New Kazakhstan Arbitration Law

Morgan Lewis

Morgan Lewis

The new law regulates issues relating to arbitration as a method for settlement of disputes.

On 20 April, a new arbitration law entered into force in Kazakhstan (Arbitration Law) that contains a number of new provisions and repeals the preexisting laws below (collectively “old laws”):

  • Arbitration Law of 28 December 2004 (used for settlement of disputes between Kazakhstan residents)
  • International Arbitration Law of 28 December 2004 (that had been used in cases where at least one of the parties to the dispute was a non-resident of Kazakhstan)

A summary of the Arbitration Law is outlined below.

Scope of Application

According to its preamble, the Arbitration Law relates to the functioning of arbitration in the territory of Kazakhstan and regulates the procedures and conditions for recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards in the country. Applicability of the new law to foreign arbitrations depends on the specific circumstances of each case and is subject to further analysis.

Quasi-Public Entities

The new law provides that arbitration is not a satisfactory means to consider disputes between quasi-public entities, a restriction that was not included in the old laws. The definition of “quasi-public entities,” however, is very broad. According to the Budget Code, “quasi-public entities” include state enterprises, limited liability partnerships, and joint-stock companies (including national management holdings, national holdings, and national companies) where the state acts as a founder, participant, or shareholder, as well as subsidiaries, dependent, and other affiliated legal entities according to the legislative acts of Kazakhstan.

Disputes with the State

According to the new law, as a general rule, arbitration is not sufficient to consider disputes between (a) Kazakhstan individuals and/or legal entities, on the one hand; and (b) state authorities, state enterprises, and legal entities 50% or more voting shares of which are directly or indirectly owned by the state, on the other hand—unless with the prior written consent of the governing authority in the relevant industry (with regard to republican property) or local executive authority (with regard to municipal property). Note, however, that the State Procurement Law requires that such consent be attached to any contract for the state procurement without specifying that one of the parties must be a Kazakhstan individual or a Kazakhstan legal entity (Article 43.5).

The Arbitration Law requires that state authorities, state enterprises, and legal entities 50% or more voting shares of which are directly or indirectly owned by the state and that intend to enter into an arbitration agreement must send a request to the applicable authority or local executive authority for obtaining consent for an arbitration agreement specifying the projected amount of expenses in connection with such arbitration proceedings. Such consent shall be given or withheld within 15 calendar days. When considering the request, the industry authority or local executive authority shall take into consideration “economic security and interests of the state”.

It should be mentioned that Kazakhstan is a party to a number of international treaties pertaining to arbitration, and the application of restrictions stipulated by the new law in the context of obligations undertaken by Kazakhstan under such international treaties requires further analysis. For instance, Kazakhstan is a party to the European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration that provides for a possibility to apply arbitration by “legal persons of public law” (as far as we understand, Kazakhstan has not made any reservations or statements related to restrictions under this European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration).

In addition, further analysis is required as to the applicability of limitations imposed by the new law on international organizations that have a special status. For instance, Kazakhstan has ratified the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) regarding Cooperation and Activities of the EBRD in the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 11 May 2013, which provides for various privileges and immunities to the EBRD and its property in Kazakhstan.

Applicable Law

Unless otherwise specified by international treaties ratified by Kazakhstan, the Arbitration Law provides that Kazakhstan law shall apply when considering the following types of disputes:

  • Disputes between Kazakhstan individuals and/or legal entities
  • Disputes where one of the parties is represented by state authorities, state enterprises, and legal entities 50% or more voting shares of which are directly or indirectly owned by the state

Potential consequences of this innovation are subject to further clarification in the context of the preamble to the Arbitration Law and definitions contained therein.

From a practical perspective, it seems unreasonable and unlikely that the new law would mandate the choice of Kazakhstan law as the governing (substantive) law for disputes settled in international arbitrations (e.g., London Court of International Arbitration, International Court of Arbitration, etc.), where one of the parties is an entity 50% or more voting shares of which are directly or indirectly owned by the state (e.g., national companies that are part of Joint Stock Company National Welfare Fund Samruk-Kazyna holding).

Arbitration Clause Severability

The Arbitration Law provides for the principles of arbitration clause severability and autonomous nature (i.e., an arbitration clause being a part of any agreement shall be construed as an agreement independent of any other conditions of the agreement). Invalidity of the agreement shall not result in invalidity of the arbitration clause.

Arbitration Clause Content and Formal Requirements

The new law preserves the “written form” as the key requirement applicable to arbitration agreements. Arbitration agreements shall contain

  • the intention of the parties to refer a dispute to arbitration;
  • an indication of the subject matter to be considered by arbitration;
  • an indication of a specific arbitration forum; and
  • the consent of the governing authority in the relevant industry or local executive authority, in cases specified by the new law.

