE Arca entered into a surveillance-sharing agreement with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange that lists a bitcoin futures contract, the SEC claimed it was not of “sufficient size.”

Bitwise Asset Management, Inc., the sponsor of the proposed exchange-traded product, had claimed that there was effectively a bifurcated market for bitcoin, comprised 95 percent of “fake and non-economic activity” and the remainder by the legitimate activity of 10 firms that were either regulated by the Financial Enforcement Crimes Network and/or the New York Department of Financial Services, or had significant compliance practices. The sponsor said its ETF would be based on prices from the 10 firms – Binance, Bitfinex, Coinbase Pro, Kraken, Bitstamp, bitFlyer, Gemini, itBit, Bittrex and Poloniex. The SEC rejected Bitwise’s analysis, claiming the 10 exchanges were not regulated markets comparable to a national securities exchange or futures exchange “although [some] may be registered with FinCEN or NYSDFS.” The SEC also said that the CME’s bitcoin futures volume was not sufficiently substantial compared to the overall bitcoin-traded volume to make the CFTC-regulated exchange of “sufficient size.”

In declining NYSE Arca’s rule change, the SEC said that “its disapproval does not rest on an evaluation of whether bitcoin or blockchain technology more generally, has utility or value as an innovation or an investment.”

In other legal and regulatory developments regarding cryptoassets:

  • SEC Obtains TRO Against ICO to Support Social Media and Blockchain Platforms After Telegraphing Warnings: The SEC filed a complaint and obtained a temporary restraining order against Telegram Group Inc., a privately owned British Virgin Islands company, and its wholly owned subsidiary, TON Issuer Inc., from delivering and making available Grams digital tokens to US person beginning October 31. The SEC claimed that, beginning in January 2018, the defendants have raised US $1.7 billion, including $424.5 million from US persons, to fund the development of a proprietary blockchain – the Telegram Open Network – as well as their mobile messaging application, Telegram Messenger. The SEC claimed that the defendants’ offer and sale of Grams to US persons constituted an unregistered securities offering, and that Grams are securities because initial purchasers and subsequent investors expect to profit through Telegram’s efforts. Among other things, said the SEC, Telegram proposes to facilitate resales on digital-asset trading platforms. Telegram has generally promoted Grams as a digital currency that would serve as payment mechanism for individual merchants within the Telegram ecosystem as well as a medium to effectuate payments for certain services on the TON platform (click here to access the TON white paper; see section entitled "Uses of TON as a Cryptocurrency," p. 14). In 2018, TON filed two SEC Form D's with the SEC in connection with its fund raise describing them as "purchase agreements for cryptocurrency" (click here to access). The SEC brought its lawsuit in a federal court in New York City.
  • Private Lawsuit Claims Bitfinex and Tether-Related Companies and Persons Caused Artificial Prices in Bitcoin and Other Virtual Currencies: Private litigants filed a putative class action lawsuit in a federal court in New York City against companies and individuals associated with Bitfinex and Tether, claiming they engaged in market manipulation of virtual currencies and bitcoin futures by communicating false information about the backing of each tether stablecoin by one US dollar, when they purportedly were not 1:1 backed. In September, a New York State appellate court stayed all legal proceedings by the Office of the New York Attorney General against companies associated with the management of Bitfinex and Tether. Previously, the NY AG obtained an ex parte order from a New York State court prohibiting companies associated with Bitfinex and tether from accessing, loaning or encumbering in any way US dollar reserves supporting tether digital coins. (Click here for background in the article “NY DFS Enforcement Action Against Crypto Exchange and Related Stablecoin Stayed by NY Appellate Court” in the September 29, 2019 edition of Bridging the Week.)
  • IRS Reiterates Virtual Currency Is Property Under Tax Laws and Reporting Obligations: The Internal Revenue Service issued additional guidance and Questions and Answers for taxpayers who engage in virtual currency transactions. In particular, the IRS advised that persons do not have gross income solely as a result of a hard fork of a virtual currency they own if they do not receive any units of the new cryptocurrency. However, persons do have gross income if they receive new virtual assets by airdrop following a hard fork. The IRS reiterated that virtual currency is property under general tax principles, and that sales or exchanges of virtual currency acquired more than one year previously will result in a long-term capital gain or loss, while sales or exchanges of virtual currency acquired prior to one year or less will result in a short-term capital gain or loss. In 2014 the IRS issued initial guidance regarding virtual currencies (click here to access).
  • Three Federal Agencies Remind Persons Engaged in Digital Asset Activity to Comply With AML Requirements: The chairs of the CFTC, SEC and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network issued a joint statement clarifying the anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism obligations (collectively, “BSA Obligations”) of financial institutions functionally regulated or examined by the CFTC or SEC that engage in transactions involving digital assets.

