Singapore Budget 2018: How will the changes impact businesses and individuals?

Dentons
Contact

Dentons

[co-author: Jeremy Goh]

The 2018 Singapore Budget Statement, announcing various tax changes, was delivered by Finance Minister Heng Swee Keat on 19 February 2018 – highlighting a record budget surplus of S$9.61 billion for Financial Year 2017 and GDP and productivity growth from previous years.

Below, we discuss how these changes may impact businesses and individuals, including:

  1. income tax announcements for corporate and individual taxpayers,
  2. goods and services tax (GST) rate increases, and the impact on the digital economy from the introduction of import GST for services,
  3. stamp duty rate increases for property purchases,
  4. sector-specific tax announcements for the fund industry, financial sector and debt market, and
  5. other key tax announcements.

While some tax changes may appear conservative in comparison with the economy’s bullish growth, it reflects the Government’s efforts to be prudent and address long term challenges whilst laying the foundation for Singapore’s future.

A. Income Tax Announcements

1. Changes for Corporate Taxpayers

Key corporate income tax announcements are as follows. Measures were announced during the Budget to bolster research and development (R&D) conducted in Singapore and Singapore’s Intellectual Property (IP) tax regime. These measures include increasing existing tax deductions for:

  • payments made by businesses to license IP for commercial use,
  • IP registration costs, and
  • expenditure incurred on R&D carried out in Singapore.

These tax deductions would go toward supporting corporations, big and small, in their efforts to innovate, which we note is one of the goals in this year’s Budget.  

i. Research & Development and IP in-licensing

Of particular interest would be the enhanced deductions for qualifying expenses incurred on eligible R&D conducted in Singapore. This enhanced tax deduction is significant – not only does it grant a 250% deduction on staff costs and consumables incurred on qualifying R&D activities performed in Singapore, it also has no monetary cap on expenditure. The proposed enhancement will take effect from Year of Assessment (YA) 2019 to YA 2025.

Without this enhancement, the tax deduction rate would have fallen to 150% from the 400% under the now-lapsed Productivity and Innovation Credit (PIC) Scheme. Under the PIC Scheme, companies could have claimed up to 400% of tax deductions up to S$400,000 or 60% cash pay-out up to S$100,000, for making investments in innovation and productivity improvements.

Another measure which could prove useful is the enhancement of the tax deduction (from 100% to 200%) for costs on IP in-licensing. The tax deduction for qualifying IP in-licensing costs incurred for each year will be enhanced from 100% to 200% for the first S$100,000. The change will take effect from YA 2019 to YA 2025. However, we observe that this enhanced tax deduction would have had a greater impact had there been no restrictions imposed. With the lower expenditure cap and the exclusion of related licensing payments from this tax deduction, the practical utility of this enhancement may be limited.

ii. Intellectual Property Development Incentive (IDI)

The IDI was announced during last year’s Budget 2017. However, no further details have been released and the Budget this year did not address the IDI. With the removal of IP income from the Development and Expansion Incentive and Pioneer Incentive, corporations with structures involving IP holding entities would be keen to find out about the details of this new IDI, which may provide concessionary tax rates on income from qualifying IP rights.

The Economic Development Board had announced last year that the introduction of the IDI would be deferred to a later date expected in late 2017. However as mentioned, no further updates or announcements have been made. Pending the release of the full details of the incentive, it is expected that the IDI will incorporate the “BEPs-compliant modified nexus approach”.

Simply put, this is a substance-based test. This is not surprising as it is important for authorities to ensure that Singapore’s tax incentive regime is compliant with the Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting.

iii. Other Corporate Income Tax Announcements

Other tax changes include:

  • Enhancement and extension of the Corporate Income Tax (CIT) Rebate. For YA 2018, the CIT rebate is enhanced from 20% to 40% of tax payable and the rebate cap is raised from S$10,000 to S$15,000. The rebate is also extended to YA 2019, but at a reduced rate of 20% of tax payable, capped at S$10,000.
  • Downward adjustments to the Partial Tax Exemption (PTE) on chargeable income and the Start-up Exemption (SUTE). Under the SUTE Scheme, the broad based tax exemption will be adjusted to 75% (down from 100%) of the first S$100,000 chargeable income and 50% on the next S$100,000 (down from S$200,000) chargeable income. Under the PTE Scheme, there is no change to the 75% exemption on the first S$10,000 of chargeable income, though the 50% exemption on the next S$190,000 of chargeable income is a reduction of the S$290,000 amount previously. These changes will take effect on or after YA 2020.
  • Enhancement and extension of tax deduction for costs of protecting IP. The scheme will be extended till YA 2025. Tax deductions would also be enhanced from 100% to 200% for the first S$100,000 qualifying IP registration costs incurred for each YA with the changes to take effect from YA 2019.
  • Enhancement of Double Tax Deduction for Internationalisation Scheme. The S$100,000 expenditure cap for claims without prior approval from IE Singapore or Singapore Tourism Board (STB) will be raised to S$150,000 per YA. This change will apply to qualifying expenses incurred on or after YA 2019 with further details to be released by IE Singapore and STB by April 2018.

