French Tax Report September 2018



Below we provide a summary of the current major rules governing the French corporate income tax (CIT) as applied to financial instruments. 

NB: Certain rules applicable to medium and small businesses are not covered hereafter.

1. CIT rates

The CIT rates are on the path to be reduced significantly in the coming years.

In 2018 the rate is 33.33 percent, except for the taxable profit up to €500,000 where the rate is 28 percent.

In 2019, the rate will be 31 percent, except for the taxable profit up to €500,000 where the rate will be 28 percent.  

In 2020, there will be a unique rate of 28 percent, decreasing to 26.5 percent in 2021 and to 25 percent from 2022.

NB: Businesses with a turnover exceeding €1 billion were liable to one or two exceptional contributions, based on the CIT liability, for the financial year closed from December 31, 2017 to December 30, 2018.

NB: Businesses with a CIT liability exceeding €763,000 are liable to a so-called “social contribution” equal to 3.3 percent of their CIT liability (minus €763,000).

2. Tax losses

  1. Carry back

    The carry back of any tax loss is limited in its scope, as it may not exceed €1 million, and may be imputed only against any profit of the immediately preceding financial year.  The resulting claim against the French Treasury may be used to pay any future CIT liability within five years, and any unused portion will be redeemed at the end of the five year period (or used to pay other taxes).

  2. Carry forward

    Any tax loss may be carried forward indefinitely.  However, for any financial year, the imputable tax loss is limited to €1 million plus 50 percent of the taxable profit of such year exceeding €1 million.

    Under specific circumstances (change of business, etc. …), the taxpayer may lose the right to carry forward its tax losses. 

3. Taxation of Dividends

French and foreign sourced dividends are, in principle, fully liable to CIT.  Any tax credit (resulting from a withholding tax) attached to foreign sourced dividend is imputable against the CIT liability, subject to the imputation of certain costs against the taxable dividends.

Dividends may be effectively 95 percent exempt or 99 percent exempt, if certain conditions are met:

  • The 95 percent exemption is available when, inter alia, the taxpayer holds an equity participation in the distributing entity equal to at least five percent of the share capital of the latter, for a minimum period of two years;
  • The 99 percent exemption is available when the above conditions are met and the dividends are distributed within a French tax grouping, or by EU entities which would have been eligible to the French tax grouping if there were French incorporated, i.e., inter alia, if they are 95 percent or more held by the French parent.

NB: No exemption is available when the equity investment is acquired under certain transactions, e.g. stock loans and repos, or where the taxpayer owns only the “usufruct” (right to dividends) of such investment.  Specific rules apply when the equity investment is transferred to a French law governed trust.

NB: No exemption is available when the taxpayer owns the equity investment through a tax transparent vehicle. 

NB: No exemption is, in principle, available when the equity investment is held in an entity established in a so called “none cooperative jurisdiction.” 

NB: No exemption is available when the dividends are deductible for the distributing entity. 

NB: No exemption is available when certain specific anti-abuse rules are applicable, i.e. the structure is deemed to lack substance.  

NB: If the exemption is available, any tax credit attached to the relevant dividends is not imputable (e.g. foreign dividends liable to withholding tax in the source country).

NB: None voting shares are entitled to the exemption.

NB: The exemption is generally not available in respect of dividends distributed by REITs. 

4. Taxation of capital gains on equity securities

The capital gains are generally fully liable to CIT (and the capit"al losses are fully tax deductible).

However, the capital gains realized in respect of the sale of certain eligible equity investments are 88 percent exempt when they are held for a minimum period of two years.  When the eligible equity investment is held in a listed real estate entity, the capital gains are taxed at the specific CIT rate of 19 percent (investments in non-listed real estate entities do not benefit from any exemption or reduced CIT rate).

The eligible equity investments include, inter alia, those investments which are entitled to the dividends exemption (see 3 above), to the extent the investment represents at least five percent of the voting rights in the underlying entity, and those which are treated, for accounting purposes, as "participating securities" i.e., in essence, securities the holding of which is deemed to the useful for the business of the taxpayer (through the control of the underlying entity or through the influence exercized in such entity).

The exemption is also available for the equity investments acquired through certain public tender offers by the initiator of the tender offer. 

NB: For the purposes of the computation of the holding period, the taxpayer has to apply, generally, the FIFO rule (first in, first out). 

NB: Any capital loss on the sale of an eligible equity investment (held for 2 years or more) is not tax deductible. When the eligible investment is held in a listed real estate entity, any loss, after 2 years of holding, is imputable against the capital gains taxable at the specific 19 percent CIT rate.

