Defence & Indemnity - December 2016: I. INSURANCE ISSUES B.

Field Law
Contact

Field Law

A vehicle owned by the insured or spouse, if insured, may be an “uninsured automobile” when taken without consent and therefore may be entitled to coverage under the O.P.C.F. 44R Endorsement as an “inadequately insured motorist”, notwithstanding that one part of the definition of “uninsured automobile” excludes an automobile owned by or registered in the name of the insured or his or her spouse. 

Skunk v. Ketash, 2016 ONCA 841, per Hoy A.C.J.O.


I. FACTS AND ISSUES
 
Mr. Skunk was a passenger in a motor vehicle owned by his spouse, Mrs. Skunk, but driven by a friend of his, Ms. Ketash, when a motor vehicle accident occurred. Mr. Skunk took the position that Ms. Ketash was driving Mrs. Skunk’s vehicle without her consent.
 
In addition to suing Ms. Ketash, Mr. Ketash commenced an action against Jevco Insurance Company, Mrs. Skunk’s insurer, pursuant to s. 265 of the Insurance Act R.S.O. 1990 c. I.8, and the standard Ontario Automobile Policy OPA 1 (the “Policy”) and the optional OPCF 44R Family Protection Coverage Endorsement (the “Endorsement”) issued to his spouse.
 
In suing Jevco, Mr. Skunk sought to recover under the uninsured provisions in the Policy and Endorsement issued to his spouse, the owner of the vehicle driven by Ms. Ketash.  Jevo applied to the Court for summary judgment, the summary judgment motion was dismissed by the motions judge.
 
Jevco appealed the dismissal of its summary judgment motion to the Court of Appeal. It submitted that the motion judge made a final determination of law that was wrong and which would be binding on the trial judge.
 
The issue arose whether the motions judge made an interlocutory or final order with respect to the determination of whether a vehicle owned by the insured or spouse, if insured, is a “uninsured automobile” when taken without consent and therefore entitled to coverage under the O.P.C.F. 44R Endorsement as an “inadequately insured motorist”, notwithstanding that one part of the definition of “uninsured automobile” excludes an automobile owned by or registered in the name of the insured or his or her spouse.
  
II. LEGISLATION AND THE INSURING AGREEMENT
 
The owner of a motor vehicle is liable for accidents caused by its operation under s. 192 of the Highway Traffic Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. H.8, (the Act) except where subsection (2) applies, which provides as follows:
 

The owner of a motor vehicle or street car is liable for loss or damage sustained by any person by reason of negligence in the operation of the motor vehicle or street car on a highway, unless the motor vehicle or street car was without the owner’s consent in the possession of some person other than the owner or the owner’s chauffeur. [Emphasis Added].

 
The term “uninsured automobile” is defined in the Standard Ontario Automobile Policy – O.A.P. No. 1 in Subsection 5.1.2 under Uninsured Automobile Coverage:
 

5.1.2 What is an Uninsured Automobile?
An uninsured automobile is one for which neither the owner nor driver has liability insurance to cover bodily injury or property damage arising out of its ownership, use or operation, or the insurance is not collectible. However, this does not include an automobile owned by or registered in the name of the insured person or their spouse. [Emphasis Added].

The term “inadequately insured motorist” and “uninsured automobile” are defined in the O.P.C.F. 44R Endorsement under Section 1 as:
 
1.5 “inadequately insured motorist” means
 

(a) the identified owner or identified driver of an automobile for which the total motor vehicle liability insurance or bonds, cash deposits or other financial guarantees as required by law in lieu of insurance, obtained by the owner or driver is less than the limit of family protection coverage; or

 

(b) the driver or owner of an uninsured automobile or unidentified automobile as defined in Section 5, “Uninsured Automobile Coverage” of the Policy.

 
1.11 “uninsured automobile” means an automobile with respect to which neither the owner nor driver thereof has applicable and collectible bodily injury liability and property damage liability insurance for its ownership, use or operation but does not include an automobile owned by or registered in the name of the insured or his or her spouse. [Emphasis Added].