Arbitration agreements shall also be deemed to be executed in writing, provided that they have been executed by exchange of the statement of claim and statement of defense where any of the parties asserts that there is an agreement, while the other party has no objection in this connection.

Submission of a Dispute to Arbitration

The Arbitration Law regulates the issue of how arbitration agreements apply to accession agreements. Thus, an arbitration agreement on settlement of a contractual dispute—terms and conditions of which are provided by any of the parties in samples or any other standard forms and could be accepted by the other party solely by means of accession to such agreement in the whole (an accession agreement)—is valid provided that such arbitration agreement has been executed after the basis for the claim has arisen.

Unilateral Repudiation of Arbitration Agreements

The Arbitration Law provides that, before a dispute has arisen, that either party is entitled to unilaterally repudiate an arbitration agreement by giving reasonable prior notice to the other party. In this regard, unilateral repudiation is in accordance with Article 404 of the Civil Code, which provides that unilateral repudiation is permitted in cases stipulated by the Civil Code, other regulatory legal acts, or agreement between the parties.

For instance, any party may repudiate an arbitration agreement in the following cases:

  • Inability to perform contractual obligations
  • Other party is declared bankrupt, unless otherwise specified by a Kazakhstan legislative act on rehabilitation and bankruptcy
  • Amendment or cancelation of the act of the governmental authority used as the basis for execution of the agreement

It remains to be seen how this provision is applied in practice, as it is evident that granting the right of unilateral repudiation is a substantially novel right that could have significant practical consequences for the stability of arbitration agreements generally.

New Grounds for Appeal / Annulment of Arbitral Award

The Arbitration Law provides for a unified approach to appeal arbitral awards both on disputes between residents and non-residents of Kazakhstan. Issued awards cannot be verified by state courts on the merits with reference to violation of the principle of legality (as was previously available when appealing local arbitral awards).

Annulment or waiver of any award is only permitted if the party provides evidence that procedures of the arbitral proceedings directly specified in the new law have been infringed.

However, importantly, the new law also provides for the possibility to revise an arbitral award in light of newly discovered circumstances, which was not previously possible for arbitral awards issued in connection with an international arbitration.

Newly discovered circumstances are as follows:

  • As determined by a res judicata court verdict, any intentional misrepresentation of a witness, intentional misrepresentation of an expert's opinion, intentional wrong translation and falsification of documents, or material evidence resulting in the rendering of an illegal or unjustified decision.
  • As determined by a res judicata court verdict, any criminal actions of parties, other persons involved in the case, or their representatives, as well as any criminal actions of the arbitrator committed during the examination of the case.
  • The Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan finds the law or any other regulatory legal act used by arbitration at rendering of the award unconstitutional. This circumstance raises some concerns because the state may have an efficient leverage for revision of arbitral awards.

Kazakhstan Arbitration Chamber

The new law provides for establishment of the Kazakhstan Arbitration Chamber as the association of permanent arbitrations and arbitrators. The Arbitration Chamber has, among other things, the following rights:

  • Maintenance of the register of arbitrators of permanent arbitrations, as well as arbitrators who are members of the Arbitration Chamber
  • Decision-making power with regard to termination of the powers of an arbitrator appointed for the resolution of any specific dispute

Prohibition of Arbitration Establishment

The new law prohibits establishment of arbitrations by

  • state authorities;
  • state enterprises;
  • natural monopoly entities;
  • entities having dominating position in the market;
  • (novel) legal entities 50% or more voting shares of which are directly or indirectly owned by the state, their subsidiaries, or dependent companies;
  • (novel) second-tier banks; and
  • (novel) organizations that carry out certain banking operations.

Новый закон регулирует вопросы применения арбитража как способа разрешения споров.

20 апреля в Казахстане вступил в силу новый Закон об арбитраже (далее – «Закон об арбитраже»).  Закон об арбитраже содержит много новелл и отменяет следующие ранее действовавшие законы (далее совместно – «старые законы»):

  • Закон о третейских судах от 28 декабря 2004 года, который применялся при рассмотрении споров между резидентами Республики Казахстан;
  • Закон о международном арбитраже от 28 декабря 2004 года, который применялся, если хотя бы одной стороной спора был нерезидент Республики Казахстан.

Ниже суммированы основные положения Закона об арбитраже.

Сфера действия

Согласно преамбуле Закона об арбитраже, он касается деятельности арбитража на территории Республики Казахстан, а также регулирует порядок и условия признания и приведения в исполнение в Казахстане арбитражных решений.  Применимость Закона об арбитраже к иностранным арбитражам зависит от конкретных фактов и требует уточнения.