NB: The capital gains on certain exchanges of securities (e.g. conversion, public tender offers, etc…) are taxable only upon any subsequent sale of the securities received in exchange. 

NB: The capital losses realized on the sale of an eligible equity investment, before the end of the 2-year-holding period, is not deductible if the purchaser is a related entity.

NB: Treasury shares never qualify for the exemption.

NB: The transfer of equity securities under certain transactions (e.g. stock loan, repo, collateral, etc…) is not a taxable event under certain conditions.

NB: Certain financial institutions and insurance businesses are subject to specific rules in respect of the securities, which include certain mark-to-market taxation. 

NB: Any gain or loss on the buy-back of the equity securities by the issuer is deemed to be a capital gain or loss and treated as above.

NB: Any capital gain or loss on the sale of equity securities within a French tax grouping is neutralized.

NB: Specific rules apply to investments held in capital venture funds.

NB: The exemption is not available when the investment is held, inter alia, in an entity invested mostly in non-eligible securities or managing such securities.

NB: The exemption is not available, in principle, in respect of investments held in entities established in none cooperative jurisdiction.

5. Taxation of debt securities (holders)

Any interest on the debt securities is fully liable to CIT on an accrued basis. Any capital gain/loss on the sale of the debt securities is fully taxable/tax deductible for CIT purposes.

NB: Specific rules apply to the taxation of the remuneration on the deep discount debt securities (i.e. those where the non-regular coupons or redemption premium exceeds 10 percent of the issue price).

NB: The capital gains on certain exchanges of securities (e.g. convertible bonds) are taxable only upon any subsequent sale of the securities received in exchange. 

NB: Any tax credit attached to foreign sourced interest is imputable against the CIT liability, subject to the imputation of certain costs against the taxable coupon.

NB: The transfer of debt securities under certain transactions (e.g. stock loan, repo, collateral, etc.) is not a taxable event under certain conditions.

NB: The remuneration on the undated deeply subordinated instruments is generally tax deductible.

NB: Any capital gain or loss on the sale of debt securities within a French tax grouping is neutralised.

6. Taxation of debt securities (issuers)

The general principle is the full deductibility of interest assuming the usual conditions are met: arm’s length rate, use of the borrowed money for corporate purposes, etc.

However there are a number of exceptions which limit the deductibility of the interest.

A general limit, is the so called “rabot” rule, whereby 25 percent of the “net financial expenses” (NFE) of the taxpayer are not tax deductible. The NFE are defined as any excess of the interest paid by the taxpayer over the interest received by it.  The rabot quicks in when the NFE exceed €3 million. 

NB: Specific rules apply for the rabot applied within a French tax grouping.

NB: The administration had taken the view that the amounts paid and received under interest rate swaps should be within the rabot rule, but a recent lower court decision ruled that only interest paid/received for actual money borrowed/lent should be taken into account.

A second limitation applies when the holder of the debt is a direct shareholder of the issuer without being an affiliate; the interest is deductible only if the share capital is fully paid up, and the interest rate does not exceed an average rate computed by reference to certain rates charged by financial institutions (e.g., currently, approx. 1.5 percent).

A third limitation applies when, the holder of the debt is an affiliate of the issuer and is, typically, located outside of France; the interest is not deductible if the holder is not liable to a tax charge which is equal to at least 25 percent of the CIT charge which would have been applicable under similar circumstances.

NB: The relevant foreign tax charge does not take into account the deductible expenses at the level of the holder; accordingly, in essence, the interest is deductible if the corporate tax rate applicable to the holder is not below 25 percent of the then current CIT rate (e.g., currently, around 8.33 percent given that the CIT rate 33.33%; see section 1 above).  

Specific rules apply when the holder of the debt is, inter alia, a tax transparent vehicle.

The fourth limitation is a thin capitalisation one, where the interest paid to the affiliates is not deductible if one of these conditions is not met: 

  1. The affiliate debt/equity ratio of the issuer does not exceed 1.5.
  2. The interest due to affiliates does not exceed 25 percent of the issuer’s EBITDA.
  3. The interest due to affiliates does not exceed the interest due from affiliates.

If the thin cap limitation is applicable, the deductible interest is the highest amount obtained by using the  above criteria (no limitation applies if the amount thus computed does not exceed €150 000).

NB: The thin cap also applies to debt vis-à-vis third parties guaranteed by affiliates.

NB: Specific thin cap rules apply to French tax groupings. 