 
III. HELD: Appeal quashed for lack of jurisdiction, the motion judge’s order was interlocutory and did not extend coverage to the Plaintiffs pursuant to the O.P.A. 1. Endorsement
 

1. The Court held that the Motion Judge did not make a final determination of law and quashed the appeal as the order under appeal was not a final order.
a. The Court held that the below excerpt, provided by the motion judge at paragraph 34, is not a final determination of law:

“I therefore conclude that vehicles owned by the insured or spouse, if insured, are “uninsured automobiles” when taken without consent. Therefore, I conclude that Ms. Ketash, if she took the vehicle without consent, is an “inadequately insured motorist” under the [Endorsement].
As such, I conclude that there may be coverage and Jevco’s motion for summary judgment is dismissed. [Emphasis added]”
b. The motion judge disagreed with Quinn J.’s conclusion in Fosker v. Thorpe, 2004 CanLII 33358 (ON SC), 72 O.R. (3d) 753 (S.C.), that s. 265(2) of the Insurance Act, s. 5.1.2 of O.A.P. No.  1 and O.P.C.F. 44R are clear and unambiguous. In Fosker, a thief, in the course of stealing the plaintiff’s car, struck the plaintiff with her own car. The Court held that because the car was owned by the insured plaintiff, it was not an “uninsured automobile.”
To the contrary, the motion judge in this case, applying principles of contractual, rather than statutory, interpretation to the Endorsement, concluded that those provisions were also ambiguous and accordingly should be construed against Jevco and given an “interpretation that spreads, rather than closes, the safety net” (paragraph 30.)

Here, the Court of Appeal did not draw a conclusion on the correctness of the motion judge’s above determination.

c. Despite expressing a “conclusion” about the interpretation of the Endorsement in his reasons, the motion judge simply determined that there “may” be coverage. The Court of Appeal said it was not clear that the motion judge did not simply conclude that there was a genuine issue for trial as to whether or not Mr. Skunk is entitled to coverage. As such, the Court of Appeal held that there was no binding determination of law.
[51]      Jevco argues that the motion judge used the word “may” in his reasons because, albeit mistakenly, he thought that the issue of whether or not the vehicle was driven without the consent of Ms. Skunk would be a live issue at trial. Jevco points to the motion judge’s use of the word “if” at para. 34: “Therefore, I conclude that Ms. Ketash, if she took the vehicle without consent, is an ‘inadequately insured motorist’.”

[52]      At paragraph 3 of his reasons, the motion judge wrote that “the vehicle … became uninsured when it was taken without consent by the defendant Ketash.” However, after reciting the facts as recounted in Mr. Skunk’s factum, the motion judge wrote the following phrase, at paragraph 11, giving rise to Jevco’s argument:  “On these facts, it is not clear that there is a lack of consent.”

[54]      Jevco’s explanation of why the motion judge used the words “if” and “may” is plausible. However, the motion judge’s reasoning is unclear.  Another plausible explanation is that the motion judge understood that the question of consent was not an issue for trial and used the word “if” because he did not want to appear to endorse what the parties had agreed amounted to lack of consent.  And, if that interpretation is accepted, then “may” is consistent with his determining only that there is a genuine issue for trial.  Given this ambiguity in the motion judge’s reasons, his conclusions should not be taken as anything more than his explanation for finding that there is a genuine issue for trial.


2. The Court, in obiter, highlighted some “applicable insurance principles” regarding section 265(2) of the Insurance Act, section 5.1.2 of O.A.P. No.  1 and O.P.C.F. 44R.