However, these changes involve relatively low monetary amounts and lower expenditure caps. Therefore, they may be of greater interest to Small and Medium Enterprises.

2. No significant Tax Changes Announced for Individuals

There were no substantial announcements made in relation to individual income tax during the Budget save for the extension of the tax deduction for qualifying donations made to Institutions of Public Character (IPCs). To continue encouraging Singaporeans to give back to the community, the 250% tax deduction on qualifying donations will be extended for another 3 years to cover donations made on or before 31 December 2021.

B. Goods and Services Tax Announcements

1. Looming increase in the GST rate

On the GST front, one of two key announcements relate to the potential increase in the GST rate by 2% (to 9%) sometime in the period of 2021 to 2025. It is noted that the announcement has been made well in advance of its implementation, giving taxpayers ample time to prepare for this increase.

2. Taxing the Digital Economy

Under the existing GST framework, no GST is imposed on imported services like digital purchases. This position represents a tax leakage and also discriminates against local suppliers, in that local suppliers are required to charge GST, whereas overseas suppliers can supply digital or remote services to customers in Singapore without having to charge GST.

The introduction of import GST for imported services seeks to avoid this tax leakage and to level the playing field between local and overseas suppliers. The measures announced to address this are as follows:

  • Where there is a B2B (business to business) imported service, GST will be imposed via a reverse charge mechanism.
  • Where there is a B2C (business to consumer) imported services, GST will be imposed through an Overseas Vendor Registration. It is proposed that overseas suppliers and electronic marketplace operators making significant supplies of digital services to local consumers (i.e. suppliers with a global turnover exceeding S$1 million making B2C supplies of digital services to customers in Singapore exceeding S$100,000) will be required to register for GST in Singapore.

In relation to the B2B imported services, only businesses that make exempt supplies or do not make any taxable supplies will need to apply the reverse charge. Practically, this means that the reverse charge mechanism would be of limited application since it primarily affects such businesses. These would include banks and companies in the business of letting and selling residential property. Therefore, the majority of businesses that make only taxable supplies would not be affected by the introduction of this reverse charge mechanism.

In relation to the B2C imported services, pending the announcement and confirmation of the full details, it has been proposed that the overseas vendors would be subject to the same penalties and compliance regime as domestic GST-registered persons. A question that remains is how the authorities would enforce this regime bearing in mind that these overseas vendors are located outside Singapore. We can expect Singapore to turn to jurisdictions that have introduced similar regimes to see what works and what does not. For example, some jurisdictions have explored conferring authorities the power to block access to websites. It is hoped that the costs of compliance with this new regime would not outweigh the GST to be collected.

The implementation of the reverse charge mechanism and overseas vendor registration has been proposed to take effect from 1 January 2020. We understand that an Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) public consultation is now underway and is scheduled to end mid-March 2018. Hence, we would expect further details (if any) to only be released after the public consultation ends and the authorities have had time to consider the response gathered.

The authors have also previously written about this issue. To read more about the proposed measures, please click here.

Amid these announcements, the online purchases of goods costing below S$400 remain outside of the GST net. No change to this position was announced during the Budget. Therefore, online purchases of goods imported into Singapore by post costing below S$400 will continue to enjoy GST relief. However, given that this position also represents a tax leakage and discriminates against local suppliers, we think some action will be taken in the future. The authorities are certainly aware of this issue but may at present, still be undecided as to measures to resolve this problem.

C. Stamp Duty Announcements: Wealth tax in another form?

The Budget announced an increase in the top marginal buyer stamp duty (BSD) for residential property from 3% to 4% with effect from 20 February 2018, applicable to Singapore residential properties with values in excess of S$1 million. Read more about the stamp duty change announced during the Budget here.

With this increase, it should be highlighted that there would also be an impact on the Additional Conveyance Duty (ACD) rates for Buyers.

ACD was introduced in March 2017 and applies to a qualifying acquisition or disposal of equity interests in a property holding entity that owns primarily residential properties in Singapore. It was introduced to address the stamp duty differential that had existed in the past between a direct acquisition or disposal of residential properties, and the indirect acquisition or disposal of residential properties via an entity. In the latter situation, stamp duty was payable on the market value of the shares of the entity at a lower rate of 0.2%.

This change follows a global trend where a number of jurisdictions have taken similar action to address this issue. Compared to some of the other major financial centres, what Singapore has done is comparatively less drastic. As a side note, IRAS issued the second edition of its e-Tax Guide on Stamp Duty: Additional Conveyance Duties on Property Holding Entities on 19 February 2018, clarifying amongst other things, the meaning of “prescribed immovable properties” and the new ACD rates following the Budget announcements.

It is also noted that this hike in BSD came amidst speculation prior to the Budget of the possible introduction (or re-introduction) of some form of wealth tax. In his Budget speech, the Finance Minister framed the move as one aimed at making the Singapore tax system more “progressive”. Compared to the introduction of a capital gains tax or the re-introduction of estate duty (abolished in 2008), this move makes practical sense as it would be less disruptive and easier to implement. Further, any introduction of a capital gains tax, estate or inheritance tax would damage Singapore's reputation and competitiveness as a hub for wealth management and financial services.

