Check The (Public) Policy: Trends In Marijuana Insurance Litigation

by Pessin Katz Law, P.A.

Pessin Katz Law, P.A.

[co-author: Ryan Ullman, Law Clerk]

Insurance coverage issues related to marijuana, like most legal issues dealing with marijuana, operate at an intersection of often-changing state and federal law and policy.

As more states have legalized medical or recreational use of marijuana over the last couple of decades, there have been more individuals and businesses seeking to insure their marijuana plants and equipment.  As a consequence, litigation over insurance coverage for these marijuana items has increased and is expected to increase further as more states legalize the use of marijuana for medical or recreational purposes.

De Facto v. De Jure Enforcement of the Controlled Substance Act

Twenty-nine (29) states and Washington, D.C. currently have laws legalizing medical marijuana.  Nine (9) states and Washington, D.C. have legalized recreational marijuana. However, these states’ laws are at odds with the Controlled Substance Act (“CSA”), 21 U.S.C. § 801, et seq., which makes marijuana an unlawful Schedule 1 substance under federal law.

While possession of marijuana is de jure illegal vis-a-vis the CSA, de facto enforcement of the CSA in the states that have legalized or lessened their marijuana penalties has varied and been in constant fluctuation for nearly a decade.  The current enforcement landscape is, at least in part, the result of various unclear pronouncements by the government regarding how federal authorities intend to enforce the CSA.

The CSA’s enforcement by the federal government significantly changed during the Obama Administration to permit states to enact their own schemes with regard to medical or recreational marijuana under the guidance of the Ogden Memo, issued by the DOJ in 2009. In that memo, the DOJ announced its commitment to the “efficient and rational use” of its resources, and stated that it would exclude from prosecution patients and distributors who are in “clear and unambiguous compliance” with state marijuana laws.  This was a major shift in the federal government to de-prioritize use of federal funds to enforce marijuana prohibition under the CSA.

Recent changes, however, in federal policy towards enforcement of the CSA by U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions and the DOJ may have an effect on how insurers draft and structure their contracts to ensure that they are not exposing themselves to unreasonable risk or noncompliance with state laws. That being said, President Trump’s assurances earlier this year to officials in Colorado that legal marijuana would not be targeted by Mr. Sessions demonstrates that federal policy, even within the Trump Administration itself, is far from clear.

Swinging the Pot Policy Pendulum Back and Forth

Courts dealing with marijuana insurance litigation over the past decade have similarly had a difficult time reconciling the laws of their jurisdiction with federal law and policy.  This is not surprising, given the lack of clear guidance on how to deal with such claims.  If anything is apparent from these decisions, however, it is that federal policy regarding marijuana is a prime factor that courts will look at concerning marijuana insurance claims.

The importance of federal policy in shaping courts’ decisions with regard to marijuana insurance claims was first illustrated by Tracy v. USAA Cas. Ins. Co., No. 11–00487 LEK–KSC, 2012 WL 928186, at *11-13 (D. Haw. Mar. 16, 2012). In that case, the U.S. District Court for the District of Hawaii did not require an insurer to pay a claim to its insured under the “Trees, Shrubs, and Other Plants” provision of a residential policy when twelve (12) marijuana plants the insured was growing had been stolen from his property.  The court found that, despite the Plaintiff being licensed to grow and having an insurable, “lawful interest” in the marijuana plants, requiring the insurer to pay under the policy would violate federal law and thus, be contrary to public policy.

A year after the Tracy decision, federal policy on marijuana was further pushed toward lesser enforcement of the CSA with the DOJ releasing the Cole Memo. Under the Cole memo, which was modeled after the Ogden Memo, the DOJ indicated that prosecutors and law enforcement should focus only on certain priorities related to state-legal cannabis operations, including, among others, preventing: (i) distribution of marijuana to minors; (ii) preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs and cartels; (iii) preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana.  After the Cole Memo was issued, most federal prosecutions related to marijuana were halted unless they met the listed criteria.

