Huawei espionage concerns reach UK

White & Case LLP
Contact

White & Case LLPWhite & Case Technology Newsflash

The UK 5G debate is emblematic of protectionist sentiments in the technology sector.

Huawei and the technology cold war

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. is a modern Chinese success story. A pioneer in the telecommunication industry, the company has grown exponentially since its early days as a supplier of low-tech hardware to rural China. In a little more than 30 years, it has become a market leader in the equipment required by states and businesses for their telecommunication infrastructure, and is second only to Samsung in smartphone sales. Both business lines have, however, come under significant pressure in recent years, a consequence of the China-America trade war and of allegations of state-sponsored espionage.

The US government has long harboured suspicions about Huawei and its relationship with the Chinese government. The link between enterprise and state dates back to the early 1990s, when Huawei was tasked with providing its technology to the army. Founder Ren Zhengfei had begun his career as an officer in the Chinese army, and maintained strong links with the ruling Communist Party. The relationship was cemented when, shortly thereafter, Huawei became designated as a National Champion by the Chinese government, a prestigious status which awarded it state support and protection, and it is this proximity to the state which has aroused US concerns. In 2012 the House Intelligence Committee raised serious questions about the security integrity of Huawei equipment, and strongly advised private enterprises to avoid using Huawei in their network systems. Further warnings came from authorities such as the FBI, whilst American mobile carriers such as AT&T continued to indicate reluctance to enter into partnerships with the company. Significantly, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, which came into force in August 2018, introduced a provision which banned executive agencies from procuring equipment produced by Huawei. By the close of January 2019, the US Department of Justice had unveiled two sets of criminal indictments against the company, while Ren Zhengfei's daughter Meng Wanzhou, Huawei's Chief Financial Officer, was under arrest in Canada pending extradition to the United States. Suspicions were also felt beyond America's borders, with African Union officials accusing the Chinese government of hacking the servers of their headquarters in Ethiopia—a US$200 million building funded and built by China, with Huawei's technology at the heart of its communication system. 

Huawei's role in UK telecom infrastructure

It is in this context that, on 10 June 2019, the Global Cyber Security and Privacy Officer of Huawei was summoned before the UK Parliament's Science and Technology Select Committee (the "Committee"). Though the company has long been a feature in the UK telecoms market, recent events have given the UK government cause to revaluate the Chinese company's role in the development of the UK's 5G network. In particular, the Committee scrutinised the alleged links between Huawei and the Chinese government, stoked by concerns that recent Chinese cybersecurity legislation would enable China to access Huawei telecom equipment in the UK's infrastructure, the implications of which would be significant for national security and civil liberties. Use of Huawei technology in national communication infrastructure has already been restricted by the UK's close espionage allies Australia and New Zealand, in addition to the US.

At stake are the UK's plans to become a leader in 5G technology, the fifth generation of digital telecommunication systems. Researchers have credited the technology with a number of far-reaching benefits, such as enhanced speed, improved latency and increased reliability. It will contribute to the development of the Internet of Things and power the development of machine learning and artificial intelligence, and has numerous industrial applications that will benefit sectors from manufacturing to agriculture. With these benefits, 5G has been the subject of much investment and study by nation states, and has been identified as a cornerstone development for the future of the digital economy by the European Commission. It has already been adopted in parts of North America, South Korea and Switzerland, with launches across Europe scheduled for 2019. London, Edinburgh and Cardiff have been among the first cities in the UK to receive 5G coverage, albeit to a limited degree, with further carriers due to launch networks later in the year. 

Huawei has been extensively involved in the UK telecoms sector for nearly two decades. The company worked with carrier partners such as BT, EE and Vodafone to develop the 4G mobile network, and with a combination of this expertise, scale and low-pricing Huawei would appear well placed to deliver the UK's goal to be a global leader in 5G technology. However, the company's role in the UK's telecom infrastructure first came into question in April 2019, when a leak from the National Security Council implied that the company would be involved in the development of the country's 5G network. The leak came amid ongoing international concerns about Huawei's relationship with the Chinese government, and followed a critical report authored by GCHQ (a UK intelligence agency) on the national security risks posed by Huawei technology

While the leak stated that Huawei would be barred from involvement in system integral 5G technology, it further reported that the company would be permitted to supply certain non-core technology to the network, including antennas. This broadly mirrored the policy of long-term Huawei partner BT, which had recently confirmed that it had started the process of removing Huawei technology from the core of the new UK emergency services communication system. The Telecoms Supply Chain Review, a security analysis of the UK's telecom supply chain led by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport, is expected to provide direction to network operators on whether Huawei technology will be approved for use on the 5G network by the autumn of 2019.

US pressure on Huawei in 2019

The UK government's apparent openness to Huawei's involvement in the development of the 5G mobile phone network was met with a significant degree of criticism, notably from US officials. Ahead of President Donald Trump's state visit to the UK in June 2019, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo expressed his concerns about the security risks presented by Huawei's involvement in the 5G network project. Economic protectionism has been a key pillar of US foreign policy under the Trump administration, with a sharp focus on safeguarding intellectual property and scrutiny of foreign ownership of sensitive assets. 

Huawei has attracted a high degree of interest from the US government, which has accused the company of acting as a conduit for Chinese espionage. On 15 May 2019, US pressure on the company culminated in (i) an executive order banning imports of communication technology developed by companies that pose a risk to the national security of the United States, and (ii) the addition of Huawei to the entity list maintained by the US Commerce Department (the "Entity List"). Lawful sale or transfer of American commodities, software or technology to an entity that has been designated to the Entity List is permissible only where the seller has obtained a licence from the Bureau of Industry and Security of the US Commerce Department. The dual effect of these measures is that American manufacturers are not only barred from importing Huawei technology, but also are prohibited from exporting American technology to Huawei. 