D. Select Tax Announcements Pertaining to the Financial Sector

1. Developments in the Fund Industry

The Singapore Variable Capital Company (S-VACC) was announced by the Monetary Association of Singapore (MAS) during its public consultation last year, on 23 March 2017. Prior to the Budget, it was not clear how the tax regime for S-VACCs would look like. With the announcements made during the budget, it is now made clear that a S-VACC will be treated as a company and single entity for tax purposes and the tax framework for S-VACCs would be similar to other existing fund structures. The announcements are largely uncontroversial, and are welcomed as it puts S-VACC structures on an equal footing with other funds approved under tax exemption schemes for funds under the Income Tax Act (Cap. 134) (ITA). 

Notably, the tax exemption schemes under Sections 13R and 13X of the ITA and the concessionary tax rate under the Financial Sector Incentive-Fund Management (FSI-FM) scheme will be extended to the respective S-VACC and fund managers managing an incentivised S-VACC. The extension of the FSI-FM scheme to such fund managers is consistent with the broader extension of the Financial Sector Incentive Scheme to 31 December 2023, which was scheduled to lapse on 31 December 2018.

MAS will release further details of the tax framework for S-VACCs by October 2018.

In line with the move to cater for more diverse fund structures, the tax exemption under Section 13X of the ITA, i.e. the Enhanced-Tier Fund Scheme, will also be extended to all fund vehicles constituted in all forms. This change will take effect for new awards approved on or after 20 February 2018.

2. Rationalising the WHT exemptions for the Financial Sector

Interest payments made by a Singapore tax resident or a Permanent Establishment (PE) in Singapore to a non- resident of Singapore would in general be subject to withholding tax (WHT) at a rate of 15%, subject to any applicable double tax treaties that may provide for a reduced WHT rate.

There is currently a range of WHT exemptions for the financial sector. During the Budget, it was announced that a review date of 31 December 2022 will be introduced for current WHT exemptions for certain types of payments, which include “payments made under interest rate or currency swap transactions by financial institutions”.

Currently, payments made under an interest rate or currency swap transaction to a non-resident of Singapore or person without a PE in Singapore, by a financial institution is exempt from tax as stated under the Income Tax (Exemption of Interest and Other Payments for Economic and Technological Development) Notification 2000 (Notification).

If this exemption is subsequently withdrawn, it would be necessary to evaluate the likely impact of this withdrawal in light of the Singapore High Court decision in ACC v Comptroller of Income Tax [2011] 1 SLR 1217 (ACC).

The High Court in ACC held (at [33]) that there being no loan or indebtedness in an interest rate swap agreement, payments made pursuant to such an agreement would not be “in connection with any loan or indebtedness” and thus interest rate swap payments should ordinarily fall outside the meaning of Section 12(6)(a) of the ITA. It follows that such payments would not in general be subject to WHT under Section 45 of the ITA when paid to a non-resident regardless of whether there is an express WHT exemption. We note further the High Court in ACC had in fact considered the Notification. However, the High Court did not think that the content of such subsidiary legislation, made by the Minister pursuant to powers conferred under s 13(4) of the ITA, could guide the interpretation of Parliament’s intention in the language used in the ITA (at [42]).

In the absence of an exemption, one would need to consider the specific circumstances of a swap transaction in order to determine whether such payments were subject to WHT in light of the reasoning of the High Court in ACC. 

3. Qualifying Debt Security Scheme (QDS) to be Extended but QDS+ to Lapse

To support the continued development of Singapore’s debt market, the QDS Scheme will be extended till 31 December 2023.

On the other hand, the QDS+ Scheme, which was an enhancement to the QDS Scheme targeted to further incentivise specified debt securities with an original maturity of at least 10 years and Islamic debt securities, would be allowed to lapse after 31 December 2018. Under the QDS+ scheme, all investors are exempt from tax on qualifying income derived from QDS that are the aforementioned specified debt securities. 

4. Tax Transparency Treatment Extended to REIT-ETFs

Other significant announcements made for the financial sector include extending the tax transparency treatment for Singapore-listed Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) to Singapore-listed REITs Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs). This is a welcome step because REITs are already tax transparent so it is logical to extend this tax treatment to ETFs.

E. Other Key Tax Announcements

For the insurance sector, the Insurance Business Development – Insurance Broking Business (IBD-IBB) Scheme will be extended till 31 December 2023 while the Insurance Business Development – Specialised Insurance Broking Business (IBD-SIBB) scheme will be allowed to lapse after 31 March 2018.

Other tax changes for businesses include the extending of the Investment Allowance scheme in respect of productive equipment to capital expenditure incurred on newly-constructed strategic submarine cable systems landing in Singapore, subject to qualifying conditions. The change will take effect for capital expenditure incurred between 20 February 2018 and 31 December 2023 (both dates inclusive).

 

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Dentons | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Dentons
Contact
more
less

Dentons on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.