Round-up of litigation, adjudication and ADR procedure news for in-house lawyers and experts

Dentons
Contact

Dentons

[co-author: Tracey Summerell]

Our latest whistle-stop tour through recent news and decisions on litigation and alternative dispute resolution procedures.

Update on litigation procedure

Rebranding of the specialist civil courts

The rebranding of the specialist civil courts was postponed until early July on account of the snap election. The first launch of the "Business and Property Courts of England and Wales" took place at the Rolls Building in London on 4 July and other launches have since followed in Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, Bristol and Cardiff. The "go-live" date for all the courts is 2 October 2017.

In his speech at the London launch, the recently appointed Lord Chancellor, David Liddington, welcomed the changes. They represent more than a mere update of the name: a "more integrated system of business and property courts will mean judges can be cross-deployed to maximise the benefit of their particular qualifications. … Having business and property courts across England and Wales that are served by a critical mass of specialist judges will mean that all classes of case should be capable of being managed and tried away from the capital."

You can read the Lord Chancellor's full speech here.

E-filing now the norm for the Technology and Construction Court

E-filing has been compulsory in the Rolls Building in London since 25 April 2017. All claims and applications must now be filed electronically in the Chancery Division, Commercial Court, Technology and Construction Court (TCC), Companies Court, Mercantile Court and Admiralty Court. Documents can be filed 24 hours a day from anywhere and are sealed with the date they are filed. The system allows parties to keep up to date with the progress of their case. It should also lead to improved efficiencies at court.

TCC guidance note on public procurement cases

A guidance note on public procurement cases prepared by judges of the TCC and the Procurement Lawyers' Association, including Keating Chambers, was launched on 17 July 2017 at the Rolls Building in London. The note will be added to the TCC Guide as a new Appendix H.

Part of the draft form of the guide has already received judicial approval in Bombardier Transportation Ltd v. Merseytravel [2017] EWHC 575 (TCC). The case involved issues about the confidentiality of statements of case  a key concern for bidders who want to keep valuable tender information safe. (Our article on Bombardier will appear in Construction News later this week. In the meantime, you can read our procurement colleagues' short summary of the issues raised here: Access to confidential information and court documents in procurement cases.)

New Debt Recovery Pre-Action Protocol

The new Pre-Action Protocol for Debt Claims will come into force on 1 October 2017. The protocol applies to any business (including sole traders and public bodies) claiming payment of a debt from an individual (including a sole trader) and sets out the conduct the court will normally expect of those parties prior to the start of proceedings.

The protocol requires the creditor to send a clearly dated letter of claim to the debtor by post with an up-to-date statement of account (including interest and charges), a reply form and a financial statement, which must be attached to the letter and the contract if requested. The creditor then has to wait 30 days before commencing legal action and, if the debtor proposes payment by instalments, must take into account the debtor's financial circumstances when responding. Early disclosure of relevant documents and information as well as ADR is encouraged. The sanction for non-compliance is the same as for other protocols. (Note: the protocol does not apply where the debt is covered by another Pre-Action Protocol such as the Construction and Engineering Protocol.)

Pilot to test whether a scheme for fixed recoverable costs will work

In the May meeting of the Civil Procedure Rule Committee (CPRC), a voluntary two-year fixed recoverable costs pilot scheme was agreed. The pilot is designed to test a capped costs scheme in some of the specialist civil courts in London, Manchester and Leeds. It will apply to claims under £250,000. The aim is to ensure that costs are more certain, transparent and proportionate with the level of recoverable costs currently ranging from £18,750 for a £25,000-£50,000 claim and up to £70,250 for a £175,001-£250,000 claim. Needless to say, there is disagreement from some on whether the value of the claim should be the sole determinant.

Arguments about the scheme vary from supportive (everyone will know how much they will win or for how much they are liable) to concerned (a party should be able to recover all their costs as they otherwise will not be able to afford representation). These questions and others relating to the pilot are currently under review by Lord Justice Jackson, who is expected to report on it by 31 July 2017. A government consultation will follow Jackson LJ's report.

Mandatory use of new format Bill of Costs delayed until 2018

Having agreed earlier this year that a new format Bill of Costs would become mandatory in October 2017, the CPRC has now agreed to delay the introduction of the Bill of Costs until 2018. The new Bill of Costs, which is currently being tested under the pilot scheme set out in Practice Direction 51L, has two parts: a bill and an electronic spreadsheet. Parties will be required to complete both. A model spreadsheet is available although parties can use their own.

Flexible operating hours in courts?

The Ministry of Justice (MoJ) recently suggested a change to flexible operating hours in six pilot courts (civil, Magistrates' and Crown) to make the courts more accessible. It was hoped that such flexibility would improve access to justice for court users. The proposals stirred up a wave of protest from many court users and prompted a petition against the proposals  not least because, it is argued, extended court hours would affect those with caring responsibilities and would reduce the already limited time left at the end of the day to prepare for the next day's hearings.

The pilot was originally expected to start in May 2017 but was postponed when the snap election was announced. While the MoJ's position is that it will evaluate how flexible court hours affect court users before any decision is taken on rollout, the online petition continues to attract support.

The future of the civil courts

The reform of the civil justice system continues and Sir Terence Etherton (Master of the Rolls) addressed the background to the reform programme, the nature of the reforms and their challenges in the Lord Slynn Memorial Lecture on the future of the civil courts on 14 June 2017.