According to the statement, relevant CFTC registrants’ BSA Obligations will be overseen by the CFTC, FinCEN and the National Futures Association for all activities within the entities’ perimeters, including those that may not be subject to regulation under the Commodity Exchange Act. Relevant CFTC registrants are futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, swap dealers, major swap participants and retail foreign exchange dealers.

Likewise, relevant SEC registrants’ BSA Obligations will be overseen by the SEC, FinCEN and a self-regulatory organization (likely the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority) for all activities conducted under the entities’ umbrellas including those that may not be subject to regulation under US securities laws. Relevant SEC registrants are broker-dealers and open-end investment companies known as mutual funds.

The joint statement implied that persons required to register with the SEC and/or CFTC for any reason would not also be required to register with FinCEN as a money service business, however.

My View: In July 2018, the SEC disapproved a proposed rule change by the Bats BZX Exchange, Inc. to permit its listing and trading of shares of the Winklevoss Bitcoin Trust. Commissioner Hester Peirce dissented from the Commission’s determination. She claimed that BZX’s proposed rule change “satisfies the statutory standard” and that the SEC’s refusal to approve the rule “sends a strong signal that innovation in unwelcome in our markets, a signal that may have effects far beyond the fate of bitcoin [exchange-traded product].”

Commissioner Peirce’s dissent was spot on then, and applies equally to the Commission’s rejection last week of NYSE Arca’s proposal to list and trade shares of the Bitwise Bitcoin ETF Trust. There is no language in the relevant statute that appears to require NYSE Arca to address trading in spot bitcoin, as opposed to the exchange-traded product it proposed to accommodate, in a defense of its rules intended to preclude fraudulent and manipulative conduct. The language of the relevant statute is clear:

An exchange shall not be registered as a national securities exchange unless the Commission determines that

(5) The rules of the exchange are designed to prevent fraudulent and manipulative acts and practices, to promote just and equitable principles of trade, to foster cooperation and coordination with persons engaged in regulating, clearing settling, processing information with respect to, and facilitating transactions in securities, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanisms of a free and open market and a national market system, and, in general, to protect investors and the public interest.

(Emphasis added; click here to access 15 U.S.C. § 78f(b)(5).)

Nothing in this provision suggests that an exchange must address the potential for fraud or manipulation on another exchange or trading facility, let alone in the over-the-counter market, in order for its rules related to the listing of a specific security to be approved by the SEC.

According to Ms. Peirce, BZX more than adequately met its requirement under the plain language of the law, and there was no suggestion in the NYSE Arca order that the exchange had failed to meet its burden either. (Click here to access the Dissent of Commissioner Peirce to Release No. 34-83723; File No. SR-BatsBZX-2016-30, July 26, 2019.)

Moreover, the SEC’s rejection of NY DFS’s oversight of exchanges through its BitLicense program seems disrespectful if not demeaning. Comparable does not mean equal, and although NY DFS may not impose all the same obligations on regulated virtual currency exchanges as the SEC does on national securities exchanges, that is not a sufficient basis for concluding the oversight is not comparable.

No matter what the words of the SEC are to the contrary, its continued refusal to approve the listing of a bitcoin ETP appears to be a vote against new technology.

  • Food Giants and District Court Judge Oppose CFTC Request for Mandamus Order in Ongoing Dispute Over Enforcement Settlement Gag Order: Federal District Court Judge John Blakey, as well as Kraft Foods Group, Inc and Mondelez Global, LLC, argued that the Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit should deny a petition of mandamus requested by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission following the food giants’ initiation of a civil contempt proceeding after entry of a consent order settling an enforcement action by the CFTC against Kraft and Mondelez.

The defendants sought a finding of contempt and other sanctions against the CFTC alleging the Commission violated a mutual gag order contained in the settlement order when, among other things, two commissioners issued concurring opinions when the CFTC publicized the settlement, and the CFTC issued its own press release and statement.