The government’s easing of its position regarding enforcement of CSA as to marijuana, slightly clarified by the Cole Memo, may have led in part to the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado’s decision in Green Earth Wellness Center, LLC v. Attain Specialty Ins. Co., 163 F. Supp. 3d 821 (D. Col. 2016). In Green Earth, the court found that a commercial insurance policy issued by Attain, an insurer, to Green Earth, a marijuana dispensary, covered partial loss of Green Earth’s “stock,” as defined by the policy, in marijuana plants when smoke and ash from a nearby wild fire overwhelmed Green Earth’s ventilation system, intruding into the growing operation and damaging the plants.  Even though the policy contained a “Contraband” exclusion, the court disregarded it as ambiguous referencing the “nuanced and erratic” expression of the federal government’s differing de jure and de facto public policies regarding state-regulated medical marijuana.  Also key to the decision requiring Attain to pay the claim was that Attain knew, or should have known, that Green Earth was operating a medical marijuana business notwithstanding Attain’s knowledge that federal law also “nominally prohibited” such a business.

Another illustrative case is K.V.G. Props., Inc. v. Westfield Ins. Co., 296 F. Supp. 3d 863 (E.D. Mich. 2017). In that case, the court granted an insurers motion for summary judgment after its insured, a commercial landlord, made a claim for mold damaged caused by its tenants growing marijuana in the building. The court held that the mold damage was excluded by the “Illegal/Dishonest Acts,” “Unauthorized Construction,” and “Repeated Moisture or Humidity” exclusions under the commercial policy. Importantly, the court noted that although the tenants’ operation might be legal in Michigan, it was unlawful under federal law, which was “illegal or at the very least dishonest.” In addition, even though KVG had not given tenants permission to grow marijuana, KVG had “entrusted the units” to the tenants and KVG had itself surreptitiously made the alterations to the building.

Takeaways and Trends

First and foremost, insurers should pay attention to the changes in federal policy and the inherent uncertainty involved with such claims related to marijuana.  In January of this year, Attorney General Jeff Sessions issued a new memo for the DOJ rescinding the previous Obama-era policies, indicating that the previous issuances of guidance by the DOJ were “unnecessary” and “undermine[d] the rule of law,” and instructing prosecutors to “follow the well-established principles that govern all federal prosecutions . . . originally set forth . . . in 1980.”

With these policy changes by Mr. Sessions, it appears the marijuana policy pendulum could be beginning to swing again — this time, the in the opposite direction, returning towards a more strict enforcement of the CSA as it pertains to marijuana.  If that is the case, insurers should be happy to know it is likely that courts will be more willing to find that contraband or illegal act exclusions in policies work to exclude marijuana items from coverage, despite being “legal” under state law.

Second, despite the DOJ pulling back on its lenient Obama-era enforcement policies, insurers should be aware of a trend toward courts interpreting existing policies more broadly to encompass marijuana claims.  Ultimately, the policies would not have to change for insurers to face more claims which were not at all contemplated by the policies they issue.

While knowledge of the insured’s activities involving marijuana are certainly relevant, they are not always dispositive.  As a result, insurers may avoid or be compelled to pay under a policy, even if they did not know about the insured’s possession, use, or growth of marijuana.  In Tracy, for example, the court denied the insured’s claims as excluded from the “Trees, Shrubs, and Other Plants” provision under the residential policy, despite the insurer knowing the insured was a licensed medical marijuana user.  An opposite conclusion was reached in Green Earth under a commercial policy.  In that case, the court held that Attain knowingly and willingly entered into the contract with Green Earth and thus, could not avoid paying under the policy.

Part of the disparity between these two cases might be explained by the type of policy—commercial versus residential. While the policy in Green Earth covered the business activities of Green Earth, a medical dispensary, of which Attain was aware, Tracy merely involved a residential policy for which there was arguably little to no notice of such a claim.  And while marijuana was a necessary part of Green Earth’s business operations, Tracy’s insurer had less notice of Tracy’s potential claim, despite its knowledge that Tracy was licensed to use marijuana.

To avoid facing an unexpected claim related to an insured’s involvement with marijuana, insurers should err on the side of providing additional exclusions in their policies to specifically exclude marijuana.  For instance, an exclusion related to “controlled substances” as defined by the CSA would provide a work-around to state legislation that may make marijuana “legal.”

Lastly, it should be noted the above-delineated issues are and will become all-the-more important for insurers as state’s have begun to require mandatory insurance coverage for marijuana businesses.  Washington State requires all recreational marijuana businesses to carry at least $1 million in commercial general liability insurance for bodily injury and property damage arising out of licensed activities and California requires cannabis operators to carry product and liability insurance.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Pessin Katz Law, P.A. | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Pessin Katz Law, P.A.

Pessin Katz Law, P.A. on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.