Nevada Rejects Literalist View on Some Lender and Trust Deed Holder Requirements for the Right to Enforce

by Snell & Wilmer

Nevada’s Foreclosure Mediation Program (FMP), statutorily mandates mediation before a non-judicial foreclosure of an owner-occupied residence can proceed. It also encourages the judicial review of that mediation. It has been a steady source of litigation in Nevada since its inception in 2009. Much of the litigation at the District Court level centers on the FMP’s mandate that parties mediate in “good faith,” what facts constitute “bad faith,” the constitutionality of the FMP, who may prosecute a foreclosure, and in what form evidence of trust-deed ownership must be brought to the mediation in order to proceed in the non-judicial foreclosure process. Slowly, appeals and writs have been making their way to the Nevada Supreme Court and opinions are now being issued.  See Snell & Wilmer Legal Alert, October 4, 2012, “Nevada Upholds MERS in Foreclosure Proceedings.” [1]
The most recent opinion in this line, Einhorn v. BAC Home Loans Servicing, LP, 128 Nev. Adv. Op. 61 (December 6, 2012) addresses the document production requirements that a trust-deed holder must meet in order to establish ownership of the underlying note and the right to foreclose. Einhorn provides valuable guidance to both residential and commercial lenders and holders of trust-deeds. The full opinion can be viewed here.
The FMP mediator in Einhorn found that respondent, BAC Home Loan Servicing, LP (BAC) did not act in bad faith, but “failed to bring to the mediation each document required,” citing a gap in the assignments leading to BAC’s purported ownership of the note. The mediator declined to issue a Letter of Certification. BAC petitioned for judicial review to the District Court.
The District Court disagreed with the FMP mediator and found that a certification signed by BAC’s trustee established that “the original Deed of Trust, Promissory Note and the missing Assignment of Promissory Note and/or Deed of Trust” were in BAC’s possession and therefore there was “no irregularity” as to the documents submitted at mediation. Einhorn appealed and the Nevada Supreme Court affirmed, but not without some useful guidance.
The Court began its analysis by examining the BAC trustee’s certification. The BAC trustee’s certification provided that attached to the certification were true copies of the 2006 Countrywide note, a deed of trust naming Countrywide as lender and MERS as beneficiary, a Countrywide lost note certification (at odds with the existence of the original note that was attached) and an assignment dated August 2010 in which Deutsche Bank National Trust Company transferred to BAC all beneficial interest in the Einhorn note. 

The Court noted that an assignment from MERS to Deutsche Bank where Deutsche Bank came into title was not attached to the BAC trustee’s certification. The Court noted that “[s]ince the assignment by which Deutsche Bank came into the chain of title is not attached, the only fair inference to be drawn is that the trustee did not have that assignment in its possession to certify.” BAC argued that the Court did not need to consider the chain of assignment because BAC and Countrywide were “one and the same entity.” BAC's argument was that although the note was made payable to Countrywide and had never been endorsed, BAC is Countrywide and is entitled to enforce the note and the deed of trust as the owner in possession of both. A valid argument, which is likely being made in District Courts in Nevada, but one that will have to await a separate and future appeal to the Nevada State Court. The Court declined to consider the argument as it had not been raised in the District Court proceedings prior to appeal.  At this point in the opinion, all seemed lost for BAC as it could not prove that it had acquired the right to enforce the Einhorn note from Deutsche Bank.
In a twist, the Court then found that Einhorn filled in the fatal gap by producing an uncertified copy of the Countrywide/MERS to Deutsche Bank assignment at the mediation and at the District Court. Einhorn had procured the missing assignment from the county recorder’s office. The assignment was signed by an assistant secretary of MERS, Angela Nava. Her signature was acknowledged and notarized.