In seeking a mandamus order, the CFTC sought to preclude Judge Blakey – the district court judge that presided over the settlement process – from conducting an evidentiary hearing in connection with the contempt proceeding, claiming that it would be of the nature of a criminal inquisition. Alternatively, the CFTC requested that Judge Blakey be removed from presiding over any evidentiary hearing. (Click here for details in the article “District Court Inquisition is Unlawful Argues CFTC in Opposing Potential Contempt Finding and Other Sanctions Arising From Enforcement Action Settlement with Two Food Giants? in the October 6, 2019 edition of
Bridging the Week.)

In a letter to the court of appeals, Judge Blakey said that the CFTC’s petition “is not ripe.” Although he implicitly conceded that the CFTC might have initially and fairly determined that the evidentiary hearing was intended to be a criminal proceeding, he clarified that it was intended to be a “civil proceeding” subsequent to reviewing the Commission’s appellate motion. As a result, he wrote, “I believe it’s important to note that the CFTC’s fears of an unlawful criminal inquisition are unfounded.”

Likewise, defendants filed papers with the court of appeals also indicating that the CFTC’s petition was untimely because the district court has made no ruling. Defendants argued that if Judge Blakey “in the future enters a sanction in error or based on inadmissible evidence, any error can be corrected by a direct appeal once he enters a contempt judgment.” Kraft and Mondelez also argued that no criminal inquest is “pending or threatened” and that Judge Blakey has the “inherent authority” to hold hearings to assess compliance with his own order.

My View: A litigation with three parties – a plaintiff, two defendants and the presiding judge. Wow! As I wrote before, this post-settlement proceeding is an episode out of The Twilight Zone. It only gets stranger.

More Briefly:

  • FCA Sanctions Interdealer Broker GB £15.4 Million for Wash Sales and Noncooperation: The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority assessed a fine of £15.4 million (approximately US $19.5 million) against Tullett Prebon (Europe) Limited (“TPEL”) for not having systems and controls around a core business within its Rates Division – "name passing' broking" that enabled brokers to engage in multiple wash sales, and for not being open and cooperative with the FCA as evidenced by not producing until 2014 certain audio tapes requested in August 2011. The relevant business involved TPEL brokers initially arranging trades on behalf of non-disclosed clients and then ultimately disclosing the clients' names to each other so they could execute the transactions directly without TPEL standing in between.

According to FCA, TPEL's name passing' broking business constituted a significant percentage of TPEL's overall business and generated a large part of the firm's overall revenue. The business depended on "strong relationships" between TPEL's brokers and employees of their institutional clients including a large amount of entertainment. TPEL's brokers' compensation was a function of commissions they generated from their clients.

FCA charged that seven TPEL traders orchestrated 17 wash sales for customers between 2008 and 2010 solely to generate commissions. However, claimed FCA, senior management of the company “failed to act with due skill, care and diligence when they were faced with blatant signals of broker misconduct.” For example, when a senior manager inquired into a very high commission generated on a trade, the broker told him, “You don’t want to know.” In response, the senior manager made no efforts to follow up on the broker’s possible misconduct.

Additionally, FCA alleged that the firm’s compliance department conducted “no form of monitoring” regarding the firm’s name passing' broking business as the department regarded the business as low risk. Although TPEL maintained a system to capture information regarding trades, orders and commissions, the compliance department presumed it was being used by trading desk heads and division directors to detect unusual transactions but did not follow up; in fact, said FCA, there was no effective monitoring. FCA also alleged that, in August 2011, when it requested certain audio tapes from TPEL it was told they did not exist. However, some TPEL personnel were aware a majority of such tapes did exist; FCA was not advised of the tapes’ existence and TPEL’s earlier knowledge of their existence until much later and relevant tapes were not produced until 2014.

