The Answers to Some of Your Questions About What Airlines Can Do When a Flight is Overbooked and Someone Is Going to Have to Get Off of the Plane

by Butler Weihmuller Katz Craig LLP

Suddenly, the entire world is interested in learning about the laws governing airlines’ actions when a flight is overbooked. It isn’t every day that the entire world suddenly wants to learn all about something that you’ve spent years studying, so this post is for our clients who insure aviation risks, our clients who are frequent air travelers, and perhaps a few curious strangers who have no business with our law firm but have nonetheless been led here by their quest for answers. Search no further; here are the answers to the questions on everyone’s mind.

1. Can an airline sell more tickets for a flight than it has seats available?

They sure can. In fact, they pretty much have to. People want – and demand – the flexibility of being able to change or cancel their tickets without penalty, but that comes at the cost of the airlines’ being unable to know how many people will be on a given flight until the last minute. Nearly every flight has a handful of people with confirmed reservations who either cancel at the last minute or simply don’t show up.

Flying with empty seats isn’t something that airlines can afford to do. Owning a commercial airplane is expensive. In addition to the finance payments on it, airplanes need regular maintenance, fuel, and paid flight crews. They hemorrhage money. To have a fighting chance of staying in business, an airplane has to bring in more money than it loses, which means it needs to be up in the air nearly constantly and nearly full. Fortunately, airlines have years of data and experience that allows them to predict, with reasonable accuracy, how many people will no-show and sell that many extra tickets. Most of the time, you don’t even know that the flight was overbooked because the airline correctly guessed how many people would no-show.

Of course, even with experience and data on their side, it’s an imperfect science, and sometimes there will be more passengers than seats. The airline industry calls this an “oversale situation” (yes, it’s really called that), and as a result, passenger’s get “bumped.” Now, you’re going to love this: The plaintiff in the leading case about “bumping” is none other than Ralph Nader, Esq.; Perhaps you’ve heard of him. See Nader v. Allegheny Airlines, Inc., 512 F.2d 527 (D.C. Cir. 1975). Back in 1972, Ralph had a couple of speeches to give in Connecticut and purchased a plane ticket from a travel agent that morning to fly from Washington to Hartford. He arrived at the gate five minutes before takeoff, only to be told by the gate agent that the flight was full and he couldn’t board. The airline offered him an air taxi to Philadelphia, from which he could catch a connecting flight to Hartford. But he was concerned about missing the connection and flew instead to Boston. From there, the people organizing the speech sent someone to meet him at the airport and drive him to that second speech, but he was a half-hour late and missed the first speech altogether.

You’re not going to believe this, but Ralph responded by suing the airline. One of his arguments was that the practice of overbooking flights was, itself, a form of fraud for which passengers could sue airlines. Ultimately, the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit rejected this aspect of his claim, recognizing that overbooking was a necessary evil and that airlines had to do it. The Nader court therefore held that overbooking was not, in and of itself, a violation of the law. A few years later, Congress passed the Airline Deregulation Act, which makes certain that passengers on domestic flights cannot sue for “bumping.” But, keep reading.

2. So, an airline can just bump whomever they want without consequence? 

No. It’s much more complicated than that. Federal law prohibits an air carrier from subjecting persons to unreasonable discrimination. See 49 U.S.C. § 41310. So, even though bumping people doesn’t violate the law in and of itself, airlines still can’t discriminate against people based on race, gender, religion, and so forth, in determining who gets bumped. To ensure that the process is fair, federal regulations require every air carrier to ask for volunteers first, and they can offer compensation for volunteers. See 14 C.F.R. § 250.2b. Each air carrier is also required to have rules and criteria for determining who gets bumped involuntarily if nobody volunteers. These rules can take into account such things as the time a passenger checked in, the fare paid by a passenger, the passenger’s frequent-flyer status, whether a passenger has a disability or is an unaccompanied minor, and so forth. See 14 C.F.R. § 250.3. If an airline breaks its own internal rules in selecting whom to bump, it can theoretically be sued, but the Air Deregulation Act is a difficult hurdle to get over (discussed further below), so “bumping” lawsuits aren’t very common.