Субъекты квази-государственного сектора

Закон об арбитраже предусматривает, что арбитражу не подведомственны споры между субъектами квазигосударственного сектора (старые законы не содержали такого ограничения).  Определение «субъектов квазигосударственного сектора» очень широкое.  Так, согласно Бюджетному кодексу «субъекты квазигосударственного сектора» это государственные предприятия, товарищества с ограниченной ответственностью, акционерные общества, в том числе национальные управляющие холдинги, национальные холдинги, национальные компании, учредителем, участником или акционером которых является государство, а также дочерние, зависимые и иные юридические лица, являющиеся аффилированными с ними в соответствии с законодательными актами Казахстана.

Споры с участием государства

Согласно Закону об арбитраже, по общему правилу, арбитраж не вправе рассматривать споры между: (а) физическими и (или) юридическими лицами Казахстана с одной стороны; и (б) государственными органами, государственными предприятиями, а также юридическими лицами, 50% и более голосующих акций которых прямо или косвенно принадлежат государству, с другой стороны.  Исключением является наличие предварительного письменного согласия уполномоченного органа соответствующей отрасли (в отношении республиканского имущества) или местного исполнительного органа (в отношении коммунального имущества).  Вместе с тем, Закон о государственных закупках обязывает прилагать такое согласие к любому договору о государственных закупках, без уточнения, что одной из сторон должно быть казахстанское физическое или юридическое лицо (ст. 43.5).

Закон об арбитраже возлагает на государственные органы, государственные предприятия, а также юридические лица, 50% и более голосующих акций которых прямо или косвенно принадлежат государству, намеревающиеся заключить арбитражное соглашение, обязанность направить в уполномоченный орган или местный исполнительный орган запрос о даче согласия на заключение арбитражного соглашения с указанием прогнозируемых сумм расходов на арбитражное разбирательство.  Согласие или отказ выдаются в течение 15 календарных дней.  При этом, при рассмотрении запроса уполномоченный орган или местный исполнительный орган обязан учитывать «экономическую безопасность и интересы государства».

Необходимо отметить, что Казахстан является стороной ряда международных договоров в области арбитража, и применение ограничений Закона об арбитраже в контексте принятых Казахстаном обязательств в рамках данных международных договоров, требует дальнейшего изучения.  Например, Казахстан является стороной Европейской конвенции о внешнеторговом арбитраже, которая предусматривает возможность применения арбитража «юридическими лицами публичного права»; при этом, насколько мы понимаем, Казахстан не сделал каких-либо оговорок или заявлений об ограничении в рамках данной Европейской конвенции о внешнеторговом арбитраже.

Также требует анализа применение ограничений, налагаемых Законом об арбитраже, к международным организациям, имеющим специальный статус.  Например, Казахстаном ратифицировано Соглашение между Республикой Казахстан и Европейским Банком Реконструкции и Развития (ЕБРР) относительно сотрудничества и деятельности ЕБРР в Республике Казахстан от 11 мая 2013 года, предусматривающее отдельные привилегии и иммунитеты для ЕБРР и его имущества в Казахстане.

Применимое право

Закон об арбитраже предусматривает, что при рассмотрении спора с участием следующих сторон применяется законодательство Казахстана, если иное не установлено международными договорами, ратифицированными Казахстаном:

  • между физическими и (или) юридическими лицами Казахстана;
  • одной из сторон которого являются государственные органы, государственные предприятия, а также юридические лица, 50% и более голосующих акций которых прямо или косвенно принадлежат государству.

Потенциальные последствия данного нововведения требуют уточнения в контексте преамбулы Закона об арбитраже и содержащихся в нём определений терминов.

С практической точки зрения, представляется неразумным и маловероятным вывод о том, что Закон об арбитраже обязывает применение (материального) права Казахстана в качестве применимого права в споре, рассматриваемом в международном арбитраже (например, London Court of International Arbitration, International Court of Arbitration и пр.), с участием юридического лица, 50% и более голосующих акций которого прямо или косвенно принадлежат Республике Казахстан (например, национальных компаний, входящих в холдинг АО «ФНБ «Самрук Казына»).

Делимость арбитражной оговорки

Закон об арбитраже ввел принцип делимости и автономности арбитражной оговорки, при котором арбитражная оговорка, являющаяся частью договора, толкуется как соглашение, не зависящее от других условий договора.  Недействительность договора не влечет недействительности арбитражной оговорки.