Einhorn did his best to attack the assignment on appeal. First, he argued that the assignment was flawed because Ms. Nava signed the assignment on October 23rd, while the notary’s acknowledgment of her signature was not taken until October 30th. The Court rejected the argument and noted that “actually signing the record in the presence of a notarial officer is not necessary as long as the individual declares, while in the presence of the officer at the time the acknowledgment is made, that the signature already on the record is, in fact, the signature of the individual.” Second, Einhorn claimed that the assignment was flawed because Ms. Nava acted as an assistant secretary to both MERS and Deutsche Bank. The Court also rejected this argument, citing to the 9th Circuit’s finding in Cervantes v. Countrywide Home Loans, Inc., 656 F.3d 1034, 1040 (9th Cir. 2011), which found Ms. Nava’s dual role “unremarkable” and explaining that MERS relies on its members like Deutsche Bank to have someone on its staff become an officer of MERS with authority to sign documents on behalf of MERS. Finally, Einhorn argued that BAC should not be allowed to fill the chain of ownership gap with a document he produced.  NRS 107.086(4) mandates that “[t]he beneficiary of the deed of trust shall bring to the mediation the original or a certified copy of the deed of trust …” [emphasis in original]. The Nevada Supreme Court’s opinion in Leyva v. National Default Servicing Corp., 255 P.3d 1275, 1279 (Nev. 2011) holds that “strict compliance” with NRS 107.086(4) is required. Einhorn argued that since the beneficiary, BAC, did not produce the missing assignment, it did not strictly comply with the requirements of NRS 107.086(4), nor was the missing assignment, which Einhorn supplied, a certified photocopy.
The Court rejected Einhorn’s “literalist’s view.” While acknowledging Leyva’s strict compliance standard, the Court held, “who brings which documents, assuming they are all present, authenticated, and accounted for, is a matter of ‘form’. Only if a specified document is missing, does it matter who had the burden of providing it.” With regard to the issue of certification, the Court found that a certificate of acknowledgment before a notary carries a presumption of authenticity that makes such a document “self-authenticating.” Also, the Court noted that the missing assignment was obtained by Einhorn at the county recorder’s office, which is also sufficient to authenticate a writing. Thus, because all of the necessary documents were produced at the mediation and all were authenticated, the Court concluded that ”strict compliance with NRS 107.086(4)’s purposive requirements was achieved. To make the outcome on who brought the documents, the authenticity of which was adequately established under conventional rules of evidence, exalts literalism for no practical purpose.”
Einhorn’s usefulness lies in that the Court put to rest a few of the hyper-technical arguments made at the District Court level to challenge a lender or trust-deed holder’s right to foreclose. The Court’s holdings are not limited to the residential foreclosure process, but are relevant to commercial, non-judicial foreclosures, too. Lenders, services, trust-deed holders and counsel should note that after Einhorn:

  • A trustee’s signature affixed to a document before the trustee declares it to be his/her signature before a notary is valid and not a basis to attack a certification establishing a chain of ownership.
  • The fact that a certifying trustee is both an officer of MERS and a staff member of a lender, trust-deed holder or servicer will not invalidate a certification attesting to chain of title and the authenticity of documents.
  • Strict compliance with NRS 107.086(4) requirement that a trust deed beneficiary establish a complete chain of title evidencing the right to foreclose at an FMP mediation is required. However, a literal reading of the statute’s requirement that a trust-deed beneficiary produce these documents is rejected. Who produces the documents at mediation to establish chain of title is immaterial.
  • The fact that a document evidencing an assignment in the chain of title is not certified is not a sound basis to invalidate the document, if it is self-authenticating via a certificate of acknowledgment before a notary or was procured from the county recorder’s office.

[1] Pending appeals on this topic include: Sandpoint Apartments, LLC et al. v. Eighth Judicial Court, Case No. 59507 (Retroactive application of Assembly Bill 273, limiting the amount of a deficiency judgment to the consideration paid for the right to seek a deficiency); Wells Fargo Bank v. Renslow, Case No. 58283 (Challenging the constitutionality of the FMP); Nielsen et al. v. Branch Banking and Trust Co., et al. Case No. 59823 (Whether, under Assembly Bill 273 and NRS 40.451, an assignee of an original lender must prove the amount of consideration paid for the rights under the loan in order to obtain a deficiency) and Lavi v. Eighth Judicial District Court, et al., Case No. 58968 (Whether a waiver of Nevada’s “One Action Rule” also constitutes a waiver of the statute of limitations to apply for a deficiency judgment within six months of foreclosure).

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Snell & Wilmer | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Snell & Wilmer

Snell & Wilmer on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.