Federal law also requires some limited compensation in certain situations. A passenger who volunteers to take another flight would get whatever compensation was offered. If a passenger is involuntarily bumped, compensation depends on the circumstances. If the airline offers alternate transportation scheduled to arrive no more than an hour later than the original flight, no compensation is required. If the carrier offers alternate transportation scheduled to arrive between one and two hours after the originally planned arrival time, the airline must pay the passenger twice the original airfare (but with a maximum of $675). If the carrier doesn’t offer alternate transportation that would get the passenger there no more than two hours late, the carrier must compensate the passenger at four times the value of her original ticket (maximum $1,350). See 14 C.F.R. § 250.5. There are a number of exceptions and nuances to this in 14 C.F.R. §§ 250.5-250.6, but that’s the general idea. Most of this is explained in the “Conditions of Carriage,” which are usually printed on the inside of that curious little envelope with the diagonal slit that they give you with your boarding pass. Open that up sometime and read the riveting fine print in there.

International flights are different and involve international treaties on air carriage, but that’s another blog for another day.

3. Can an airline forcefully remove a bumped passenger from an airplane after the passenger has boarded?

It’s one thing to deny boarding. It’s quite another to allow someone to board a plane, ask her to leave, and then put your hands on her when she refuses. But, can she sue an airline for that?

Back to that Airline Deregulation Act (see above). The point of the Airline Deregulation Act was to make the laws uniform from place to place. It accomplishes this by providing that only the federal government can create laws regulating the “price, route, or service” of an air carrier. See 42 U.S.C. § 41713(b)(4). Common-law claims for torts like battery, defamation, emotional distress, or false imprisonment arise out of state law, not federal law. The Airline Deregulation Act bars these state-law claims if they arise from an airline’s “service,” so when faced with such a claim, the courts try to determine whether such lawsuits arise from an airline’s “services” or from something else. If it’s a “service,” it’s preempted by the Airline Deregulation Act, and the passenger can’t sue for it.

So, what is a “service”? The courts have created a three-part test (called the “Rombom test” after the case that first invented it) to decide whether a state-law tort claim is preempted by the Airline Deregulation Act. First, the courts define whether the activity being sued for is an airline “service.” If so, the court then determines whether the claim affects the airline service directly or just incidentally. Lastly, the courts will look to whether the airline’s conduct was reasonably necessary to the provision of the service. See Rombom v. United Air Lines, Inc., 867 F. Supp. 214, 221-22 (S.D.N.Y. 1994). To borrow an example from the oral argument in the Rombom case, if a passenger is interfering with a flight attendant’s providing flight-safety instructions and the passenger refuses to be quiet after being asked, the Airline Deregulation Act would probably bar a tort claim for emotional distress if the flight attendant rudely and unprofessionally asked for quiet. On the other hand, if the flight attendant decided to quiet the passenger by shooting her, the Airline Deregulation Act probably wouldn’t bar a lawsuit because that wouldn’t have been reasonably necessary to quiet the passenger; there were other ways. The line is drawn at what is “reasonable,” and depending on the circumstances, it can sometimes be reasonable to have a passenger forcibly removed by police.

Having a violent or disorderly passenger removed is one thing, but what of a well-behaved passenger who is only being asked to deplane because of an oversale situation? Would that be reasonable? In Peterson v. Continental Airlines, Inc., 970 F. Supp. 246 (S.D.N.Y. 1997), a dispute arose on an overbooked flight after it appeared that more than one passenger had been assigned the same seat. When flight crew asked the plaintiff to deplane, she refused, and the airline summoned police, who physically lifted her from the seat, handcuffed her, and forcibly removed her from the airplane (sound familiar?). Applying the Rombom test to their claim, the Peterson court found the first prong to be satisfied because flight attendants’ efforts to locate seat assignments and resolve seat conflicts were “services.” But the court thought that the second and third prongs were not met because the airline was alleged to have gone far beyond what was necessary to resolve a seat dispute and abused its authority to provide a given service.