Требования к содержанию и оформлению арбитражной оговорки

В Законе об арбитраже сохранено основное требование к письменной форме арбитражного соглашения.  Арбитражное соглашение должно содержать следующее:

  • намерение сторон о передаче спора в арбитраж;
  • указание предмета, который подлежит рассмотрению арбитражем;
  • указание конкретного арбитража;
  • согласие уполномоченного органа соответствующей отрасли или местного исполнительного органа в случаях, предусмотренных Законом об арбитраже.

Арбитражное соглашение также считается заключенным в письменной форме, если оно заключается путем обмена исковым заявлением и отзывом на иск, в которых одна из сторон утверждает о наличии соглашения, а другая против этого не возражает.

Передача спора на разрешение арбитража

Закон об арбитраже содержит положение, регулирующее вопрос арбитражного соглашения в договорах присоединения.  Так, арбитражное соглашение о разрешении спора по договору, условия которого определены одной из сторон в формулярах или иных стандартных формах и могли быть приняты другой стороной не иначе как путем присоединения к предложенному договору в целом (договор присоединения), действительно, если такое соглашение заключено после возникновения оснований для предъявления иска.

Односторонний отказ от арбитражного соглашения

Закон об арбитраже предусматривает, что стороны имеют право до возникновения спора в одностороннем порядке отказаться от арбитражного соглашения, уведомив об этом вторую сторону в разумные сроки.  При этом односторонний отказ осуществляется в соответствии со статьей 404 Гражданского кодекса, согласно которой односторонний отказ от исполнения договора допускается в случаях, предусмотренных Гражданским кодексом, иными законодательными актами или соглашением сторон.  Например, одна из сторон вправе отказаться от исполнения договора в случаях:

  • невозможности исполнения обязательства, основанного на договоре;
  • признания в установленном порядке другой стороны банкротом, если иное не установлено законодательным актом Казахстана о реабилитации и банкротстве;
  • изменения или отмены акта государственного органа, на основании которого заключен договор.

Необходимо проанализировать, как данная норма будет применяться на практике, так как очевидно, что предоставление права на односторонний отказ от арбитражного соглашения является существенной новеллой и может иметь значительные практические последствия для стабильности арбитражной оговорки.

Новые основания для обжалования / отмены решений арбитража

Законом об арбитраже введен единый подход к обжалованию арбитражных решений, вынесенных как по спорам между резидентами РК, так и с участием нерезидентов.  Принятые арбитражем решения не могут проверяться государственными судами по существу со ссылкой на нарушение принципа законности, как это предусматривалось ранее при обжаловании решений третейского суда.

Отмена арбитражных решений или отказ в их принудительном исполнении допускается только при предоставлении стороной доказательства нарушения процедурных положений арбитражного разбирательства, прямо перечисленных в Законе об арбитраже.

Однако, и это важно – Закон об арбитраже также предусматривает возможность пересмотра арбитражного решения по вновь открывшимся обстоятельствам.  Ранее такой возможности в отношении решений, вынесенных международным арбитражем, не было.

Вновь открывшимися обстоятельствами являются:

  • установленные вступившим в силу приговором суда заведомо ложные показания свидетеля, заведомо ложное заключение эксперта, заведомо неправильный перевод, подложность документов либо вещественных доказательств, повлекшие за собой принятие незаконного либо необоснованного решения;
  • установленные вступившим в силу приговором суда преступные действия сторон, других лиц, участвующих в деле, либо их представителей или преступные деяния арбитра, совершенные при рассмотрении данного дела;
  • признание Конституционным Советом РК неконституционным закона или иного нормативного правового акта, который был применен арбитражем при вынесении арбитражного решения.  Данное обстоятельство вызывает особенную обеспокоенность ввиду того, что фактически у государства появляется такой сильный «рычаг» для пересмотра арбитражных решений.

Арбитражная палата Казахстана

Закон об арбитраже предусматривает создание Арбитражной палаты Казахстана, являющееся объединением постоянно действующих арбитражей и арбитров.  Арбитражная палата имеет, среди прочего, следующие права:

  • ведение реестра арбитров постоянно действующих арбитражей, а также арбитров, являющихся членами Арбитражной палаты;
  • принятие решения относительно прекращения полномочий арбитра, назначенного для разрешения конкретного спора.

Запрет на создание арбитражей

Закон об арбитраже запрещает создание арбитражей:

  • государственными органами;
  • государственными предприятиями;
  • субъектами естественных монополий;
  • субъектами, занимающими доминирующее положение на рынке;
  • (новелла) юридическими лицами, 50% и более голосующих акций которых прямо или косвенно принадлежат государству, их дочерними и зависимыми организациями;
  • (новелла) банками второго уровня; и
  • (новелла) организациями, осуществляющими отдельные виды банковских операций.


DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

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This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.