Key elements of the reform include the development of online courts with a focus on ADR and problem-solving; the use of technology to improve efficiency and accessibility and reduce costs for both practitioners and court users; and the use of plain English that can be understood by litigants in person, all of which will make the court system more able to deliver equality for those using the justice system.

English law after Brexit

Two recently published papers are of interest in connection with the impending Brexit.

"Law Reform Now" in 21st Century Britain: Brexit and Beyond

The first is the 6th Scarman Lecture delivered by Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd, The Lord Chief Justice: "Law Reform Now"  in 21st Century Britain: Brexit and Beyond (26 June 2017), in which he examined the effect of Brexit on English law and the challenges of the digital age from a legal perspective. (We touch here only on the former.)

Lord Thomas explained: Brexit is "probably amongst the biggest peacetime issues that the UK has ever faced and without doubt the most complex in legal terms. One consequence of the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union is that it faces the prospect that large parts of its law will need to be subjected to detailed scrutiny and potentially wide-ranging amendment, with other parts of the law only made subject to minor revision. Given the extent of European Union law and its integration into domestic law since 1972, the task is enormous in scale. It will call for reform on a [wide] scale … "

A legal system underpinned by the Rule of Law

If you are considering choice of law clauses in the face of Brexit,  the second paper of interest is the Chancery Bar's publication: English Law, UK Courts and UK Legal Services after Brexit: The View beyond 2019. This paper promotes the strength of English Law and the court system and explains: the advantages of English Law; how the UK courts serve a wide range of business sectors; the high quality of contract drafting and dispute resolution services; reasons to litigate/arbitrate in London; and the enforceability of UK judgments and arbitration awards.

In these uncertain times, the Chancery Bar concludes its paper by reminding us of the importance of the Rule of Law in our society:

"The Rule of Law represents the cornerstone of liberty and democracy, and is one of the main reasons that the UK attracts global businesses and investors. Laws in the UK are: public (so that everyone knows what they say); certain (so that everyone knows where they stand); and prospective rather than retrospective (so that they cannot be broken before they exist).

The English courts are universally recognised to be a forum where litigants can be confident that their disputes will be determined fairly on their intrinsic merits. That will not change following Brexit."

Adjudication Focus

Adjudication – taking the rough with the smooth

A recent case involving Aecom has highlighted how difficult and expensive it can be to challenge an adjudicator’s decision. Click here to read more. While the temptation to challenge a wrong decision can be strong, parties should carefully consider their options: the grounds for challenge are limited to breaches of natural justice or an adjudicator acting beyond his/her jurisdiction and these are increasingly difficult to establish. (First published in Construction News on 4 July 2017)

Get your ducks in a row if you want to challenge an adjudicator's decision

Soon after the Construction Act was enacted, the courts sensibly recognised that a "slip rule" could be implied in adjudications to allow adjudicators to correct minor clerical and typographical errors in their decisions. However, asking the adjudicator to correct his decision under the slip rule could lose you the right to challenge the decision on jurisdictional or natural justice grounds – as the defendant found to its cost in Dawnus Construction Holdings Ltd v. Marsh Life Ltd [2017] EWHC 1066 (TCC). Parties who want to challenge an adjudication decision should expressly reserve their rights to do so if requesting the correction of errors under the slip rule. 

Click here to read more.

Challenging an adjudicator's jurisdiction

While disputes referred to adjudication have become increasingly complex, the fundamental principles remain largely unchanged – an adjudicator's decision will be binding on the parties and enforceable unless there is an exceptional circumstance. We examine two recent enforcement decisions, which deal with the position where a party wishes to rely on an exceptional circumstance to dispute the jurisdiction of an adjudicator:

  • "No déjà vu here" (Universal Piling & Construction Ltd v. VG Clements Ltd [2016] EWHC 3321 (TCC))
  • Dispute jurisdiction? Say so (quickly and repeatedly) (Imperial Chemical Industries Limited v. Merit Merrell Technology Limited [2016] EWHC B30 (TCC))

Click here to read more.

Recent articles (mediation, judicial intervention and expert independence)

Just get on with it: more reasons to mediate (and a look at some of the excuses people use to avoid ADR)

The courts can sanction parties who unreasonably refuse to mediate their dispute or who fail to mediate where it is appropriate. So why do some parties still plough on with litigation or arbitration proceedings? In this article, we review a recent example of the court's support for the mediation process and summarise the incentives for disputing parties to mediate. We then take a look at some of the reasons parties commonly use to justify a refusal to mediate and offer some suggestions to help parties reconsider. Click here to read more.

How much can a judge intervene in cross-examination before a trial becomes unfair?

Lord Justice Jackson's reforms to the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) enabled judges to take a more active part in case management: they can manage the parties' costs budgets, control the timetable, limit expert evidence and impose sanctions on parties who flout the rules or court orders. Litigators have grown accustomed to robust judges exercising these wide powers to ensure proceedings are conducted justly and at proportionate cost. But there are limits to these judicial powers: judges cannot, for example, join in the cross-examination of witnesses without risking actual or perceived unfairness. Click here to read more.

Ensuring an expert is independent and other issues (published 18 April 2017)

Construction disputes are frequently technical in nature and depend upon expert evidence. Often, expert evidence is necessary to establish whether a claim exists at all. As a result, an expert may be instructed early, before any decision has been made as to whether the dispute should be referred to arbitration, litigation or even adjudication. When a matter is decided, the arbitrator, court or adjudicator will often depend on the expert evidence in reaching conclusions. Click here to read more.

 

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Dentons | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Dentons
Contact
more
less

Dentons on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.