To boil all of that down to a simple answer: An airline can use physical force to remove a passenger from a plane, but only under circumstances where it’s reasonable to do that. Of course, in the moment when the airline has to make that decision, there is no referee around to call it reasonable or unreasonable; that decision ends up being made by a judge or a jury long after the fact. Accordingly, forcibly removing a passenger carries the risk that the airline’s decision will later be deemed unreasonable. Because of this reality, airlines should be very judicious when deciding to take such an action. A violent and unruly passenger who poses a danger to the other passengers? Sure, most people would think it reasonable to use physical force to remove that passenger. A loveable sympathetic elderly lady who is bumped due to an oversale situation but refuses to get off of the plane because she doesn’t want to miss her grandson’s graduation from Basic Training? Putting your hands on her could prove to be a very costly mistake.

4. Would an airline’s insurance policy cover its liability for that?  

It’s hard to say. Insurance policies generally exclude coverage for intentional acts by an insured. So, if a passenger sued an airline for battery, that’s usually not covered. On the other hand, if the passenger were to sue for negligence, airlines’ liability-insurance policies generally cover liability for negligence.

5. We’re an airline with an oversale situation on one of our flights that has already boarded. We’re offering eight hundred dollars to anyone who volunteers to get off of the plane, but no one is taking our offer. Should we call the airport police and have them beat one of our passengers up and drag him off of the plane bloodied and screaming while the other passengers film it with their phones and upload it to the internet?  

That’s probably not a very good idea. Even if you think it will pass the Rombom test and be preempted by the Airline Deregulation Act, the passenger’s lawsuit would be the least of your problems. A public-relations disaster like that can cause a publicly traded company’s market capitalization to fall by about $225 Million in two days. You could literally offer one million dollars to any passenger who will give up her seat voluntarily, and you’d still be $224 Million ahead of where you’d be if you did what you’re thinking about doing. But if you have a plane full of people and you only need one volunteer, that’s a textbook “reverse auction,” and you probably don’t have to offer a million dollars. A thousand dollars will probably do it. Aren’t you glad you saved yourselves millions of dollars by calling us first?

6. Yeah, about that…what if we already did it and our stock price is now in a freefall? Should we dig up some dirt on the passenger and leak it to the press in effort to control the PR disaster by reducing public sympathy for him?

That’s an even worse idea. That’s not an airline “service” and therefore would never pass the Rombom test if the passenger were to bring suit for defamation or invasion of privacy. Moreover, that would be an intentional act that probably wouldn’t be covered by your insurance policy.

On top of all that, it probably wouldn’t even fix your PR problem. In fact, it’s likely to backfire. People are tuned in to this manner of public-relations damage control, which some call “victim shaming,” and will likely respond by asking whether persons who lack pristine criminal records can expect to spend time on your airplanes without being beaten up. The last thing you want to do right now is appear unapologetic and recriminatory. It’s likely to make your situation far worse than it already is.

7. So, about that…

Ok, this is really bad. You can survive this, but it’s going to take some doing. On the bright side, people have really short attention spans. It’s no fun being the outrage du jour, but by next week everyone will be so busy being outraged at something else that they’ll forget all about you. (If you check your mailbox, you probably have a thank-you card in there from Pepsi Co.) Meanwhile, it’s important to learn from incidents like this and review your internal rules about bumping passengers. You probably also want to review your policies on forcibly removing passengers, reserving that extreme measure solely for situations where a passenger poses a danger.

As for your passenger, it’s probably a good idea to settle his claim and get a confidentiality agreement to make sure he doesn’t sit down for an interview with 60 Minutes and remind people about this. You probably also want to consider a loss-leader pricing strategy to gain back some customer goodwill. If your customers decide that this was an anomalous incident for which you are truly sorry, and if your airfares are significantly lower than your competitors, they’ll eventually forgive this incident and fly on your airline again. People can be very fair.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Butler Weihmuller Katz Craig LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Butler Weihmuller Katz Craig LLP

Butler Weihmuller Katz Craig LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.