After these measures were implemented, major US technology companies announced that they would restrict trading with Huawei. The unintended economic consequences of the ban for US enterprises soon became apparent, as listed US technology companies with material revenue streams derived from Huawei were exposed to some share price volatility. It is notable that the issuance of a temporary general licence to deal with Huawei by the US Commerce Department in May 2019 led to consequential gains in US technology stocks. In July 2019, the US Commerce Secretary said that his department would issue licenses to exempt companies from the ban on selling technology to Huawei, as long as there was no "threat to US national security". However, as of August 2019, the US Commerce Department has not granted any such licenses despite having received more than 130 applications. Microsoft, being one of the applicants, have recently called on the US to end the ban on supplying technology to Huawei. Tension is set to continue, with the Chinese government planning to release their own "unreliable entity list" in a retaliatory move against the US in the near future.

Increasing restrictions on foreign investment 

The Huawei 5G controversy comes at a time of increasingly protectionist legislative measures across western governments, not least in the UK. In 2018 the UK amended the Enterprise Act 2002 (the "Act") to expand powers of review where M&A transactions trigger national security concerns. The changes to the Act included considerably lowering the target's UK turnover threshold to trigger government review to £1 million (from £70 million) in cases where the acquired entity is a "relevant enterprise". A relevant enterprise is broadly defined by Act to encompass enterprises which, among other things, are involved in the development of quantum technology or computing hardware. This was followed by the publication of a white paper setting out the government's proposed approach to cross-border M&A involving strategic entities and assets. The proposed new regime would materially change the scope of review and, whilst remaining a voluntary system, encourage notification where transactions raise potential national security concerns. Under the proposals, the government anticipates investigating around 200 cases per year and that 50 would require some sort of remedy. Under the current regime there has been, on average, less than one intervention a year. An example of the type of transaction that would be likely to be reviewed is the acquisition of software code used by the data servers of energy providers, which could be manipulated to undermine the UK's national security.

Uncertainty set to continue

The uncertainty around Huawei's role in the UK's telecommunication infrastructure is set to continue, in the main because of the current political landscape in the UK. Brexit remains an ongoing concern, and the UK will be keen to present itself as open to overseas investment in the event that it leaves the European Union on 31 October 2019. Huawei has invested considerable resources into the UK, and is projected to spend £3 billion on UK suppliers between 2018 and 2022. In an interview on 23 May 2019 Chen Wen, Charge d'Affaires a.i. of the Chinese Embassy in the UK, stated that any decision taken by the UK government which would result in Huawei being barred from involvement in the 5G network would have substantial ramifications for inbound Chinese investment.

To further complicate matters, the UK government has recently undergone a leadership change, with Theresa May stepping down as Prime Minister in May 2019 and Boris Johnson taking over in July 2019. May's government was at odds with the Trump administration on Huawei, and her National Security Council has previously issued a provisional decision to grant Huawei limited access to non-core parts of the UK's 5G network. However, her successor, Johnson, is much more publicly aligned with Trump, and both leaders have reportedly discussed Huawei and 5G technology over a phone call and at a bilateral meeting during the G7 summit in August 2019. In the same month, comments by then US national security advisor John Bolton after his meeting with Johnson and other senior UK government officials suggest that Johnson's government may potentially back-pedal on May's decision to give Huawei restricted access to its 5G network. Most recently, the UK defence secretary, Ben Wallace, has said that China needs to modify its cyber-behaviour and adopt a code of "fair play" if it wants the UK government to allow Huawei technology to be used in its 5G networks, which is a position that seems to depart from that taken by Johnson's predecessor and is more closely aligned to that of the Trump administration.

Huawei has made major investments across Europe, fuelled by heavily discounted pricing, and with the implicit support of the Chinese government. Industry analysis has suggested that any measure to restrict Chinese telecom companies from involvement in 5G infrastructure would delay European adoption of the technology by 18 months, and add an additional €55 billion to the cost. For these reasons, UK mobile operators are seeking clarification from the government on their stance. All four operators currently use Huawei's equipment in their networks, and should the government decide that it would no longer allow them to continue to do so, they would be forced to strip out and replace such equipment, which would not only be costly but also put at stake the UK's status as a leading telecoms sector. EE, Vodafone and Three have launched their 5G network in several towns and cities across the UK in May, July and August 2019, respectively, and O2 is planning to launch 5G in October 2019. This swift adoption of 5G has put the UK at the top of the leaderboard, and a negative decision by the government on the use of Huawei equipment will almost certainly have an adverse impact on this. 

While the UK government deliberates over its course of action, not all countries are so reticent to invite Huawei to develop their telecom infrastructure. Huawei has recently signed a 5G agreement with Russian carrier MTS, and launched its first 5G network in cities across Spain in June 2019. Houlin Zhao, the secretary general of the UN's International Telecommunication Union, has emphasised that accusations against Huawei remain unsubstantiated, and believes that they stem from political rather than technological concerns. 

Huawei, for its part, has moved quickly to make opportunities of the threats presented to it. It has reportedly progressed with plans to enter the self-driving car market, powered by its own proprietary AI and 5G technology and undertaken in partnership with European, Japanese and Chinese car manufacturers. Huawei is also rumoured to have begun the process of trademarking its own proprietary operating system, a development which would likely contribute to the long-heralded bifurcation of the internet.

While questions remain regarding the alleged role of the Chinese government in the company's operations, whatever the outcome, the eventual decision on whether to continue to allow Huawei to play a major role in the development of the UK telecoms infrastructure will potentially have ramifications on the UK's communications policy, political standing and its ability to attract foreign investment.

[View source.]

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© White & Case LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

White & Case LLP
Contact
more
less

White & Case LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.