a. The Compulsory Automobile Insurance Act, R. S. O. 1990, c. 25. provides for compulsory automobile insurance in Ontario. The purpose of this legislation is to protect victims of automobile accidents “from having no means of seeking damages from persons who might have caused those damages without having the protection of automobile insurance”: Matheson v. Lewis, 2014 ONCA 542 (CanLII), 121 O.R. (3d) 641, at paragraph 36.
b. The purpose of s. 192(2) of the Highway Traffic Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. H.8,  was noted in Fernandes v. Araujo2015 ONCA 571 (CanLII), 127 O.R. (3d) 115 (C.A.), at paragraph 20:
The purpose of this provision is "to protect the public by imposing, on the owner of a motor vehicle, responsibility for the careful management of the vehicle". The provision is an integral element of the Highway Traffic Act's mandatory licensing and insurance scheme to ensure the public safety. The owner has the right to give possession of the vehicle to another person, but this provision "encourages owners to be careful when exercising that right by placing legal responsibility on them for loss to others caused by the negligent operation of the vehicle on a highway."
 
c. The Court explained at paragraph 10 that, if the motor vehicle is driven by a person who has the owner’s consent and is involved in an accident, section 3.2 of the OAP provides coverage: “You are covered when you, or anyone else in possession of a described automobile with your consent, uses or operates it. We will consider these other people insured persons.”
[11]     In the normal course, if a person is injured by the operation of the motor vehicle in which he or she is a passenger, the vehicle owner’s insurer must respond.
[12]     But some owners fail to insure their automobile, or their insurance is voided, and so the automobile is not insured. The Insurance Act mandates a scheme to provide for limited insurance coverage where the operation of an uninsured automobile injures a person. The coverage is provided by the injured person’s own insurer, but coverage is limited to the minimum required by s. 251 of the Insurance Act, which is $200,000 for liability claims.

[13]     In order to mitigate the consequences of being injured by an uninsured or underinsured motor vehicle, purchasers of automobile insurance policies in Ontario can buy, for an additional premium, added coverage in the form of the OPCF 44R Family Protection Coverage Endorsement.

 
3. The general rule is that an order dismissing a motion for summary judgment is an interlocutory and not a final, order.
 

a. Consistent with the Court of Appeals directions in Ashak v. Ontario (Director, Family Responsibility Office), 2013 ONCA 375 (CanLII), 115 O.R. (3d) 401, in the absence of an express indication by the motion judge that her determination is to be binding on the parties at trial, it should be presumed that in expressing a conclusion on a point of law when dismissing a summary judgment motion she is simply explaining why she concluded that there is a genuine issue requiring a trial, and did not intend her determination to be binding on the parties.
[30]      Subject to certain exceptions – none of which are relevant in this case an appeal lies to this court from a final order of a judge of the Superior Court of Justice. If an order is interlocutory, rather than final, the appeal lies to the Divisional Court, with leave: Cole v. Hamilton (City), 2002 CanLII 49359 (ON CA), 60 O.R. (3d) 284 (C.A.), at para. 15; Albert v. Spiegel, 17 C.P.C. (3d) 90 (Ont. C.A.), at p. 91.
[36]      At paragraphs 11 and 13 of Ashak, the court wrote:
 
“It is our view that, if a motion judge dismissing a motion for summary judgment proposes to exercise the power under rule 20.04(4)[[1]] to make a binding determination of law, the motion judge should specifically invoke the rule, and reference to the rule, as well as the legal determination made, should form part of the formal order. In our opinion, the issue of whether an order is final or interlocutory should not turn on the forcefulness of the reasons for the conclusion….”

b. While the court may take into account a party’s concession that an issue is or is not res judicata (a matter that has been adjudicated by a competent court and may not be pursued further by the same parties), in determining whether an order is final or interlocutory, a concession cannot confer or deprive the court of jurisdiction.
 

IV. COMMENTARY: The comments in the case regarding the application of the section 265(2) of the Insurance Act, section 5.1.2 of Ontario Automobile Policy, and the Endorsement are obiter and therefore not binding, however they do provide insight into the Court’s interpretation of said. It appears, according to the comments of the motion judge, that vehicles owned by the insured or spouse, if insured, may be “uninsured automobiles” when taken without consent. Therefore, the driver, if she or he took the vehicle without consent, may be an “inadequately insured motorist” under the Endorsement.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Field Law | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Field Law
Contact
more
less

Field Law on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.