Last month, Tullett Prebon Americas Inc. ("Tullett"), a Commodity Futures Trading Commission-registered introducing broker, settled two enforcement actions by the CFTC by agreeing to pay a combined fine of US $13 million and implementing various remedial measures. In one action, the CFTC claimed that, from at least October 2, 2012, through at least December 2014, Tullett failed to adequately supervise brokers on its US Dollar Medium-Term Interest Rates Swaps Desk who allegedly made numerous false and misleading statements to customers related to certain executed trades as well as bids and offers. In the other action, the CFTC claimed that during its investigation into Tullett’s conduct, one unnamed broker made false or misleading statements or omitted material information to it during a voluntary appearance before Commission staff. (Click here for details in the article “Interdealer Broker Fined US $13 Million by CFTC for Making False or Misleading Statements to Customers and to CFTC” in the September 15, 2019 edition of Bridging the Week.)

Both TPEL and Tullett are now part of the TP ICAP Group.

  • New CFTC DSIO Head Warns Registrants Not to Consider Noncompliance Because Rules May Change and NFA Chief Lauds Self-Regulation Model: In a speech last week before The Institute of International Bankers Risk Management and Compliance Seminar, Joshua Sterling, the new Director of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission’s Division of Swap Dealers and Intermediary Oversight, reiterated his plan to strengthen his division’s relationship with the CFTC’s enforcement division, and said he expected registrants to follow all rules – even those where there may be a consensus that they should be revised. According to Mr. Sterling, “[r]ules are written to be followed, and the associated costs are the price one pays to conduct business as a CFTC registrant.” Mr. Sterling indicated that he will “be working hard with CFTC colleagues to make sure that the calculus around compliance decisions [is] focused on following through, every day, on what our rules require.” Mr. Sterling foreshadowed that DSIO will soon begin preparing a formal examinations guidebook and expects to begin thematic reviews of select large swap dealers and commodity pool operators beginning in the first quarter of 2020 to determine how they “approach” important compliance and operational issues. Mr. Sterling has discussed his intent to strengthen his relationship with the CFTC’s enforcement division in prior speeches. (Click here for background in the article “New CFTC DSIO Head Promises Stronger Relationship With Enforcement While DOE Chief Lauds Efficacy of Parallel Actions With Other Enforcement Authorities, in the September 29, 2019 edition of Bridging the Week.)

Unrelatedly, in a presentation before the Association for Financial Markets in Europe’s Annual Compliance and Legal Conference, Tom Sexton, President of the National Futures Association, praised the benefits of self-regulation. He indicated that self-regulation has a “long history of working effectively,” and, in the United States, has succeeded because of the SROs’ ability to expend significant resources; gain industry insight by involving market professionals; respond quicker than government agencies in rule-making or rule enforcement in response to developments in the market; and dealing with global issues more effectively because of their authority to establish relationships with other SROs through contract, and not by national legislative acts. For SROs to be effective, posited Mr. Sexton, they require mandatory membership, industry leadership, a board and committee structure that ensures that no one industry sector dominates, the commitment of management to self-regulation, rulemaking and enforcement authority and government oversight.

  • Revised NFA Guidance Regarding Branch Offices’ and G-IBs’ Supervision Mandatorily Effective January 1, 2020: Updated guidance proposed by the National Futures Association in June 2019 related to the supervision of branch offices by all members and relationships with guaranteed introducing brokers will become mandatorily effective as of June 1, 2020. However, NFA members may immediately rely on the revised guidance. Under the updated guidance, among other things, member firms must adopt written policies and procedures that (1) are designed to ensure that a formal due diligence review is undertaken before they establish a branch office or G-IB relationship and (2) set forth the manner in which they will exercise oversight of such entities. Although NFA’s guidance endeavors to provide members with flexibility in designing their specific supervisory programs in light of differences in “the size and complexity of Member firm operations,” the guidance sets forth minimum standards for all members. (Click here for background in the article “NFA Proposes Overhaul of Requirements for Supervision of Branch Offices and Guaranteed IBs” in the June 9, 2019 edition of Bridging the Week.)
  • President Throws in Doubt Value of Agency Guidances and Tightens Process for Administrative Enforcement Actions: President Donald Trump issued two executive orders last week that undercut the ability of US government departments and regulatory agencies to rely on guidance documents as a basis for enforcement proceedings, and preclude administrative enforcement proceedings based on standards of conduct that have not been publicly stated in a manner that would avoid “unfair surprise."