NB: No thin cap limitation applies if the consolidated debt/equity ratio of the group controlling the issuer is higher than the one of the issuer.

NB: No thin cap limitation applies to treasury pools, or to financings similar to a client financing.

A fifth limitation may apply when the issuer borrows to acquire an equity investment which benefits from the 88 percent exemption in respect of capital gains (see section 4 above).  However, the issuer may achieve deductibility if it can prove that:

  1. the decisions in respect of the above investment are taken by it or by certain affiliates located in France (or located within EU plus Iceland, Norway and Lichtenstein), and
  2. when the underlying entity is controlled or is influenced, such control or influence is exercised by it or by certain affiliates.

If the limitation is applicable, the none deductibility would last until the closing of the 8th financial year following the acquisition of the investment, and the non-deductible amount would be equal to the aggregate interest multiplied by the ratio debt/purchase price of the target entity.

Special deductibility limitations may apply when the interest is paid to holders located in tax privileged jurisdictions or established in none cooperative jurisdictions.

NB: Under the ATAD Directive, which has to be implemented into the French legislation, the deduction of interest may be limited, in the future, to 30 percent of the EBITDA of the issuer.

7. Taxation of derivative instruments

The derivative instruments are subject to the normal CIT rules, with the below specific exceptions.

Certain derivative instruments are subject to a mark-to-market valuation at the end of each financial year of the taxpayer, any unrealised gain and loss being, in principle, fully taxable / tax deductible.

When two positions are deemed to be "symmetrical", (i.e. straddle) any mark-to-market loss on one position is not deductible until the gain on the other position is taxed.  

Also the mark-to-market gain on a given position, at the end of a given financial year, is not taxed immediately if the only purpose of the position is to hedge the risk of a transaction to be implemented during one of the two following financial years (in which case the taxation would take place upon the implementation of the underlying transaction).

Also the mark-to-market gain on a currency derivative, which is hedging a future transaction, will be taxed over the same period as the underlying hedged transaction.

NB: Specific rules apply to the derivative business of certain financial institutions.

8. Financial transaction tax and stamp duties

Beside the CIT rules summarized above, the purchase of certain equity securities may result in a tax cost:

  • the purchase of listed shares issued by French issuers, with a market capitalization of over €1 billion, is liable to the French financial transactions tax (FTT) at the current rate of 30 bp applied to the acquisition cost; numerous exemptions apply (market making, intra group transactions, intraday trades, temporary transfers, etc. …)
  • if the listed shares are not effectively subject to the FTT, their purchase may be liable to the stamp duties at the current rate of 10 bp, although no duties would be due if the purchase is not documented by a written agreement (interpreted broadly);
  • non-listed shares may be liable to stamp duties.

9. Taxation of non-French corporate tax residents

The below summarized rules apply when the relevant non-resident has no French permanent establishment; if there is any French permanent establishment, the rules under sections 1 to 7 above would generally apply.

9.1 Holders of debt securities issued by French issuers


With certain very limited exceptions (e.g. when the holder established in a none cooperative jurisdiction), the French interest source is not subject to any French withholding tax (a withholding tax may apply if the interest is deemed to be a distribution of profits).

Capital gains

Any capital gain on the sale of the debt securities would not be liable to any French tax.

9.2 Holders of equity securities issued by French issuers


The French sourced dividends are generally liable to a 30 percent withholding tax (28 percent from 2020) which is generally reduced to 15 percent, for portfolio investments, under the international tax treaties signed by France; the withholding tax may be lower or eliminated when the holder has a significant investment in the issuer.

There would be no French withholding tax on dividends distributed by French subsidiaries to EU parents (subject to certain anti-abuse rules).

NB: Specific rules apply to dividends distributed to certain non-French UCITS (where a 0 percent withholding tax may be available) and certain non-French none for profit organizations (where a 15 percent withholding tax may be available). 

NB: Specific rules apply for distribution by French REITs.

Capital gains

Any capital gains on sale of equity investments are not taxable in France unless the investment represents more than 25 percent of the profits of the issuer; even in that case, most international tax treaties signed by France protect the non-residents from any taxation in France. 

NB: Specific rules apply to investments in French real estate entities and funds.

9.3 Derivative instruments executed with French counterparties

There is no French withholding tax on any payments made by the French counterparties to non-French tax resident counterparties, and on any profit on any assignment of the derivative by the non-French tax resident counterparties.


DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Dentons | Attorney Advertising

Written by:


Dentons on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.