Dauerhafte Arbeitnehmerüberlassung führt nicht automatisch zu einer Festanstellung beim Entleiher

by McDermott Will & Emery

In einer lang ersehnten Entscheidung hat das Bundesarbeitsgericht (Urteil vom 10. Dezember 2013 – 9 AZR 51/13) gestern zu der Frage Stellung genommen, ob eine dauerhafte Arbeitnehmerüberlassung automatisch zu einer Festanstellung beim Entleiher führt.

Hintergrund der Entscheidung war die Klage eines Leiharbeitnehmers der seit 2008 ausschließlich bei einem Entleiher beschäftigt war. Er begehrte deshalb die Feststellung, dass zwischen ihm und dem Entleiher ein Arbeitsverhältnis besteht, da er nicht nur vorübergehend an den Entleiher überlassen worden sei. Diese nicht nur vorübergehende Überlassung habe unter analoger Anwendung des § 10 Abs. 1 S. 1 AÜG zur Folge, dass im Ergebnis ein Arbeitsverhältnis mit dem Entleiher fingiert werden würde.

Nach Ansicht des Bundesarbeitsgericht wird aber – sofern natürlich der Verleiher die nach § 1 Abs. 1 S. 1 AÜG erforderliche Erlaubnis besitzt – auch bei dauerhafter Arbeitnehmerüberlassung kraft Gesetz kein Arbeitsverhältnis mit dem Entleiher begründet. § 10 Abs. 1 S. 1 AÜG fingiert ein Arbeitsverhältnis mit dem Entleiher ausschließlich bei fehlender Arbeitnehmerüberlassungserlaubnis des Verleihers. Mangels einer planwidrigen Regelungslücke kann der § 10 Abs. 1 S. 1 AÜG auch nicht analog auf den vorliegenden Fall angewendet werden. Das Bundesarbeitsgericht geht davon aus, dass der Gesetzgeber bei einer nicht nur vorübergehenden Arbeitnehmerüberlassung bewusst nicht die Begründung eines Arbeitsverhältnisses mit dem Entleiher angeordnet habe. Auch die Einbeziehung des Unionsrechts führt zu keiner anderen Bewertung. Die Richtlinie 2008/104/EG („Leiharbeiterrichtlinie“) sieht keine Sanktionierung eines nicht nur vorübergehenden Einsatzes von Leiharbeitnehmern vor. Vielmehr überlässt Art. 10 Abs. 2 S. 1 der Leiharbeiterrichtlinie den Mitgliedstaaten die Festlegung wirksamer, angemessener und abschreckender Sanktionen bei Verstößen gegen Vorschriften des AÜG. Deren Auswahl obliegt aber dem Gesetzgeber und nicht den Gerichten für Arbeitssachen.

Damit wäre der Gesetzgeber gefordert eine solche Sanktionierung zu normieren. Gleiches gilt auch für die Streitfrage, ab wann eine Arbeitnehmerüberlassung nicht mehr nur vorübergehend ist. Dies hatte das Bundesarbeitsgericht mangels Entscheidungserheblichkeit nicht zu beantworten. Dieser Frage scheint sich aber die Große Koalition annehmen zu wollen, jedenfalls ist im Koalitionsvertrag vorgesehen eine maximale Überlassungsdauer von 18 Monaten festzuschreiben.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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