Le Sezioni Unite Indirizzano I Giudici Sul Concordato Preventivo

by Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP

Il concordato preventivo è stato oggetto di molte riforme dal 2005 ad oggi e con l’ultima in ordine cronologico (D.L. 22 giugno 2012 n.83) ha subìto uno slancio inaspettato grazie al nuovo istituto del cosiddetto “concordato con riserva”.

Che la finalità delle molte riforme fosse quella di “privatizzare” l’istituto, ossia concedere maggiore autonomia alle parti (debitore e creditori) nella gestione del risanamento è un principio su cui tutti gli studiosi della materia concordano. Fino a dove può spingersi questa autonomia è invece un tema su cui le opinioni sono molto diverse, anche tra gli stessi giudici.

Su questa materia sono ora intervenute le Sezioni Unite della Corte di Cassazione che con una sentenza di 70 pagine depositata il 23 gennaio 2013 hanno dato risposta a due questioni importanti in tema di concordato preventivo e precisamente:

1) se la presentazione di una domanda di concordato sospenda l’eventuale istruttoria pre-fallimentare attivata da un creditore;

2) se ed entro quali limiti il giudice possa “intromettersi” nella valutazione della proposta di concordato. Vediamo i chiarimenti della Corte.

1) Rapporto tra concordato preventivo e fallimento

E’ opinione diffusa tra gli operatori del settore (maturata sotto l’egida dell’articolo 160 LF ante riforma del 2005) che la presentazione di una domanda di concordato preventivo “blocca” l’eventuale procedimento per la dichiarazione di fallimento avviato da un creditore. Questa opinione è stata condivisa anche post-riforma da molti tribunali di merito che sono ricorsi alla tecnica della “sospensione impropria” per fermare l’istruttoria prefallimentare in attesa della definizione della procedura di concordato.

Le Sezioni Unite hanno ora affermato che la presentazione di una domanda di concordato non impedisce la dichiarazione di fallimento del debitore perché tra le due procedure c’è solo un rapporto di conseguenzialità logica e non procedimentale. Da un lato – sostiene la Corte - la legge processuale vigente esclude casi di “sospensione impropria o atecnica”, dall’altro tra concordato e fallimento non vi è un rapporto di pregiudizialità tale da giustificare una sospensione “tecnica”: quindi le due procedure corrono parallele.

Si prega di consultare avviso completo qui sotto per ulteriori informazioni.

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