According to the executive order specifically pertaining to guidances, “agencies may impose legally binding requirements on the public only through regulations and on parties on a case by case basis through adjudication, and only after appropriate process.” As a result, the executive order requires agencies to treat guidance as nonbinding “both in law and in practice.” Agencies, under the executive order, generally include any executive department, military department, US government corporation, US government controlled corporation, or other establishment in the executive branch of the US government with certain enumerated exceptions; relevant agencies do not include independent regulatory agencies such as the Commodity Futures Trading Commission or the Securities and Exchange Commission. (Click here for authority in Executive Order 12866 (September 30, 1993), Section 3(b).) Under the new executive order, relevant agencies must establish procedures to issue guidance documents compliant with the new requirements within 300 days after the Office of Management and Budget issues an implementing memorandum regarding the new mandate.

The White House also issued a parallel executive order stating that “[n]o person should be subjected to a civil administrative enforcement action or adjudication absent prior public notice of both the enforcing agency’s jurisdiction over particular conduct and the legal standards applicable to that conduct.” The executive order mandates that a civil administrative enforcement action or adjudication may not proceed unless a respondent has “reasonable certainty or fair warning of what a legal standard administered by the agency requires.” This notice must occur through statutes or regulation and not guidance documents. Prior to every potential adjudication, relevant agencies must afford potential respondents with an opportunity to contest an agency’s proposed factual and legal determinations, and the agency must respond in writing, stating the basis for its action.

  • Federal Court Rules Futures Exchange Potentially Liable for Employees’ Misappropriation of Trading Information Under Respondeat Superior Theory: Last month a federal court in New York again rejected a challenge by the New York Mercantile Exchange that it could not be responsible in an enforcement lawsuit by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission for violations by two ex-employees of a statutory prohibition against disclosing nonpublic information “inconsistent with the performance of such person’s official duties as an employee or member” of a registered entity such as NYMEX; NYMEX is registered with the CFTC as a designated contract market.

In February 2013, the CFTC sued William Byrnes and Christopher Curtin, two former NYMEX employees, for improperly disclosing nonpublic trade and customer data they learned through their jobs to a third party, Ron Eibschutz, in return for meals, drinks and entertainment.NYMEX made a motion for summary judgment, claiming it could not be held vicariously liable for the actions of its two employees under applicable law. (Click here to access Commodity Exchange Act § 2(a)(1)(B), 7 U.S.C. § 2(a)(1)(B).) The court rejected NYMEX’s legal position and said whether employees acted within the scope of their employment was a factual issue that was proper for a judge or jury to decide. The court also rejected the CFTC’s view, however, that the imposition of vicarious liability was automatic in an employer-employee situation. This is the second legal challenge by NYMEX to the CFTC's legal theory regarding its potential liability; the first was also rejected. (Click here for background on the lawsuit in the article “Court Rejects NYMEX Claim It Can't Be Liable for Improper Disclosure of Nonpublic Information by Ex-Employer" in the October 5, 2014 edition of Bridging the Week.)

For further information:

Broker-Dealer and CEO Agree to Almost US $2 Million Penalty With SEC for Facilitating Alleged Manipulative Trading by Non-US-Based Trading Firm:

FCA Sanctions Interdealer Broker GB £15.$ Million for Wash Sales and Noncooperation:

Federal Court Rules Futures Exchange Potentially Liable for Employees’ Misappropriation of Trading Information Under Respondeat Superior Theory:

Food Giants and District Court Judge Oppose CFTC Request for Mandamus Order in Ongoing Dispute Over Enforcement Settlement Gag Order:

IRS Reiterates Virtual Currency Is Property Under Tax Laws and Reporting Obligations:

New CFTC Chairman Says Ether Derivatives Likely Soon While SEC Says No to Another Bitcoin ETF:

New CFTC DSIO Head Warns Registrants Not to Consider Noncompliance Because Rules May Change and NFA Chief Lauds Self-Regulation Model:

President Throws in Doubt Value of Agency Guidances and Tightens Process for Administrative Enforcement Actions:

Private Lawsuit Claims Bitfinex and Tether-Related Companies and Persons Caused Artificial Prices in Bitcoin and Other Virtual Currencies:

Revised NFA Guidance Regarding Branch Offices’ and G-IBs’ Supervision Mandatorily Effective January 1, 2020:

SEC Obtains TRO Against ICO to Support Social Media and Blockchain Platforms After Telegraphing Warnings:

Three Federal Agencies Remind Persons Engaged in Digital Asset Activity to Comply With AML Requirements:

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

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This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.